Commentary upon the Itinerary of Antoninus, by Mr. Caius of Cambridge, and is now in Caius-College , in two Volumes. Thomas Hearn of Oxford. The number of Acres contained in England, and the use that may be made thereof. By Dr. An Advertisement for all Navigators up the Channel of England. By Mr. John Aubrey, Fellow of the Royal Society. Part of two Letters from Dr. James Brewer , concerning Beds of Oyster-shells found near Reading. Kennet, the present Bishop of Peterborough, hath given descriptions of several Antiquities in this County, in his Parochial Antiquities.
Quarto, H Istory of Cambridgeshire. Loggan , a little before his death, took the prospects of the publick Buildings and Colleges, in this University. Baker of St.
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Octavo, A brief Historical Account of Beeston-Castle. Erdswick ; annexed to his History of Staffordshire. Extracts of two Letters written by Mr. Adam Martindale , from Rotherton , concerning the discovery of a Rock of natural Salt. Part of a Letter from Mr. Halley , giving an Account of a Roman Altar found at Chester. A Map of Cornwall , by Mr. Norden; for the perfecting whereof he took a journey thither. The same Book, with several Additions, was in the hands of Mr. Chiswell , Bookseller. Newton, of the effects of Papaver Corniculatum luteum , growing there. Hugh Todd , Prebendary of that Church.
Natural History of Cumberland in Dr. History of the Cathedral of Carlisle. By Sir William Dugdale. At the end of his History of St. A Letter from Mr. It is said, that he first wrote it in the Dialect of that County, and made a Glossary to it; but what became of it, I have not heard. Leigh in Lanc. Manlove , Esq; Exeter described and illustrated, by Mr. Izacke, Chamberlain thereof. Extract of a Letter from Dr. Oliver, concerning an ebbing and flowing Well, near Torbay. Davies of Kidwelly , The Legend of St. Cuthbert , with the Antiquities of the Church of Durham , by B.
Esq; History of the Cathedral Church of Durham. Doctor of Physick, Large Collections relating to the Antiquities of this Bishoprick, were made by Mr. Mickleton , an intelligent Antiquary. The origin and succession of the Bishops of Durham, together with their Lives and Actions collected out of the ancient and late Records of the Cathedral Church of Durham, and for the most part translated out of Latin into English, at the Charges of Mr.
Hall of Conset in the County of Durham, A. John Spear, Under-Sheriff of the County. Christopher Hunter , concerning some Roman Inscriptions found near Durham. Christopher Hunter concerning a Roman Inscription found at Ebchester. Fuller then Curate there. Printed at the end of his Church-History. It is said, that Mr. It still remains in Manuscript, but in what hands I know not. Thomas Luffkin. Samuel Dale, concerning Harwich-Cliff and the Fossil-shells there. Derham, of the quantity of Rain that fell at Upminster, for eighteen years. Observations concerning the subterraneous Trees, in Dagenham, and other Marshes, bordering upon the river of Thames.
D Escription of Glocestershire. By Sir Robert Atkins. Annalia Dubrensia, upon the yearly celebration of Mr. A strange and wonderful Discovery of Houses under-ground at Cottons-field in Glocestershire. Folio, MS. A Treatise of the Antiquities of the same City was written by Dr. Butler of St. Gale, Gent. Proposals were printed Anno By Silas Taylor , MS. Anno Serjeant at Law. Sir Robert Cotton made some progress towards a Survey of this County.
Another survey of this County was written by Mr. Norden, and is still in Manuscript. Somner, An. The Forts and Ports in Kent, by Mr. Somner, with the Life of the Author by Dr. Kennet, now Bishop of Peterburough, Oxon. The Antiquities of Canterbury by Mr. Somner, Folio; with Additions, by Mr. Battley, Archdeacon of Canterbury. Textus Roffensis, a very ancient MS.
See Dr. Descriptio Itineris, Plantarum investigationis ergo suscepti, in agrum Cantianum, Survey of the Monastery of Feversham, by Tho. Southouse, Lond. Madan , M. A Letter concerning some formed Stones, found at Hunton; by Dr. A Letter of Dr. Chartham-News; or a relation of some strange Bones there lately dug up. Wallis, relating to Mr. Manner of making Salt of Sea-Sand in Lancashire. Brotherton of Heye. The description of a Well and Earth, near Wigan, taking fire by a Candle. The figure of an Inscription near Manchester, by Dr. Brotherton , Esq; Phil. Thoresby concerning some Roman Coins found in Lancashire.
A Letter from Dr. Cay , concerning some Waters in Lancashire. Richard Townley, Esq; concerning the quantity of Rain, falling monthly here for several years. The late learned Mr. A Relation of abundance of Wood found underground, in the Isle of Axholme. An account of several Observables in Lincolnshire, by Mr.
Christopher Merret. A Table of the Washes in Lincolnshire, by Mr. A Letter from the Reverend Mr. Abraham de la Pryme , concerning some Roman Antiquities in Lincolnshire. A Letter from the same hand, concerning Broughton in Lincolnshire. The Customs of London. History of St.
The third University of England, viz. A Relation of the late dreadful Fire in London , as it was reported to the Committee in Parliament, Two Essays in Political Arithmetick , concerning the comparative Magnitudes, People, and Wealth, of the Cities of London and Paris, tending to prove that at this day the City of London is the most considerable upon the face of the Earth. By Sir William Petty.
A further Assertion of the aforesaid Propositions; together with a Vindication of the Essays, from the objections of some learned persons of the French Nation, by Sir William Petty. Hearne, Vol. Descriptio Plantarum in Ericete Hampstedi, per Tho. Johnson, in 12mo. The manner of the Wire-Works at Tinton in Monmouthshire. Ray, English-words, pag. I Ceni. By Sir Henry Spelman. Now published among his Posthumous Works.
In verse. Black Letter, A relation of the damages done by a tempest and overflowing of the Tyde, upon the coasts of Norfolk and Lincolnshire. Lawrence, A. Of a great number of Urns, dug up at North-Elmham. The state of Northampton from the beginning of the Fire Sept. Names of the Hides in Northamptonshire, by Francis Tate. A Survey of this County is said to have been intended by Mr. Augustin Vincent. A relation of two considerable Hurricanes in Northamptonshire. See also N. Wallis concerning an Inscription on an ancient Mantle-tree at Helmdon , proving the early use of Numeral Figures in England.
Morton, containing a Relation of River and other Shells, dug up in a bituminous marshy Earth, near Mears-Ashby: With some reflections thereupon. Keil, of the death and dissection of John Bailes of Northampton, aged years. Grey, An. Description of Berwick, and some other places of note in this County, MS. William Nicolson, Bishop of Carlisle, and now of Derry; but still remaining in Manuscript, in the Library of the Dean and Chapter of Carlisle, with this Title or, a description of the ancient Kingdom of Northumberland. The work consists of eight parts; whereof he stiles the I.
Northanhymbria ; or, an Account of the Bounds, and natural History of the Country. Annales : the Succession and History of the several Dukes, Kings, and Earls; from the first institution of the Government, down to the Conquest. Ecclesiastica : Religious Rites observed by the Pagan Inhabitants before the establishment of Christianity; together with the state of the Church, and the succession of Bishops in it, afterwards. Clavering of Callaly , a very knowing Antiquary, has also done great service to his native Country in this way.
An Account of two Roman Altars found in Northumberland. Ralph Thoresby. Part of some Letters from Mr.
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Christopher Hunter , concerning several Inscriptions and Antiquities found in Northumberland. Charlett, concerning a Colliery that took Fire, and was blown up. Robert Thoroton , M. History of the Collegiate Church of Southwell. N Atural History of Oxfordshire, by Dr. Robert Plot: Folio. By the Reverend White Kennet , D. A Ntiquities of Rutlandshire , by Mr. Wright; Folio, Martin Ele , the lnventor.
John Lister. John Harwood concerning the fore-mentioned Hypocaustum : with part of two Letters from Mr. William Baxter to Dr. Harwood , relating to Wroxeter , and the Hypocausta of the Ancients. George Plaxton. John Beaumont. John Chapman, Johnson , in his Mercurius Britannicus , hath given an account of the Antiquities of the Bath , with a ground-plot of the City. Together with an Enquiry into the Nature of S. Thomas Guidot. Observations on the Bath-waters, by B. Allen , in his natural History of the Chalybeat and Purging Waters.
Musgrave, concerning a piece of Antiquity lately found at Athelney. N Atural History of Staffordshire by Dr. Robert Plot. A Survey of Staffordshire, by Mr. Erdswick , 8vo. C Ollections towards the History of St. John Battely, late Archdeacon of Canterbury. A further Account of the foresaid Coins, by Mr. Samuel Dale. A Ntiquities of Surrey. In three Volumes. Webb, Webb, Architect to King Charles the first. At that time, it had the reputation of one of the finest gardens in Europe. The Reverend Dr. Tanner, Chancellor of the Diocese of Norwich, hath made large Collections, in order to the Antiquities of this County, and is ready to communicate them to any Person who shall undertake that Work; since he cannot hope to finish it himself, at so great a distance, as is the place to which Providence hath removed him.
