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Facebook Instagram Newsletter. All rights reserved. Your internet search engine is out of date Please upgrade your internet search engine in order to view the website correctly. Query string No querystring data. Timers Total Request Time: ms. Silky tones of honey, the unique combination of 13 healing herbs and the delicate bitterness of gentian are blended with juice from carefully chosen varieties of grapes and a genuine Tokay wine.

Thus we can proudly present it to the world — and to you, so that you can write new stories. We source it from the foremost Slovak honey producers and take great pride in being able to share with you its smoothness and delicious flavor and scent. In the past it was considered downright magical. Each of the herbs contributes with its specific flavor and beneficial effects.

The exact composition is, naturally, our carefully guarded treasure. What we can reveal, however, is that apart from the legendary gentian you can also find echinacea, lemon balm and mother-of-thyme. Herbs that strengthen — and reveal many mysterious stories. It comes from the precious and hallowed Tokay varieties Moscatel and Furmint.

There are precious few places in the whole wide world where they produce naturally sweet wine of such renown and grand quality. And so — just as every great story should be crowned with a royal ending, the crowning jewel in our story is the Tokay wine. Wine, herbs, honey, wood, time. That makes it a perfect drink for those who wish to stop time for a moment and relish the present moment.

To the time and place where its story began. The baked clay, swing stopper, handicraft and personal attention — mere details, all of it. Now back to the matter at hand. Many troubles lay clamorous siege on you, but you are unaware just how numerous and powerful your enemies really are.

This frequently happens to a man who sees his enemies at a distance and in close formation; he is contemptuous of their small number and is deceived. But when they draw closer and the battalions spread out more clearly in formation, their armaments glittering and flashing before his eyes, then he feels fear rise in him and he is sorry that he was not more cautious.

I think the same thing is about to happen to you. When I have made you see all the evils which press upon and besiege you from all sides, you will feel ashamed at having taken this all so lightly and you will find it hardly surprising that your soul, beset by so many hostile forces, has been unable, so to speak, to break through enemy lines. You will see, then, how many opposing thoughts have overcome the beneficial meditation to which I am trying to bring you.

I have always recognized that I was in great danger, but now you tell me that I have grossly underestimated it and that compared to what they should be, my fears are nothing at all. What hope is left to me? Therefore, I want you to know above all that there is nothing to despair about. Behold what nations gather, what walled cities Shut their gates and sharpen the blade against You and your people. See what snares the world has set for you, what vanities flit about you, how many useless cares oppress you.

First of all, consider the sin which caused those noble spirits to fall at the dawn of creation. You must take every precaution not to fall as they did. How many are the things that tempt your soul to perilous flights. You have great natural abilities, but they tire you out and make you forgetful of the weakness you so often experience. They crowd in and occupy your mind, until it can think of nothing else. And thus you become so proud, self-reliant, and self-satisfied that finally you hate your Creator.

But even if your gifts are as great as you imagine them to be, they ought to have inspired you with a feeling of humility rather than pride, recalling that they all came to you through no merit of your own. Set aside for a moment the relationship of God and his Creatures. Even among men, servants will be more obedient to their master, if they see him display a generosity which they did not deserve. They strive, then, by their good services to comply with their master whose generosity they should have anticipated and merited by their actions.

Thus you can understand very easily how insignificant are the things you pride yourself on. You trust in your talent and in your wide reading; you pride yourself on your eloquence and take delight in the beauty of your mortal body. Yet you know in how many ways your talent often fails you and how many are the skills in which you are not a match for even the humblest of mankind.

I can go further. You will find primitive and humble animals whose work you cannot imitate no matter how you try. Come, boast of your talent now. As for reading, what is the use of that? In this book, he explores the question of why he and his friends stole pears when he had many better pears of his own, he explains the feelings he experienced as he threw the rest away to the pigs. Augustine argues that he most would not have stolen anything had he not been in the company of others who could share in his sin, he begins the study of rhetoric at Carthage , where he develops a love of wisdom through his exposure to Cicero's Hortensius.

