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He hoped it would be close enough to the Spanish in Florida and the Caribbean to challenge them in economic and military terms. Many of the first English settlers in Carolina after came from Barbados. They brought enslaved Africans with them. They also brought the beginnings of a legal code and a social system that accepted race slavery. While new colonies with a greater acceptance of race slavery were being founded, the older colonies continued to grow. Early in the 17 th century no tiny North American port could absorb several hundred workers arriving at one time on a large ship.

Most Africans—such as those reaching Jamestown in —arrived several dozen at a time aboard small boats and privateers from the Caribbean. Like Emaniell and Mingo on the farm of James Stone, they tended to mix with other unfree workers on small plantations. All of these servants, no matter what their origin, could hope to obtain their own land and the personal independence that goes with private property. Anthony and Mary Johnson had also gained their own property in Northampton County before All except five were killed the following March, when local Indians struck back against the foreigners who were invading their land.

Antonio was one of the lucky survivors. He became increasingly English in his ways, eventually gaining his freedom and moving to the Eastern Shore, where he was known as Anthony Johnson. By the s, Anthony and Mary Johnson owned a farm of acres, and their married sons, John and Richard, farmed adjoining tracts of and acres respectively.

His widow Mary, in her will of , distributed a cow to each of her grandsons, including John Jr. Five years later, when John Jr. But within 30 years, John Jr. If we knew their fate, it might tell us more about the terrible transformation that was going on around them. Gradually, it was becoming harder to obtain English labor in the mainland colonies. Stiff penalties were imposed on sea captains who grabbed young people in England and sold them in the colonies as indentured servants.

Officials feared they would lose future English recruits to rival colonies if bad publicity filtered back to Europe, so they could not ignore this pressure, even when it undermined colonial profits.

Two Souths

Nor could colonial planters turn instead to Indian labor. Native Americans captured in frontier wars continued to be enslaved, but each act of aggression by European colonists made future diplomacy with neighboring Indians more difficult. Native American captives could easily escape into the familiar wilderness and return to their original tribe.

Besides, their numbers were limited.

African Americans - Slavery in the United States |

African Americans, in contrast, were thousands of miles from their homeland, and their availability increased as the scope of the Atlantic slave trade expanded. More European countries competed to transport and exploit African labor; more West African leaders proved willing to engage in profitable trade with them; more New World planters had the money to purchase new workers from across the ocean. It seemed as though every decade the ships became larger, the contacts more regular, the departures more frequent, the routes more familiar, the sales more efficient.

As the size and efficiency of this brutal traffic increased, so did its rewards for European investors. Their ruthless competition pushed up the volume of transatlantic trade from Africa and drove down the relative cost of individual Africans in the New World at a time when the price of labor from Europe was rising. As their profits increased, slave merchants and their captains continued to look for fresh markets.

North America, on the fringe of this expanding and infamous Atlantic system, represented a likely target. As the small mainland colonies grew and their trade with one another and with England increased, their capacity to purchase large numbers of new laborers from overseas expanded. By the end of the century, Africans were arriving aboard large ships directly from Africa as well as on smaller boats from the West Indies. All these large and gradual changes would still not have brought about the terrible transformation to race slavery, had it not been for several other crucial factors.

One ingredient was the mounting fear among colonial leaders regarding signs of discontent and cooperation among poor and unfree colonists of all sorts. Europeans and Africans worked together, intermarried, ran away together, and shared common resentments toward the well-to-do. Douglass was a publicly acclaimed figure from almost the earliest days of his career as a speaker and then a writer.

Harriet Jacobs, on the other hand, was never well-known.

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His narrative was the culmination of Douglass based his narrative on the sermon. Harriet Jacobs, on the other hand, began her narrative around , after she had lived as a fugitive slave in the North for ten years. She began working privately on her narrative not long after Cornelia Grinnell Willis purchased her freedom and gave her secure employment as a Jacobs modeled her narrative on the sentimental or domestic novel.

Douglass was a public speaker who could boldly self-fashion himself as hero of his own adventure.

Linguistic Society of America

In his first narrative, he combined and equated the achievement of selfhood, manhood, freedom, and voice. The resulting lead character of his autobiography is a boy, and then a young man, who is robbed of family and community and who gains an identity not only through his escape from Baltimore to Massachusetts but through his Douglass focuses on the struggle to achieve manhood and freedom.

Jacob focuses on sexual exploitation. Harriet Jacobs, on the other hand, was enmeshed in all the trappings of community, family, and domesticity. As Jacobs pointedly put it, " Slavery is bad for men , but it is far more terrible for women. Like Douglass, Jacobs was determined to fight to the death for her freedom. Pregnant with the child of a white lover of her own choosing, fifteen year old Jacobs reasoned erroneously that her condition would spur her licentious master to sell her and her child.

Thus throughout her narrative, Jacobs is looking not only for freedom but also for a secure home for her children. They never lost their determination to gain not only freedom from enslavement but also respect for their individual humanity and that of other bondsmen and women. Their titles alone can show students that both writers are making highly conscious decisions about self-presentation and narrative strategy.

Is it believable, given all the prefatory matter by white sponsors that accompanies the narratives? A particularly interesting gender comparison can be made of Douglass and Jacobs through examining the identical disguises that they wore as they maneuvered their way to freedom in southern port cities that were their homes Baltimore and Edenton, NC, respectively.

This costume enabled Douglass to board a boat and sail away to freedom.

In Compare disguises. Artistic and Literary Trends The Print Revolution The Wounded Knee Massacre The Election of Booker T.

An American Tragedy: The legacy of slavery lingers in our cities’ ghettos

DuBois Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom The Panama Canal The Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations Fads and Heroes Old Values vs. Domestic and International Politics Social and Cultural Effects of the Depression An Evaluation of the New Deal Pearl Harbor The Decision to Drop the Bomb Domestic Challenges Voices against Conformity Separate No Longer? Martin Luther King Jr. Black Power Years of Withdrawal Triangular Diplomacy: U. Roe v. Flower Power The New Right The End of the Cold War Republicans vs. The End of the American Century. This engraving from an issue of Harper's Weekly magazine shows the tightly packed conditions of a slave ship.

Many Africans died during the grueling middle passage — so many that the ship depicted above was considered safer than most, having only lost 90 of passengers.