Clark, concerning several Roman Antiquities found near the Devizes. Master of Arts, a Poem, A large description of Worcestershire, MS. Pitts, concerning the Sorbus Pyriformis, growing in this County. Thomas Rastell. Observations on the Salt-pits at Droytwich, by Dr. Since which, a new Edition hath been published Ann. James Torr; the original MSS. In the hands of the Family of Fairfax.
History of the Collegiate Church of Rippon. Jonston of Pontefract made large collections in order to the Antiquities of this whole County; which he left behind him, in Manuscript. Collections of Mr. James Torr , relating to the History and Constitution of the Diocese of York, according to the several Archdeaconries. Folio, Vol. Now in the Library of the Cathedral there. A Note communicated by Mr. Hill , confirming the Age of Henry Jenkins. Part of a Letter from Dr. Richardson , containing a relation of Subterraneous Trees, dug up at Youle in Yorkshire.
Two Letters from Mr. Thoresby , concerning some Roman Antiquities found in Yorkshire. Trans, N. Abraham de la Pryme , concerning Trees found under-ground in Hatfield-Chace. Of antique brass Instruments, found near Bramham-moor, with Mr. Wittie , , 8vo. Tonstall , M. Simpson , 8vo.
Tonstal , relating to the Scarborough Spaw, Simpson , Ray of the process of making Allom at Whitby. North-Country words, p. Thoresby , F. Vicaria Leodiensis ; containing the History of the Church, the Memoirs of the Vicars from the year to the present, the Catalogue of their learned Works, both printed and Manuscript; together with the Lives of some Archbishops, Bishops, and others who have been Benefactors thereto, being a Specimen of the Historical part promised in the Ducatus Leodiensis. A Manuscript of David Morganius , mentioned by Vossius.
Survey and History of the four Cathedral Churches of Wales. By Browne Willis , Esq;. Lhwyd , M. Folio, An Account of the smelting and refining of Silver, at the Silver-mills in Cardiganshire , is added to Mr. A sort of Paper made of Linum Asbestinum found in Anglesey. Lhwyd of Locusts lately observed in Wales ; and of a fiery exhalation or damp, which burnt several Hay-ricks. Aubrey of a medicinal Spring in Glamorganshire. Description of Scotland, and of the Northern and Western Isles.
Buchanan de Rebus Scoticis. Catalogue of the Nobility of Ireland, from Geo. A Letter concerning Lough-Neah , and its petrifying quality, from Dr. Edward Smith. A Letter from Sir R. An Account of the Giants Causway , by Dr. Foley , and Dr. Molyneux, Esq;. Molyneux to Dr. Lister, containing some additional Observations on the Giants Causway.
A discourse concerning the large Horns frequently found under-ground in Ireland, by Dr. Part of a Letter by Mr. By his Grace the Lord Archbishop of Dublin. Trans N. A Description of the Isle of Man, in Dan. Description of the same, by James Chaloner, Burton with the several Editions. Triangular form, having three Promontories shooting out three several ways, viz. Thus, divided by a convenient distance from the neighbouring Nations on all sides, and fitted by its open harbours for the traffick of the whole World, it seems to have spread it self into the sea, for the general benefit of mankind.
For between Kent See in Kent. Et penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos. And they also urge that of Claudian , in imitation of Virgil ,. Sammes Britan. Verstegan , l. Sir H. For Northward, the vast tract of land shooting forward to the utmost shore, groweth narrow and sharp like a wedge. But our age, by the many surveys made by several persons, hath well-nigh found the exact Dimensions of the whole Isle.
From thence along the Southern coast to the Kentish Foreland, miles. Hence, coasting the German Ocean, with crooked bays and inlets for miles, it reaches Cathness. Vast is the compass of the British coasts; A like extent no rival Island boasts. As for the Latitude, they measure in the Southern-parts fifty degrees ten scruples; at Cathness fifty-nine degrees forty scruples. The Summers here are not scorching, by reason of the constant breezes which fan the air, and moderate the heats.
These, as they invigorate every thing that grows, so they give both to man and beast, at the same time, health and refreshment. The Winters also here are mild and gentle. This proceeds, not only from the thickness and closeness of the air, but also from the frequency of those still showers, which with us do much soften and break the violence of the cold.
Besides that, the seas which encompass it, do so cherish it with their gentle warmth, that the cold is much less severe, than in some parts of France and Italy. Upon this consideration, Minutius Felix , proving that the Divine Providence consults, not only the benefit of the world in general, but also of each part; makes use of our Island as an instance.
Though Britain De Nat. Neither need we think this observation strange, which he makes upon the warmth of the sea; since Cicero makes the very same. The seas , faith he, tossed to fro with the winds, grow so warm, that from thence it may certainly be inferred, that there is a heat that lies concealed in that vast fluid body.
To the temperate state also of this Island Cescenius Getulicus , a very ancient Poet, seems to allude in these verses concerning Britain. Non illic Aries verno serit aera cornu, Probus in Virg. And Cornelius Tacitus observes, That in this Island there is no extremity of cold: And farther adds, That, except the olive, the vine, and some other fruits peculiar to the hotter climates, it produceth all things else in great plenty: and, That the fruits of the earth, in coming-up, are forward in Britain, but very slow in ripening.
Of both which the Cause is one and the same, the excessive moisture of the earth and air. For our air as Strabo hath observed is more subject to rain than snow. However, so happy is Britain in a most plentiful product of all sorts of grain, that c Orpheus hath called it The very seat of Ceres. For to this Island d we are to apply that expression,. Whence, the longest Tropical day is from 16 hours 10 minutes to 18 hours 2 minutes; that is, from the 18th to the 25th parallel. And in former times, this was as it were the granary and magazine of the Western Empire.
Zosimus Eunapius barks, to transport vast quantities of corn, for the supply of their armies in garrison upon the frontiers of Germany. But perchance I may seem too lavish in the praises of my own Country: and therefore you shall hear an old Orator deliver its Encomium. O fortunate Britain Panegyric to Constantine. Thou neither feelest the excessive colds of Winter, nor the scorching heats of Summer. Thy harvests reward thy labours with so vast an encrease, as to supply thy Tables with bread, and thy Cellars with liquor.
Thy woods have no savage beasts; no serpents harbour there to hurt the traveller. Innumerable are thy herds of cattle, and the flocks of sheep, which feed thee plentifully, and cloath thee richly. And as to the comforts of life, the days are long, and no night passes without some glimpse of light. For whilst those utmost plains of the sea-shore are so flat and low, as not to cast a shadow to create night; they never lose the sight of the heavens and stars; but the sun, which to us appears to set, seems there only to pass by.
I shall here introduce another Orator Panegyric to Constantius. And I assure you, no small damage was it, not only to lose the name of Britain, but the great advantages thence accruing to our Common-wealth; to part with a land so stored with corn, so flourishing in pasture, so rich in variety of mines, so profitable in its tributes; on all its coasts so furnished with convenient harbours, and so immense in its extent and circuit.
Quicquid amat luxus, quicquid desiderat usus, Ex te proveniet, vel aliunde tibi. For when Pope Clement VI. Nor indeed would any man in our age be of another mind, who knows and considers the Fortunate state and the happy circumstances of this Island. But The first Inhabitants, and reason of the name. Nor ought we Britains to expect more certain evidences in this case, than other nations. For, except those in particular, whose originals the holy Scriptures have delivered; all the rest, as well as we, remain under a dark cloud of error and ignorance, concerning their first rise.
Nor indeed could it otherwise be, considering how deep the revolutions of so many ages must have sunk and buried Truth. The first Inhabitants of countries had other cares and thoughts, than the transmitting their several originals to posterity. Nay, supposing they had ever so much desired it, yet could they never have effectually done it.
Moreover, the Druids , who were the Priests among the Britains and Gauls, and to whose care was committed the preservation of their ancient Traditions; and likewise the Bards , who made it their business to celebrate all gallant and remarkable adventures; both the one and the other thought it unlawful to commit any thing to books or writing. But, supposing they had left any matters upon record; without doubt, at so vast a distance and after so many and so great alterations, they must needs have been long since lost. But in following ages, there arose in many nations a sort of men, who were studious to supply these defects out of their own invention.
For when they could not tell what to deliver for Truth; that they might at least delight and please, they invented divers stories every one according to the strength and turn of his own imagination about the original and names of People. But, to omit other writers, one of our own nation, Geoffry ap Arthur of Monmouth Geoffry of Monmouth. And then, after he had built the city of Tours as, he says, Homer tells us and over-run Gaule , he crossed over into this Island, then inhabited by Giants. That having conquered them together with Gogmagog , who was the greatest of them all; from his own name he gave this Island the name of Britain Brutus in the year of the world , before the birth of Christ, Thus far Geoffry.