He blames his pride for lacking faith in Scripture, so he finds a way to seek truth regarding good and evil through Manichaeism. At the end of this book, his mother, dreams about her son's re-conversion to Catholic doctrine. Between the ages of 19 and 28, Augustine forms a relationship with an unnamed woman who, though faithful, is not his lawfully wedded wife, with whom he has a son.

At the same time that he returned to Tagaste , his hometown, to teach, a friend fell sick, was baptized in the Catholic Church , recovered then died. The death of his friend depresses Augustine, who reflects on the meaning of love of a friend in a mortal sense versus love of a friend in God. Things he used to love become hateful to him. Augustine suggests that he began to love his life of sorrow more than his fallen friend, he closes this book with his reflection that he had attempted to find truth through the Manicheans and astrology, yet devout Church members, who he claims are far less intellectual and prideful, have found truth through greater faith in God.

While Saint Augustine is aged 29, he begins to lose faith in Manichean teachings, a process that starts when the Manichean bishop Faustus visits Carthage. Augustine is unimpressed with the substance of Manichaeism, but he has not yet found something to replace it, he feels a sense of resigned acceptance to these fables as he has not yet formed a spiritual core to prove their falsity. He moves to teach in Rome. He does not stay in Rome for long because his teaching is requested in Milan , where he encounters the bishop Ambrose, he appreciates Ambrose's style and attitude, Ambrose exposes him to a more spiritual, figurative perspective of God, which leads him into a position as catechumen of the Church.

The sermons of Saint Ambrose draw Augustine closer to Catholicism, which he begins to favor over other philosophical options. In this section his personal troubles, including ambition, continue, at which point he compares a beggar, whose drunkenness is "temporal happiness," with his hitherto failure at discovering happiness. Augustine highlights the contribution of his friends Alypius and Nebridius in his discovery of religious truth.

Monica returns at the end of this book and arranges a marriage for Augustin. Triumphs Triumphs is a series of poems by Petrarch in the Tuscan language evoking the Roman ceremony of triumph, where victorious generals and their armies were led in procession by the captives and spoils they had taken in war.

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Composed over more than twenty years, the poetry is written in terza rima and divided into twelve chapters honoring allegorical figures such as Love, Chastity and Fame, who vanquish each other in turn; the last chapter was completed February , a few months before the author's death. One spring day in Valchiusa , the poet falls asleep and dreams that Love, personified as a naked and winged young man armed with a bow, passes by on a fiery triumphal chariot drawn by four white horses. Love is attended by a multitude of his conquests, including illustrious historical, literary and biblical figures, as well as ancient and medieval poets and troubadours; the procession reaches Cyprus , the island where Venus was born.

Love is defeated by Laura and a host of personified virtues such as Honor and Modesty, as well as chaste heroines including Lucretia and Dido. Love's captives are freed and Love is chastised. The triumphant celebration culminates in the Temple of Patrician Chastity.

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Returning from the battle, the victorious host encounters a furious woman dressed in black, who reveals a countryside littered with the corpses of once proud people from all times and places, including emperors and popes; this personification of Death plucks a golden hair from Laura's head. Laura returns from heaven to comfort the poet, who asks when they will be reunited, she replies.

Death departs and Fame arrives, her appearance is compared to the dawn. She is attended by Scipio and Caesar, many other figures from Rome's military history, as well as Hannibal , Saladin , King Arthur , heroes from Homer's epics, patriarchs from the Hebrew scriptures. Accompanying these soldiers and generals are the thinkers and orators of Classical Greece and Rome , it has been remarked that for Petrarch, Plato is a greater philosopher than Aristotle , preferred by Dante.

Time is represented by the sun, chasing the dawn and racing across the sky and scornful of the fame of mortals. Fame, the poet concludes, will always be followed by oblivion, the "second death". Petrarch finds consolation in the prospect of being reunited with Laura in timeless eternity. Eternity is not represented allegorically. Triumphs examines the ideal course of a man from sin to redemption: A theme with roots in medieval culture, being typical of works like Roman de la Rose or The Divine Comedy.