But there are e others, who offer other grounds and reasons for this name of Britain. Sir Thomas Eliot , Kt. Humphrey Lloyd , who hath the reputation of one of the best Antiquaries of this Kingdom, with much assurance fetches its original from the British word Pridcain, that is to say, of a white Colour. Laetus Vid. Goropius Becanus will have it, that the Danes settled themselves here, and called it Bridania , i.
Free Dania. Athenaeus Others derive it from Prutenia [Prussia,] a part of Germany. Others derive it from the Brutii in Italy, whom the Greeks called. Mare clausum. These are all the Opinions so far as I know touching the name of Britain. But as we cannot chose but think the fictions of Foreigners in this matter extreamly ridiculous; so divers of our own Country-men give us no very satisfactory account.
And indeed, in these and the like cases, it is much easier to detect a falsity, than to establish a truth. Also, Britain was famous under this name, several hundred years before the names of Dania and Prutenia were known in the world. And what hath our Britain to do with the Spanish Bretta? It can hardly be made out, that the drink Brithin was ever used in our country; and to deduce the name of our nation from a liquor of the Grecians, is ridiculous. For shall one of my mean capacity, presume to give sentence in a point of so much consequence? Their first objection they draw from the age wherein these things are said to have been done; and peremptorily assert, that all is purely fabulous the sacred Histories excepted whatever is delivered by Historians as done before the first Olympiad, i.
Now, these things which are told us concerning Brutus, precede that period by above years. This Censorinius. The second The fabulous time, or age. In the next place they alledge, that this relation is not confirmed by any Authentick writer; which in all Histories must be allowed to be the thing most material. Now, they call those, authentick writers, who have antiquity and learning agreeable; and in proportion to these, they give more or less credit to them.
But to all this sort of Authors, as well as to the antient Britains themselves, they confidently aver that the very name of Brutus was perfectly unknown. And therefore he plainly confesses, That he took all out of foreign writers, and not out of any writings or records left by his own country-men. For if there ever had been such, they were in his time quite lost, having either been burnt by the enemy at home, or carried by exiles into foreign parts.
There is much disagreement among bibliographers as to the order of issue of the early editions. Their peculiarities, and the preference of several bibliographers as to such order, is indicated in the following enumeration, the student being referred for full titles to the authorities which are cited:—. Epistola Christofori Colom . Small quarto, four leaves one blank , gothic, 33 lines to a page.
Camden's Britannia, Edition 2,
Addressed to Sanchis. Cosco is called Leander. Ferdinand and Isabella both named in the title. The printer is thought to be Plannck, from similarity of type to work known to be his. Major calls this the editio princeps , and gives elaborate reasons for his opinion Select Letters of Columbus , p. Bartlett, in the Carter-Brown Catalogue , vol. Varnhagen calls it the second edition. It is put the third in order by Brunet vol. Small quarto, three printed leaves, gothic type, 40 lines to the page. Addressed to Sanches. Ferdinand and Isabella both named.
Major, who makes this the second edition, says that its deviations from No. Varnhagen calls it the editio princeps. Bartlett Carter-Brown Catalogue , no. Lenox Scyllacius , p. It is no. It has been recently priced at 5, francs. Murphy Catalogue , Epistola Christofori Colom. Small quarto, four leaves, 34 lines, gothic type.
Addressed to Sanxis. Cosco is called Aliander. Ferdinand only named. It is the editio princeps of Harrisse, who presumes it to be printed by Stephanus Plannck at Rome Notes on Columbus , p. Bartlett places it third. In Mr. Barlow printed 50 copies a fac-simile of his copy, with a Preface, in which he joins in considering this the first edition with Harrisse, who Notes on Columbus , p.
De insulis inventis , etc. Small octavo, ten leaves, 26 and 27 lines, gothic type. The leaf before the title has the Spanish arms on the recto. There are eight woodcuts, one of which is a repetition. Cosco is called Aliender. Lenox makes it the editio princeps as does Brunet , and gives fac-similes of the woodcuts in his Scyllacius , p. Bossi supposed the cuts to have been a part of the original manuscript, and designed by Columbus. It bears the arms of Granada; but there was no press at that time in that city, so far as known, though Brunet seems to imply it was printed there.
The only perfect copy known is one formerly the Libri copy, now in the Lenox Library, which has ten leaves. The Grenville copy Bibl. Hain Repertorium , no. Bartlett seems in error in calling this fac-simile a copy of the Libri-Lenox copy. Epistola de insulis de novo repertis , etc.
Small quarto, four leaves, gothic, 39 lines; woodcut on verso of first leaf. Printed by Guy Marchand in Paris, about The Ternaux copy, now in the Carter-Brown Library, was for some time supposed to be the only copy known; but Harrisse says the text reprinted by Rosny in Paris, in , as from a copy in the National Library at Paris, corresponds to this. Paris:  J. Gay, , 44 pages octavo. Epistola de insulis noviter repertis , etc. Guiot Marchant, of Paris, printer.
John Harris, Sen. Epistola Cristophori Colom , etc. Small quarto, four leaves, gothic, 38 lines. Martens is thought to be the printer. This edition has only recently been made known. The text of all these editions scarcely varies, except in the use of contracted letters. Hessels in the Bibliophile Belge , vol. In this Cosco-Sanchez text was appended to a drama on the capture of Granada, which was printed at Basle, beginning In laudem Serenissimi Ferdinandi , and ascribed to Carolus Veradus. By October, in the year of the first appearance of the Cosco-Sanchez text, it had been turned into ottava rima by Guiliano Dati, a popular poet, to be sung about the streets, as is supposed; and two editions of this verse are now known.
The earliest is in quarto, black letter, two columns, and was printed in Florence, and called Questa e la Hystoria It was in four leaves, of coarse type and paper; but the second and third leaves are lacking in the unique copy, now in the British Museum, which was procured in from the Costabile sale in Paris. The other edition, dated one day later Oct. It is a black-letter quarto of seven leaves, with one blank, the woodcut of the title being repeated on the verso of the seventh leaf. The text of the Cosco-Sanchez letter, usually quoted by the early writers, is contained in the Bellum Christianorum Principum of Robertus Monarchus, printed at Basle in The main, or rather the only, source for the decision of this question is the Journal of Columbus; and it is to be regretted that Las Casas did not leave unabridged the parts preceding the landfall, as he did those immediately following, down to October Not a word outside of this Journal is helpful.
The testimony of the early maps is rather misleading than reassuring, so conjectural was their geography. It will be remembered that land was first seen two hours after midnight; and computations made for Fox show that the moon was near the third quarter, partly behind the observer, and would clearly illuminate the white sand of the shore, two leagues distant. Applying this to the several islands claimed as the landfall, and knowing modern computed distances, we get the following table:—. He calls it very level, with abundance of water, and a very large lagune in the middle; and it was in the last month of the rainy season, when the low parts of the islands are usually flooded.
Some of the features of the several islands already named will now be mentioned, together with a statement of the authorities in favor of each as the landfall. San Salvador, or Cat. It is usual in the maps of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to identify this island with the Guanahani of Columbus. Captain Becher, of the Royal Navy, elaborated the arguments in favor of this island in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society , xxvi. Peschel took the same ground in his Geschichte des Zeitalters der Entdeckungen New Quarterly Review , October, Murdock, U.
He points out also various indications of the Journal which cannot be made to agree with any supposable landfall. See further on the subject R. Grand Turk. Navarrete first advanced arguments in its favor in , and Kettell adopted his views in the Boston edition of the Personal Narrative of Columbus.
Major adopted such views in the first edition of his Select Letters of Columbus. Jago de Chile, in , a treatise advocating this island as La verdadera Guanahani , which was reissued at Vienna, in , as Das wahre Guanahani des Columbus. It is now uninhabited; but arrow-heads and other signs of aboriginal occupation are found there.
The Samana of the early maps was the group now known as Crooked Island. The present Samana has been recently selected for the landfall by Gustavus V. Effect of the Discovery in Europe. To the Portuguese, who had rejected his pleas, there may have been some chagrin. The interview which he had with John II. He dated at Barcelona, on the ides of May, a letter mentioning the event, which he sent to Joseph Borromeo; and he repeated the story in later epistles, written in September, to Ascanio Sforza, Tendilla, and Talavera. He was now probably about thirty-seven years old, and he had some years before acquired such a reputation for learning and eloquence that he had been invited from Italy he was a native of the Duchy of Milan to the Spanish Court.
His letters, as they have come down to us, begin about five years before this,  and it is said that just at this time he began the composition of his Decades. Las Casas has borne testimony to the value of the Decades for a knowledge of Columbus, calling them the most worthy of credit of all the early writings, since Martyr got, as he says, his accounts directly from the Admiral, with whom he often talked. Similar testimony is given to their credibleness by Carbajal, Gomez, Vergara, and other contemporaries.
Navarrete was inclined to this derogatory estimate. Hallam  goes so far as to think him open to grave suspicion of negligent and palpable imposture, antedating his letters to appear prophetic. On the other hand, Prescott  contends for his veracity, and trusts his intimate familiarity with the scenes he describes.
Helps interprets the disorder of his writings as a merit, because it is a reflection of his unconnected thoughts and feelings on the very day on which he recorded any transactions. What is thought to be the earliest mention in print of the new discoveries occurs in a book published at Seville in The reference is brief, and is on the reverse of the 43d folio. Second Voyage Sept. Chanca, the physician of the Expedition. The oldest record of it is a manuscript of the middle of the sixteenth century, in the Real Academia de la Historia at Madrid.
Of this little quarto there are three copies known. One is in the Lenox Library; and from this copy Mr. Lenox, in , reprinted it sumptuously one hundred and two copies  , with a translation by the Rev. John Mulligan. This last copy is probably one of the two copies which Harrisse reports as being in the palace library at Madrid and in the Thottiana Royal Library at Copenhagen, respectively. Another second-hand account—derived, however, most probably from the Admiral himself—is that given by Peter Martyr in his first Decade, published in , and more at length in Benoit, in Austria, who was sent by Pope Alexander VI as vicar-general of the new lands, to take charge of the measures for educating and converting the Indians.
It is dedicated to Casparus Plautius, and it is suspected that he is really the author of the book, while he assumed another name, more easily to laud himself. So far as we know, the only contemporary references in a printed book to the new discoveries during the progress of the second voyage, or in the interval previous to the undertaking of the third voyage, in the spring of , are these: The Das Narrenschiff Ship of Fools of Sebastian Brant, a satire on the follies of society, published at Basle in ,  and reprinted in Latin in , , and in French in , , and ,  has a brief mention of the land previously unknown, until Ferdinand discovered innumerable people in the great Spanish ocean.
Zacharias Lilio, in his De origine et laudibus scientiarum , Florence, ,  has two allusions. The little book was probably printed in Rome. There is also a reference in the Cosmographia of Antonius Nebrissensis, printed in Third Voyage May 30, , to Nov. Fourth Voyage May 9, , to Nov. It brings the story of the voyage down only to July 7, , leaving four months unrecorded. Pinelo says it was printed in the Spanish, as he wrote it; but no such print is known. Lives and Notices of Columbus. For ten years after his death there were various references to the new discoveries, but not a single attempt to commemorate, by even a brief sketch, the life of the discoverer.
In the same year the narrative in the Paesi novamente retrovati established an account which was repeated in later editions, and was followed in the Novus orbis of The next year we find a reference in the Oratio  of Fernando Tellez at Rome; in the Supplementi de le chroniche vulgare, novamente dal frate Jacobo Phillipo al anno vulgarizz.
In there is reference to the discoveries in the Opera nova of the General of the Carmelites, Battista Mantuanus. Fac-simile of a portion of the page of Giustiniani Psalter, which shows the beginning of the marginal note on Columbus. In Peter Martyr, in his first Decade, and Sylvanus, in his annotations of Ptolemy, drew attention to the New World; as did also Johannes Sobrarius in his Panegyricum carmen de gestis heroicis divi Ferdinandi Catholici. These, as books have preserved them for us, are about all the contemporary references to the life of the great discoverer for the first ten years after his death.
Almost all other accounts of the second voyage, except that of Bernaldez, end before this Cuba excursion began. Giustiniani, who was born in , died in , and his Annali di Genoa  was shortly afterward published , in which, on folio ccxlix, he gave another account of Columbus, which, being published by his executors with his revision, repeated some errors or opinions of the earlier Psalter account.
To correct what, either from pride or from other reasons, he considered the falsities of the Psalter, Ferdinand was now prompted to compose a Life of his father,—or at least such was, until recently, the universal opinion of his authorship of the book. Ferdinand Columbus, or Fernando Colon, was born three or four years before his father sailed on his first voyage. When Columbus went on his fourth voyage, in , the boy, then thirteen years of age, accompanied his father.
It is said that he made two other voyages to the New World; but Harrisse could only find proof of one. His later years were passed as a courtier, in attendance upon Charles V. He had the papers of his father,  and he is best known by the Life of Columbus which passes under his name. If it was written in Spanish, it is not known in its original form, and has not been traced since Luis Colon, the Duque de Veraguas, son of Diego, took the manuscript to Genoa about There is some uncertainty about its later history; but it appeared in at Venice in an Italian version made by Alfonzo de Ulloa, and was entitled Historie del S.
Christoforo Colombo, suo padre. It is thought that this translation was made from an inaccurate copy of the manuscript, and moreover badly made. The collection then contained about twenty thousand volumes, in print and manuscript; and it is still preserved there, though, according to Harrisse, much neglected since , and reduced to about four thousand volumes.
It is known as the Biblioteca Colombina. He counts it as strange that if such a manuscript existed in Spain not a single writer in print previous to refers to it. Some fifteen reasons are given in proof of these charges, all of which, after abundant research and study, are pronounced frivolous, false, and groundless. There were other disputants on the question.
The catalogue of the Colombina Library as made by Ferdinand shows that it contained originally a manuscript Life of the Admiral written about by Ferdinand Perez de Oliva, who presumably had the aid of Ferdinand Columbus himself; but no trace of this Life now exists,  unless, as Harrisse ventures to conjecture, it may  have been in some sort the basis of what now passes for the work of Ferdinand. For a long time after the Historie of there was no considerable account of Columbus printed. There was a brief memorial in the Clarorum Ligurum elogia of Ubertus Folieta, published at Rome in This historian, or rather annalist, was born in , and died in ;  and the appointment of historiographer given him by Philip II.
There has been little disagreement as to his helpfulness to his successors. His latest critic, Hubert H. Herrera had already published a monograph on the history of Portugal and the conquest of the Azores, when he produced at Madrid his great work, Historia general de los hechos de los Castellanos , in eight decades, four of which, in two volumes, were published in , and the others in In the earliest of the special Italian commemorations appeared at Parma, in J.
The earliest commemoration in the United States was in , on the three hundredth anniversary of the discovery, celebrated by the Massachusetts Historical Society, when Dr. Jeremy Belknap delivered an historical discourse,  included later with large additions in his well-known American Biography.
There was a purpose in it to make the most possible of all his pious ejaculations, and of his intention, expressed in his letter to the Pope in , to rescue the Holy City from the infidel, with his prospective army of ten thousand horse and a hundred thousand foot. The chief spokesman of this purpose has been Roselly de Lorgues. He first shadowed forth his purpose in his La croix dans les deux mondes in All this, however, and much else by the abetters of the scheme of the canonization of Columbus which was urged on the Church, failed of its purpose; and the movement was suspended, for a while at least, because of an ultimate adverse determination.
Of the other later lives of Columbus it remains to mention only the most considerable, or those of significant tendency. The late Sir Arthur Helps wrote his Spanish Conquest of America with the aim of developing the results—political, ethnological, and economic—of the conquest, rather than the day-by-day progress of events, and with a primary regard to the rise of slavery.
His Life of Columbus is simply certain chapters of this larger work excerpted and fitted in order. In German, under the impulse given by Humboldt, some fruitful labors have been given to Columbus and the early history of American discovery; but it is only necessary to mention the names of Forster,  Peschel,  and Ruge. Portraits of Columbus. We have descriptions of his person from two who knew him,—Oviedo and his own son Ferdinand; we have other  accounts from two who certainly knew his contemporaries,—Gomara and Benzoni; and in addition we possess the description given by Herrera, who had the best sources of information.
From these we learn that his face was long, neither full nor thin; his cheek-bones rather high; his nose aquiline; his eyes light gray; his complexion fair, and high colored. His hair, which was of light color before thirty, became gray after that age. In the Paesi novamente retrovati of he is described as having a ruddy, elongated visage, and as possessing a lofty and noble stature. There is another cut in Pauli Jovii elogia virorum bellica virtute illustrium , Basle, copy in Harvard College Library.
These are the test with which to challenge the very numerous so-called likenesses of Columbus; and it must be confessed not a single one, when you take into consideration the accessories and costume, warrants us in believing beyond dispute that we can bring before us the figure of the discoverer as he lived. Such is the opinion of Feuillet de Conches, who has produced the best critical essay on the subject yet written.
The edition is in Harvard College Library, and the same portrait is on p. A vignette on the map of La Cosa, dated , represents Saint Christopher bearing on his shoulders the infant Christ across a stream. This has been considered symbolical of the purpose of Columbus in his discoveries; and upholders of the movement to procure his canonization, like De Lorgues, have claimed that La Cosa represented the features of Columbus in the face of Saint Christopher.
It has also been claimed that Herrera must have been of the same opinion, since the likeness given by that historian can be imagined to be an enlargement of the head on the map. This theory is hardly accepted, however, by the critics.