Petrarch's work invites comparison with the Dante's, from the structural point of view as well as for its treatment of an allegorical voyage. Triumphs shares and builds on numerous themes of Canzoniere , such as the confrontation of death, as in the sonnet Movesi il vecchierel canuto e bianco, the spiritualization of love. Triumphs is appreciated for its lyrical achievements and the poet's vivid introspection into his feelings. On the other hand, it has been criticized for the mechanical rigidity of its narrative, the long enumerations of notable persons which sap its vitality.

Boitani, Piero. Chaucer and the Imaginary World of Fame. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Canzoniere Rerum vulgarium fragmenta Africa Trionfi Bucolicum carmen. De viris illustribus De remediis utriusque fortunae De vita solitaria De otio religiosorum Rerum memorandarum libri. Secretum Itinerarium syriacum. Categories : Medieval literature 14th-century books Petrarch. Epistles Horace.

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Related Images. YouTube Videos. Petrarch portrait by Altichiero. Santa Maria della Pieve in Arezzo. Saint Augustine of Hippo, Gerard Seghers attr. The earliest known portrait of Saint Augustine in a 6th-century fresco, Lateran, Rome. The Conversion of St. Augustine by Fra Angelico. In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, and principal object of faith. God blessing the seventh day, a watercolor painting depicting God, by William Blake — Thomas Aquinas summed up five main arguments as proofs for God's existence.

Isaac Newton saw the existence of a Creator necessary in the movement of astronomical objects. Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded. Free will is closely linked to the concepts of responsibility, praise, guilt, sin, and other judgements which apply only to actions that are freely chosen. A photo showing a boy jumping into a body of water. It is widely believed that humans make decisions e.

A domino's movement is determined completely by laws of physics. Thomas Hobbes was a classical compatibilist. Cicero Denounces Catiline, fresco by Cesare Maccari , — Christianity is a religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament.

Various depictions of Jesus.

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Samples of Catholic religious objects — the Bible , a crucifix and a rosary. Christian theology is the theology of Christian belief and practice.

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  8. Such study concentrates primarily upon the texts of the Old Testament and of the New Testament, as well as on Christian tradition. Christian theologians use biblical exegesis, rational analysis and argument. Christ in Gethsemane, Heinrich Hofmann , Jesus, believed to be both man and God, painting by Carl Heinrich Bloch.


    The Gutenberg Bible , the first printed Bible. It dates from the 2nd century BCE. Saint Paul Writing His Epistles, 16th-century painting. A Torah scroll recovered from Glockengasse Synagogue in Cologne. Quintus Horatius Flaccus, known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner. Horace reads before Maecenas, by Fyodor Bronnikov. Odes 1. Horace, portrayed by Giacomo Di Chirico. Macrobius, fully Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius, also known as Theodosius, was a Roman provincial who lived during the early fifth century, at the transition of the Roman to the Byzantine Empire, and when Latin was as widespread as Greek among the elite.

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    Macrobius presenting his work to his son Eustachius. From an copy of Macrobius' Dream of Scipio. Image: Macrobius, universe with the earth in the centre. Ovid Banished from Rome by J. Medea in a fresco from Herculaneum. The Metamorphoses is a Latin narrative poem by the Roman poet Ovid, considered his magnum opus. Title page of edition published by Joannes Gryphius decorative border added subsequently.

    A depiction of the story of Pygmalion , Pygmalion adoring his statue by Jean Raoux Apollo and Daphne by Antonio Pollaiuolo , one tale of transformation in the Metamorphoses—he lusts after her and she escapes him by turning into a bay laurel. Seneca the Younger, fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.

    Museo del Prado. The " Pseudo-Seneca " a Roman bust found at Herculaneum , one of a series of similar sculptures known since the Renaissance, once identified as Seneca. Now commonly identified as Hesiod.