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Cortambert, Nouvelle histoire des voyages , p. Discarding the La Cosa vignette, the earliest claimant now known is an engraving published in the Elogia virorum illustrium  of Paolo Giovio Paulus Jovius, in the Latin form. This woodcut is thought to have been copied from a picture which Jovius had placed in the gallery of notable people which he had formed in his villa at Lake Como. A claim has been made that the original Jovius portrait is still in existence in what is known as the Yanez picture, now in the National Library in Madrid, which was purchased of Yanez in Granada in It had originally a close-fitting tunic and mantle, which was later painted over so as to show a robe and fur collar.
This external painting has been removed; and the likeness bears a certain resemblance to the woodcut and to the Florence likeness. The Yanez canvas is certainly the oldest in Spain; and the present Duque de Veraguas considers it the most authentic of all the portraits. It bears the inscription shown in the cut. The woodcut already mentioned passes as the prototype of another engraving by Aliprando Capriolo, in the Ritratti di cento capitani illustri , published at Rome in A copy of it was made for Thomas Jefferson in , which was at Monticello in ; and, having been sent to Boston to be disposed of, became the property of Israel Thorndike, and was by him given to the Massachusetts Historical Society, in whose gallery it now is; and from a photograph of it the cut p.
After the woodcut of , the next oldest engraved likeness of Columbus is the one usually called the De Bry portrait. It shows a head with a three-cornered cap, and possesses a Dutch physiognomy,—its short, broad face not corresponding with the descriptions which we find in Oviedo and the others.
De Bry says that the original painting was stolen from a saloon in the Council for the Indies in Spain, and, being taken to the Netherlands, fell into his hands. He claims that it was painted from life by order of Ferdinand, the King. De Bry first used the plate in Part V. It shows what seem to be two warts on the cheek, which do not appear in later prints. He claimed that the features corresponded to the written descriptions of Columbus by his contemporaries  and accounted for the Flemish ruff, pointed beard, gold chain, and other anachronous accessories, by supposing that these had been added by a later hand.
Irving at the time records his scepticism when Jomard sent him a lithograph of it. Carderera and Feuillet de Conches both reject it. A similar out-of-date ruff and mustache characterize the likeness at Madrid associated with the Duke of Berwick-Alba, in which the finery of a throne makes part of the picture. The owner had a private plate engraved from it by Rafael Esteve, a copy of which, given by the engraver to Obadiah Rich, who seems to have had faith in it, is now in the Lenox Library.
A picture of a bedizened cavalier, ascribed to Parmigiano who was three years old when Columbus died , is preserved in the Museo Borbonico at Naples, and is, unfortunately, associated in this country with Columbus, from having been adopted by Prescott for his Ferdinand and Isabella ,  and from having been copied for the American Antiquarian Society.
The best known, probably, of the sculptured effigies of Columbus is the bust of Peschiera, which was placed in at Genoa on the receptacle of the Columbus manuscripts. The most imposing of all the memorials is the monument at Genoa erected in after a design by Freccia, and finished by Michel Canzio. Burial and Remains of Columbus. Peter Martyr, then writing his letters from that place, makes no reference to such an event. His family were desirous of carrying out that wish; but it seemed to require three royal orders to make good the project, and overcome objections or delays.
These orders were dated June 2, , Aug. The earliest positive mention of their being in the Cathedral at Santo Domingo is in ;  and it is not till the next century that we find a positive statement that the remains of Diego were also removed. This follows an engraving given in John G. There are other engravings in Tejera, pp. A few years later the treaty of Basle, July 22, , gave to France the half of Santo Domingo still remaining to Spain; and at the cost of the Duke of Veraguas, and with the concurrence of the Chapter of the Cathedral, the Spanish General, Gabriel de Aristazabal, somewhat  hurriedly opened a vault on the left of the altar, and, with due ceremony and notarial record,  took from it fragments of a leaden case and some human bones, which were unattested by any inscription found with them.
The relics were placed in a gilt leaden case, and borne with military honors to Havana. In , in making some changes about the chancel, on the right of the altar, the workmen opened a vault, and found a leaden case containing human bones, with an inscription showing them to be those of Luis, the grandson. Between this and the side wall of the building, and separated from the empty vault by a six-inch wall, was found another cavity, and in it a leaden case.
There seem to have been suitable precautions taken to avoid occasion for imputations of deceit, and with witnesses the case was examined. On the top was an inscription here reduced:—. In March, , he addressed his Official Report to the Captain-general of Cuba, which was printed in two editions during the same year, as Informe sobre los restos de Colon.
It was an attack upon the authenticity of the remains at Santo Domingo. Later in the same year, Oct. One of the best and most recent summaries of the subject is by John G. Shea in the Magazine of American History , January, ; also printed separately, and translated into Spanish. Richard Cortambert Nouvelle histoire des voyages , p.
Harrisse  epitomizes the authorities upon the year of his nativity. Oscar Peschel reviews the opposing arguments in a paper printed in Ausland in The extremes of the limits in dispute are about twenty years; but within this interval, assertions like those of Ramusio  and Charlevoix  may be thrown out as susceptible of no argument. The other extreme—similarly varied from the fractions between and —is taken by Oscar Peschel,  who deduces it from a letter of Columbus dated July 7, , in which he says that he was twenty-eight when he entered the service of Spain in ; and Peschel argues that this is corroborated by adding the fourteen years of his boyhood, before going to sea, to the twenty-three years of sea-life which Columbus says he had had previous to his voyage of discovery, and dating back from , when he made this voyage.
The argument for this view, as presented by Major, is this: It was in , and not in , that this continuous sea-service, referred to by Columbus, ended; accordingly, the thirty-seven years already mentioned should be deducted from , which would point to as the year of his birth,—a statement confirmed also, as is thought, by the assertion which Columbus makes, in , that it was forty years since he began, at fourteen, his sea-life. Outside of Genoa and dependencies, while discarding such claims as those of England,   Corsica,  and Milan,  there are more defensible presentations in behalf of Placentia Piacenza , where there was an ancestral estate of the Admiral, whose rental had been enjoyed by him and by his father;  and still more urgent demands for recognition on the part of Cuccaro in Montferrat, Piedmont, the lord of whose castle was a Dominico Colombo,—pretty well proved, however, not to have been the Dominico who was father of the Admiral.
It seems certain that the paternal Dominico did own land in Cuccaro, near his kinspeople, and lived there as late as There still remains the possibility of Genoa, as referred to by Columbus and his contemporaries, signifying the region dependent on it, rather than the town itself; and with this latitude recognized, there are fourteen towns, or hamlets as Harrisse names them,  which present their claims. There seems little doubt that his father  was a wool-weaver or draper, and owned small landed properties, at one time or another, in or not far from Genoa;  and, as Harrisse infers,  it was in one of the houses on the Bisagno road, as you go from Genoa, that Columbus was perhaps born.
There is a vignette likeness on the title of vol i.
The pedigree p. He got no satisfaction but the privilege of contending at law with the fiscal minister of the Crown, and of giving occasion for all the latent slander about the Admiral to make itself heard. The tribunal was the Council of the Indies; the suit was begun in , and lasted till The documents connected with the case are in the Archives of the Indies. The chief defence of the Crown was that the original convention was against law and public policy, and that Columbus, after all, did not discover Terra firma , and for such discovery alone honors of this kind should be the reward.
His uncles, Bartholomew and Diego, as well as Ferdinand Columbus, accompanied him. He was subjected, however, to the surveillance of a supervisor to report on his conduct, upon going to his government in Don Luis, who succeeded to his father Diego, after some years exchanged, in , his rights of vice-royalty in the Indies for ten thousand gold doubloons and the title of Duque de Veraguas with subordinate titles , and a grandeeship of the first rank;  the latter, however, was not confirmed till His nephew Diego succeeded to the rights, silencing those of the daughter of Don Luis by marrying her.
They had no issue; and on his death, in , various claimants brought suit for the succession as shown in the table , which was finally given, in , to the grandson of Isabella, the granddaughter of Columbus. This suit led to the accumulation of a large amount of documentary evidence, which was printed. The book is essentially a reversal of many long-established views regarding the career of Columbus. The new biographer, as has been  shown, is not bound by any respect for the Life of the Admiral which for three hundred years has been associated with the name of Ferdinand Columbus.
The grounds of his discredit of that book are again asserted; and he considers the story as given in Las Casas as much more likely to represent the prototype both of the Historia general of this last writer and of the Historie of , than the mongrel production which he imagines this Italian text of Ulloa to be, and which he accounts utterly unworthy of credit by reason of the sensational perversions and additions with which it is alloyed by some irresponsible editor.
This revolutionary spirit makes the critic acute, and sustains him in laborious search; but it is one which seems sometimes to imperil his judgment. He does not at times hesitate to involve Las Casas himself in the same condemnation for the use which, if we understand him, Las Casas may be supposed, equally with the author or editor of the Historie , to have made of their common prototype. This new Life adds to our knowledge from many sources; and such points as have been omitted or slightly developed in the preceding chapter, or are at variance with the accepted views upon which that chapter has been based, it may be well briefly to mention.
The field of the quarter with the castle is red; that of the lion is silver; that of the anchors is blue; the main and islands are gold, the water blue. It may be remarked that the disposition of these islands seems to have no relation to the knowledge then existing of the Columbian Archipelago. Below is a blue bend on a gold field, with red above see the cut, ante , p. In writing in his Introduction of the sources of the history of Columbus, Harrisse says that we possess sixty-four memoirs, letters, or extracts written by Columbus, of which twenty-three are preserved in his own autograph.
The copy of Dr. Such as have escaped destruction now constitute the collection of the present Duque de Veraguas; and of them Navarrete has printed seventy-eight documents. Of the papers concerning Columbus at Genoa, Harrisse finds only one anterior to his famous voyage, and that is a paper of the Father Dominico Colombo, dated July 21, , of whom such facts as are known are given, including references to him in and in the records of the Bank of St.
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George in Genoa. Particularly in regard to the family of Columbus, he has made effective use of the notarial and similar records of places where Columbus and his family have lived. The rest of the furniture is comprised in a few gourds and calabashes for food and water, and in a box or two, and a shelf for the stowage of all their little odds and ends. The houses are commonly separated into sleeping and sitting compartments, by means of curtains hung across from wall to wall; but every thing, whether exposed to view or not, whether within the house itself or merely within the surrounding enclosure, is scrupulously clean and neat, presenting, in this respect, a wonderful contrast with the filth and confusion of most of the native lodges of the continent.
In fact, so far as ray experience has gone, cleanliness may be ranked among the -cardinal virtues of the Sandwich Islanders; for the scorpions and centipedes, with which some of the houses absolutely swarm, it appears to be almost impossible to keep out or to get rid of. Musquitoes, though numerous, are not indigenous, having been imported from California—one of the best authenticated instances on record of the emigration of these tiny tormentors of man and beast. From the foregoing description, the houses are in themselves evidently light and portable; and, as they have no more hold of the ground than a beehive, they are, in point of fact, moved about from place to place, as we had several opportunities of observing, with very little trouble.
To the end of a good hawser, which is tied round the lower part of the mansion, there hang on some twenty or thirty "kanakas,"—who, with one of their wild, cheerful songs, whisk away the concern to its new home as easily as if they were towing a ship through the harbour to her moorings,—a most convenient and economical receipt for the opening and widening of streets and squares. Some of the chiefs, as we have already seen in our account of Kekuanaoa's feast, have had houses built in the European fashion, the materials being, according to circumstances, wood, or adobes, or limestone, or coral.
But, with their characteristic ingenuity in the financial department, they have contrived to extract the cost of most of these more solid edifices out of the pockets of the public in general, and of their own dependants in particular. Elsewhere, the expense of 44 OVERLAND JOURNEY house-warming falls on the man who is to enjoy the edifice; but your Hawaiian house-warmer permits no one, on any pretext, to cross the threshold of his new snuggery for the first time, till his visitor has paid down a tax, or gift, call it what you will, proportioned to his rank and means.
Considering how convenient, or how agreeable, it is to be on visiting terms with a great man, the contributions in question have often run up to a respectable amount; and, perhaps, in places nearer home, a leader of the fashionable world might build himself a residence for nothing, and pocket money into the bargain, if only he could or would sell the entree, on the Hawaiian principle, to all comers. In the days of heathenism, the ordinary apparel of the natives of all classes was as primitive as possible, being a malo of the scantiest conceivable dimensions for the men, and a pau, or very, very shallow petticoat for the women; and, in this state of nudity, the highest chiefs of either sex used to board the foreign vessels without ceremony or apology.
Though the more wealthy members of the community possessed, long before the introduction of Christianity, plenty of fine clothes, yet they regarded them as merely ornamental— as something which was as little necessary on the score of modesty as in point of comfort, as a kind of tatoo that could be put on or taken off at pleasure. All these habiliments used to be made of the native cloth,—the kapa, in fact, deriving its name from the same; the process of manufacturing and colouring it I shall describe hereafter.
Among the chiefs, however, feather cloaks of a more or less costly description were in high esteem ; and perhaps nothing can give a better idea at once of the pomp and power of the native monarchs than the following description of the coronation-cloak of Kamehameha the Great. The description in question is from the calculating pen of one of the missionaries: " His majesty Kauikeauli, the reigning king, has still in his possession the mamo, or feather war-cloak, of his father, the celebrated Kamehameha.
It was not completed until his reign, having occupied eight preceding ones in its fabrication. It is four feet in length, with eleven feet and a half spread at the bottom. Its groundwork is a coarse netting, and to this the feathers, which are very small and exceedingly delicate, are skilfully attached, overlapping each other, and forming a perfectly smooth surface. The feathers around the border are reverted, and the whole presents a beautiful bright yellow colour, giving it the appearance of a mantle of gold.
Indeed, it would be difficult for despotism to manufacture a richer or more costly garment for its proudest votary. Two feathers only such as are used wholly in its manufacture are obtained from under the wings of a rare species of bird inhabiting Hawaii, which is caught alive with great care and toil. The bird alights upon it, and, unable to disengage itself from the adhesive matter, is secured, the much-prized feathers plucked, and the bird set at liberty. A piece of nankeen, valued at five dollars and a half, was formerly the price of five feathers of this kind.
By this estimate, the value of the cloak would equal that of the purest diamonds in the several European regalia; and, excluding the price of the feathers, not less than a million of dollars worth of labour was expended upon it at the present rate of computing wages. In Honolulu, the women look as if dressed in the missionary uniform; for, though their gowns differ in colour with every varied hue under the sun, flaming yellow, pure white, bright red, and the like; yet they are, to say nothing of the general sameness of materials, all cast in one mould.
They are, in fact, something like bathing-wrappers, coming pretty high on the shoulders, where they are finished off with a fringe, and having sleeves loose and full, like those of a clergyman's surplice, while the body and skirt, in one, hang freely down to the ankles without being confined at the waist.
The feet and ankles are still left in a state of nature, excepting that the tatoo, which, like the touching of noses, has become obsolete for other purposes, continues to be sometimes applied to the ankles, in the idea of making the feet look smaller. The head, again, though not absolutely bare, yet presents, according to the ancient fashion of the Hawaiian beauties, nothing but wreaths of flowers and leaves, and coronets of yellow and red feathers,—ornaments which are all elegant and becoming, and remind one of the convivial costume of classical antiquity.
This description, however true it may be for six days in the week, is totally inapplicable to Sunday. Shoes and stockings, bonnets and parasols, are now in vogue, while the sober chintz is perhaps thrown aside at home, and sees the flaunting silk sail away to church in its stead. Compared with the graceful simplicity of their ordinary costume, all this finery on the part of these brown belles forcibly reminds one of the sentiment, that 1 beauty, when unadorned, is adorned the most,"— a sentiment, by the by, which they at one time carried to too literal an excess.
Their badly-made shoes make their feet look large and clumsy; their flashy bonnets,— just fancy them of white satin, trimmed with lace,-—give to their dark complexions a hideously sallow hue ; and the attempt at fashion in the cut of their showy robes, joined to the awkward consciousness of being all very grand, completes the burlesque on the English and American ladies of the place.
Many of the men still swear by the wisdom of their ancestors; and it is no uncommon thing to see a finely- dressed female walking arm in arm with a husband unencumbered in his person with any more of this world's possessions than a malo of twelve inches by three. The only constant addition to this scrap of an apology for clothes is the wreath of flowers and leaves, which is worn by the one sex as well as by the other,—a piece of effeminacy which is not without its use, for the ornament in question is generally so arranged as to shade the eyes from the sun.
Nor must it be forgotten that the graceful kapa, already described, still occasionally forms part of the costume of almost every individual of either sex. But even among the men there are some exquisites, being chiefly those who have at once enlarged their notions, and saved a little money abroad. In process of time, these bucks relapse, as a matter of course, through all the stages of worse-for-the-wearish- ness, shabbiness, and dilapidation, down to the malo, with perhaps a garland on the head and a kapa on the shoulders.
Nor ought this to be a subject of wonder. So far as the climate is concerned, raiment is rather a burden than a benefit to the natives ; and, as to moral motives, they have hardly any influence with the men, while they have probably less to do with the apparent decency of the women than a love of display. But, whatever may be the cause, the notions of the chiefs, even of the female chiefs, with regard to dress, are very far from being decidedly utilitarian. Witness the following ludicrous and inconvenient appropriation of a whole web of woollen cloth to the wants of a single lady, and that, too, in an atmosphere which would have made a salamander comfortable.
At a festival celebrated'in , to commemorate the death of Kamehameha, one of the dowager queens—the others, by the by, being pretty well packed also,—sported seventy-two yards of kerseymere, one half of it being scarlet and the other orange; while, as the breadth was doubled on itself, the whole quantity was equivalent to one hundred and forty-four yards of single fold, something, I take it, like the height of St. Peter's at Rome. The only way, of course, in which her majesty could haul in the slack, was to have it wound, like thread on a reel, round her portly waist; and when this process had gone on till her arms were supported in a horizontal position, the remainder was borne, as a train, by her admiring attendants.
This martyrdom was endured, within a month of a tropical midsummer, throughout the whole of a tedious and ceremonious procession. Perhaps in more civilized countries, royalty, on occasions of state, is only a gilded weariness both of flesh and spirit. The inhabitants of a warm climate, as if in imitation VOL. What a difference in this respect between the variegated dwellers in Honolulu and the dingy citizens of London! The women, presenting to the cloudless sun the countless hues of the flower-garden, form a curiously suggestive contrast with the deep brown of the almost naked men, most of whom might be models for a sculptor ; while a small sprinkling of many foreign costumes serves still farther to heighten the beauty and interest of the scene.
In complexion, the natives look like a connecting link between the red man and the negro, being darker than the former, though still removed many degrees from the sooty hue of the latter ; they exhibit perhaps about the same tint as the Moors of the north of Africa. In regard to hair also, they occupy the same intermediate position : in all of them it is black; curling, or rather waving and undulating in general, and being long and straight, like the red man's, in some individuals. In feature, they are rather Asiatic than otherwise; nose full without being flat, face broad, eye black and bright.
In form, they are commonly handsome, strong, and well limbed, while, in height, they are, in general, something above the average standard of Europeans. On the whole, they are, as a race, considerably above mediocrity, both in face and in person. The women in particular are decidedly pretty. In the foregoing paragraph I have had chiefly the common people in my eye, though all that I have said, excepting in point of size, is equally applicable to the higher classes.
The chiefs of either sex, as I have already had occasion to mention with regard to the males, are, with very few exceptions, remarkably tall and corpulenfe For this striking peculiarity various reasons may be suggested. Chiefs may originally have been of a superior race,—a supposition which, considering the way in which Polynesia must have been peopled, is not improbable in itself; or they may have always selected the largest women as their wives ; or they may themselves have been elevated above their fellows from time to time on account of their gigantic proportions. But, in addition to any or all of these possibilities, one thing is certain, that the easy and luxurious life of a chief has had very considerable influence in the matter; he or she, as the case may be, fares sumptuously every day, or rather every hour, and takes little or no exercise, while the constant habit of being shampooed after every regular meal, and oftener if desirable or expedient, promotes circulation and digestion without superinducing either exhaustion or fatigue.
Whatever may be the cause or causes of the magnitude of the patricians, the effect itself so seldom fails to be produced, that, beyond all doubt, bulk and rank are almost indissolubly connected together in the popular mind, the great in person being, without the help of a play upon words, great also in power.
Hence probably the matrimonial difficulties of poor Kanaina; and hence also the missionaries have certainly not augmented their influence by eating little but vegetables and drinking nothing but tea, till most of them are so meagre, gaunt, and sallow, as to be immediately distinguished by their looks from foreign laymen, whose religion rarely deters them from enjoying good dinners. To pass from the appearance of the natives to their disposition.
Of their domestic habits and feelings I have already said enough in an earlier subdivision of this chapter; and the less frequently that it is repeated, so much the better. The people, in spite of all that may be inferred to the contrary from their early intercourse with foreigners, are gentle and harmless; most of the outrages, which followed the discovery, having been either prompted by revenge for past wrongs, or enjoined by the cupidity of ambitious and unprincipled chiefs.
Polynesians in particular, and of maritime savages in general. In the hands of the chiefs, this principle could at any time have excited the fury of the Hawaiians against the most friendly visitors. In fact, the habit of obedience is so powerful in the great mass of the population, that by their rulers it may be turned at will either to good or to evil; and it is partly by reason of this submissive temper, which always makes them stand by their master to the last, that they form a valuable addition to the crews of whaling-vessels.
Nor is their courage less conspicuous than their fidelity. It is, in truth, above all suspicion; and of this there cannot perhaps be a stronger proof, however indirect it may be, than the fact, that, in their wars, they seldom or never had recourse to artifice or ambuscade. They are, without exception, the most valiant of the Polynesians, being perfect heroes, for instance, in comparison with the natives of the Society Islands; so that, from the lesson lately received at Tahiti, the French may be able to form some faint notion of what an aggressor may expect from the Hawaiians, more particularly when backed by the inaccessible fastnesses of their country.
In short, with their fidelity and courage combined, the Sandwich islanders, if officered like our Eastern Sepoys, would, in my opinion, make the finest soldiers of colour in the world. But perhaps the industry of the natives is the quality which promises to be most conducive to their civilization. While many other Polynesian tribes almost realize the caricature of a copper-coloured gentleman lying on his back under the branches of the bread-fruit, and doing nothing but keep his mouth open to catch the ripe rolls as they fall, the Hawaiians, as we have already had occasion to notice more than once, are compelled by the necessities of nature to earn their food by the sweat of their brow.
Witness the construction of their fish-ponds, the preparation of their poi, and the cultivation of their kalo, with all its incidental toils of digging and embanking the beds, of erecting and maintaining the aqueducts, of fixing and regulating the sluices. So far as the kalo and poi are concerned, there are some localities, Lahaina, for instance, in Mowee, in which the bread-fruit abounds, while, with a little care and attention, it might be made to grow in all parts of the group; but, whether it be that this ready-made food be here of inferior quality, or that the favourite dish of the natives has become indispensable to them, the bread-fruit is as little valued by the Sandwich islanders, as the kalo, which is indigenous in many parts of Polynesia, is valued by the indolent aborigines of the more southern groups.
Nor is the despotism of government less influential in making the people work than the niggardliness of nature. Though, in many quarters of the group, an adequate motive for exertion may not at present be felt, yet, in the neighbourhood of Honolulu, the sustenance of several thousands, who are exclusively consumers, constitutes at once the proof and the recompense of the industry of the adjacent cultivators. In fact, the demand of the town affords an ample market for the natives of the surrrounding country, while there is certainly no reason for the buyers to murmur as to the amount or variety of the supply.
The sleepless avarice, which here as well as elsewhere has been one of the earliest results of the contact of civilization, leads its aid, too, to strengthen and direct industry—all classes being, as is natural and excusable, ardent worshippers of money, as the one thing needful, in their opinion, for procuring all that distinguishes civilization from barbarism. Several curious instances may be mentioned.
Again, when one of the boats of Wilkes's squadron was upset in the surf, a native promptly rescued one poor fellow who could not save himself; but, instead of striking out for the dry land, he shelved his dripping and shivering customer, on the upturned bottom of the yawl, to take his choice between promising two dollars for his life, or forthwith returning whence he came.
Lastly, during our own sojourn, the American residents took a fancy to have Washington's birthday honoured by a salute from the fort; and Kekuanaoa, instead of refusing on principle or of yielding with a good grace, sold the compliment, after much higgling on both sides about terms, at the rate of half a dollar a gun. I mention these anecdotes, not to reproach any one, but merely to illustrate a characteristic feature in the disposition of partially improved savages—a disposition which necessarily springs from the fact that material civilization is more eagerly appreciated and more easily acquired than moral.
The only bad point in the native character, always excepting, of course, the besetting sin of licentiousness, is a propensity to petty thieving, with the concomitant vice of lying. But, in estimating the guilt of a savage's dishonestv, we ouo-ht to take into account the com- paratively irresistible force of the temptation. To him, the rudest implements are as attractive as the most precious jewels are to a European ; and I doubt much whether a vessel with diamonds all about her deck and cabin would be more sacred in the eyes of even the 58 OVERLAND JOURNEY i most select visitors, in one of our own ports, than hatchets, and knives, and nails used to be among the savages of the South Sea.
Moreover, it was with the thefts as it was with the murders ; the outrages of both descriptions were less the consequence of the offender's own depravity than of his chief's commands; and, long after the pillaging of vessels was abandoned, a professional pilferer was an ordinary appendage of a chief's household, a regular hunter, in short, of all such waifs and strays as might be useful or ornamental to the establishment. But the extortion of the chiefs was alone sufficient to make their vassals thieves. Knowing neither stint nor shame, it coveted all that it saw, and appropriated all that it coveted; and, if the serfs imitated those whom they reverenced, they could not be otherwise than cheats and robbers.
Nor had the helpless creatures, under so precarious a tenure of all the fruits of their toil, that selfish motive for honesty, which the possession of property seldom fails to inspire ; and now that the limitation of thechief's rights and the vassal's duties has enabled the commoners to have something which they may really call their own, they will gradually discover that the distinction between meum and tuum is a point of law and morals in which they have a personal interest.
In addition to dishonesty, one might be led to infer, from the rigour with which the missionaries wage war against intemperance, that drunkenness was common among the Hawaiians. This drink was made from the root of the tea-tree, and was prepared in the following very peculiar method. In the establishment of each chief were one or two men, whose duty it was to chew the root into a pulp, which they spat out into a water-tight vessel. On this lixivium of filth and poison the operators poured water enough to extract its virtues; and, when the work of absorption was complete, the lord of the ascendant greedily swallowed an infusion, which nothing but custom could have induced even him to taste without loathing.
The effects of the thing were quite worthy of the process of its manufacture. Its immediate result was a stupifying intoxication, not unlike that caused by opium; wdiile, in its ultimate consequences, it injured the sight by rendering the eyes blood-shot, and produced on the skin a kind of leprous appearance. The panacea in question, as one may easily suppose, assumes a variety of forms, inasmuch as the fair OVERLAND JOURNEY dispenser of the dose not only knows exactly in what proportions to combine the ordinary ingredients of chafing, and squeezing, and kneading, but also, when the malady appears to be deeply seated, tries to get down to it by furrowing her customer's carcase pretty forcibly with her elbows.
The native name of shampooing, according to the printed standard, is tumee- tumee; but the foreign residents, chiefly in order to tease the missionaries who disapprove of some of the modes of operation, generally express the objectionable branches of the system by changing the pronunciation of the word, as widely as possible, into rumee-rumee. The practice is undeniably beneficial to the health and development of the body.
If nothing more, it is clearly an easy substitute for exercise, or rather an ingenious contrivance for shifting the toil and trouble of that essential life-preserver to another person's shoulders. The custom has doubtless been derived from Asia, prevailing, as it does, in different parts of that continent, though not always in the form just described.
Cottrell, a late traveller in Siberia, mentions his having experienced in his own person something of the same kind at Omsk, and, with one exception, at Omsk only. This operation is performed very expertly; the patient, who understands the business, keeps his arms close to his sides, and his legs stretched stiffly out, and feels no sort of inconvenience.
It is exactly like being tossed in a blanket. The difference between tossing and shampooing, in itself immaterial, affects chiefly the active instruments in the business, the one being easier than the other; and, in fact, we accordingly find that, even on the continent of Asia, the athletic exhibition of the north, as one advances to the southward, has softened itself into something like the same practice that prevails among the Sandwich Islanders.
Another remarkable custom among the Hawaiians, which, however, is not likely, I take it, to last long in these more enlightened times, is their mode, evidently Asiatic in its origin, of expressing grief for the death of a superior. The mode in question is to knock out with a mallet as many front teeth as the rank of the deceased may demand, or perhaps the mourner's remaining stock may warrant. In the good old days of polygamy, the royal guardsmen had a hard time of it in this respect; for the deaths of queens, and princes, and princesses were so common as soon to disqualify the poor fellows for mourning any more, and to send them forth, as no longer fit for service, toothless into the world.
Some time ago, we had one of these mutilated veterans on the Columbia, who, as if the honour fully atoned to him for the loss, used to boast of having sacrificed his teeth in the service of so renowned a conqueror as Kamehameha the Great. Sometimes, though not so often, very loyal people knocked out their eyes as well as their teeth. This part of the business, however, was occasionally managed in such a way as to compound matters between the mourner and the deceased on terms highly advantageous to the former.
Kalaimoku, or William Pitt, for instance, exclaimed, on the death of his wife, that he had lost an eye, and was thenceforward distinguished as Once Blind—while, on the death of Kamehameha, this Hawaiian Ulysses, having discarded his other eye by means of a similar fiction, became Twice Blind for the rest of his life. Besides games of chance, some of which appear to be similar to those played by the aborigines of the American continent, the Hawaiians are peculiarly fond of such recreations as require strength or dexterity.
Among the recreations in question may be cited, as strikingly illustrative of physical character, the following sharp contest between the muscles of one party and the eyes of another. Beyond the mere chance of guessing right, the latter, of course, has no other means of detecting the proceedings of the former than the movements of the muscles of the bare arm ; and hence the struggle between the muscle and the eye, the muscle running through a whole pea and thimble rig" of feints and stratagems, and the eye striving to distinguish the true action of depositing the stone from all the deceptive varieties of motion and repose.
As the man with the stone may move his hand from pile to pile as often as he likes, and actually does so with incredible ease and rapidity, he has, according to our estimate of things, all the advantages in his favour; and yet the watchfulness of his enemy is often too much for him. But the grand recreation of the natives is the constant habit of swimming. In fact, the Sandwich Islanders are all but amphibious, and seem to be as much at home in the water as on the land and, at all times of the day, men, women, and children are sporting about in the harbour, or even beyond the reef, with shoals of sharks, perhaps, as their playfellows.
These voracious creatures, however, are far less likely to meddle with the aborigines than with foreigners, not that they prefer white meat to brown, but because they have been taught by experience that one Hawaiian has more of the Tartar in him than a score of Europeans. If, at any time, the latter take the preliminary step of turning over on his back to get a mouthful, the former is sure at least to elude the attack by diving below the monster; while, if he has a knife or any similar weapon, he seldom fails to destroy the enemy by carrying the war into his interior.
To return to the swimming : it was part of our daily amusement to watch the rapid and elegant evolutions of the performers, more particularly of the ladies, who, in the great majority of cases, excelled their lords and masters in agility and science. Even in point of strength and endurance, one woman, a short time before our arrival, had carried off the palm from her husband. The whole story is well worth telling, as illustrative of something better than toughness of muscle or suppleness of limb.
A man and his wife, both Christians, were passengers in a schooner, which foundered at a considerable distance from the land. All the natives on board promptly took refuge in the sea; and the man in question, who had just celebrated divine service in the ill-fated vessel, called his fellows, some of them being converts as well as himself, around him to offer up another tribute of praise and supplication from the deep in which they were struggling, to tarry, with a combination of courage and humility perhaps unequalled in the world's history, in order deliberately to worship God in that universal temple, under whose restless pavement the speaker and most of his hearers were destined to find their graves.
To aggravate their misfortunes, the wife's bucket went to pieces soon after daylight, so that she had to make the best of her way without assistance, or relief; and, in the course of the afternoon, the man became too weak to proceed, till his wife, to a certain extent, restored his strength by shampooing him in the water.
They had now Kahoolawe in full view, after having been about four-and-twenty hours on their dreary voyage. In spite, however, of the cheering sight, the man again fell into such a state of exhaustion, that the woman took his bucket for herself, giving him, at the same time, the hair of her head as a towing-line; and, when even this exertion proved to be too much for him, the faithful creature, after trying in vain to rouse him to prayer, took his arms round her neck, holding them together with one hand, and making with the other for the shore.
When a very trifling distance remained to be accomplished, she discovered that he was dead, and, dropping his corpse, reached the land before night, having passed over upwards of twenty-five miles, during an exposure of nearly thirty hours. I have been thus particular in detailing this narrative of hardihood and skill, of piety and affection, because it harmonizes so exactly with my general plan of presenting, when possible, to the reader, the past and the present, the old and the new, the savage and the civilized, in one and the same view.
In the skill and hardihood, we recognise the children of nature and VOL. In Honolulu, and most probably in the other towns and villages of the group, the taste for promenading, fostered, if not created, by the introduction of civilized finery, has, to a certain extent, thrown nearly all other amusements into the shade. Every afternoon—for all work ceases about three o'clock — the main street presents a gay and pretty scene with the varieties of costume and degrees of nuditv such as I have described— a scene which, unique enough in itself, is rendered still move decidedly so by the circumstance, that many of the ladies, as I have elsewhere hinted, carry about adopted sucklings in the shape of pigs and puppies, which, however, are destined to pay their little all for their board by being baked, when fat, into holiday dinners for their adoptive mammas.
In this promenading, certain days of the week take the shine out of the others. For instance, Tuesday, as everybody washes everything on Monday, brings out the belles like so many new pins, with gowns as clean, and smooth, and stiff, as starch, and irons, and soap, can make them ; while the fair wearers, that all things may be of a piece, generally embrace the same occcasion of mounting their fresh wreaths and garlands.
For these reasons, Tuesday is a stranger's best opportunity for obtaining a full and complete view of the beauties of Honolulu, for, though never very prudish, yet they are now peculiarly ready to appreciate and return the compliment of being "the observed of all observers. On this day, little or no work is done; and all those who can get horses gallop about from morning till dusk in the town and neighbourhood, to the danger of such as are poor enough or unfashionable enough to walk.
Saturday, in fact, is a kind of carnival, whose duty it is to atone, by anticipation, to the mass of the inhabitants for the pharisaical metho- dism of the missionary's sabbath. But the reader, to have a definite idea of all this walking and riding, ought to be told, that the Hawaiians, who must speak or die, never meet for any purpose, going to church, of course, excepted, without indulging, perhaps all of them at once, in a perpetual din of gossip and banter.
But the richest scene of amusement among the natives, which we witnessed, was one highly characteristic of those light-hearted creatures. A bridge and road were to be made from the town, in the direction of the valley of Nuannau. According to the law of the case, every male adult turned out to lend a hand; even domestic servants being liable either to work or to pay,—the very labourers themselves, to say nothing of others, making this unremunerated task the groundwork of all sorts of fun and frolic.
The troops mustered, as if for a review; bands of music paraded about from morning till night; and the wromen, all decked out in their best, flitted about from spot to spot, jabbering and joking all the while in their inarticulate jargon.