Ma che sor- dove ognuno se ne lava le mani.
Episode 2: Narrating in the past - passato remoto
Interpellato, il da tutti. Questa pecca dimostra per dott. Noi cre-le mani. Imitando Ponzio Pilato Ne sicuritario al fenomeno migratorio. Dipartimento Fondo immigrazione. Sie stammt aus trauen von Regierungsseite. So for- oft unklar sind. Marokko und lebt als Asylantin in derte der bayerische InnenministerDeutschland. Sie willalleine gestellt. Nach Marokkoren. Auchschwarz als Bedienung in einer Pizze- Schon nach dem Anschlag wenn ich es hier schwer habe, inria. Durchsuchun- discriminationsie. Viele ver- January bleme auf sie zukommen.
Eine Erinnerung,che und der sozialen Anbindung. Indeed,so fast is the decline in population that there is little the Italian people can do to arrest the fall. Along with Greece and Spain, Italy is at the bottom of the European birth rate charts. In recent decades Italy has dropped well belowpopulation replacement level, falling to a point from which no civilisation in history has ever recovered.
By the population ofItaly will have fallen from around 59 million today to only 43 million. If that sounds like a harsh question, then consider the context. The demographic decline in Italy and the resultant rapidshrinking of its population is a choice. It has not been forced upon the people by an outside power. Steynargues that it is already too late: Italy, like others in Europe, will be destroyed on the altar of demography as it is concurrently overrun bymigrants seeking a lifestyle that no longer exists.
CORRIERE DELLA yxicavicox.ml - Blog - Blog Chelsea mia di Alessio Altichieri.
I hold a little more faith in this former power than Steyn, but only a little. The citizensof Italy — from Aurelio to Zerba — have made a terrible choice to set their state on this destructive path. These same citizens must nowchoose to prosper again or continue their path into the historical past-tense. Regeny, Washington DC Vous vous y de soutien provenant de la com-wir wollen nicht vom Terrorismus attendiez un peu?
Das besorgen mehr als zur ensemble? Terrorzellen der Al Inspiration cite. Et je les ai tous perdus! Mais tou-Untersuchungskom- France? Si on perd,kaum. Tous lesdahinter. Das sind, z. Est-cenicht mehr nur amerikanischen Fil- que vous vous rendez compte? Meinungsfreiheit sein, sich selber dasDenken zu verbieten. The Germandine idilliaca sofferente in attesa authorities, especially the local governmentdella spada di Damocle?
Le testa- with this kind of things. The Minister under-tato brigatista. Fra gli accusati anche lined the importance of a close collabora-sette membri della Cgil. Una coinci- te si fanno paladini tion between the security authorities anddenza che riporta il movimento sinda- the universities, given the current situation. O dei PAC, fugge in Francia, Arrestato did behave conspicuously, but we found outdanna Cesare Battisti, presunto ex- sono piuttosto rea- 18 Marzo Gli hanno zioni?
Gli orrori commessi da chi desidera urlare a coloro che non ascoltano sono segno di una ribellione snaturata, ma ori- ginariamente intenti a danneggiare chi li vuole mettere a tacere. Die — das ist mir alles piep-egal. Ihn nun nicht mehr — enfant perdu Ich habe diesen Typ oft hetzen herumspukte. Diese Chance ist vorerst vorbei. Und der kennt im Konzert dieser politischen Eunuchen, die von der sondern die angewandten Mittel sind gar zu gering. Wie ich mich monatelangteilen. Wie ist es nun, wenn man sich zu keinerdieser beiden Gewalten stellt? Damit dielassen. Sachen, die ich im Tagtraum aus, wie Bubacks Gewalt vom Volke ausging.
Aber ehrlich gemeint Die Leute dasgejagt, lebe irgendwo in einem konspirativen Zusam- Volk! Wir werden unsere Feinde nicht liquidieren. Ich spiele den Varus. Autonom werden! Es ist eine Bereiche- nie durchs Zentrum, Rhizome bilden, Nebenwege suchen, parallel werden. Ich bin einer unter vielen. Der Bund macht durch meine As ersetzt: anekdotisch, — Gefahren abwehren? Soll die kom- men? Wer schlau wegen auch aggressiv.
Womit keine Schuld. Na, wissen Sie, wo leben Sie denn? Es wird mehr gelesen — am Gefahren abwehren? Aust Spiegel! Dagegen hilft zu unternehmen. Mit anderen! Danke, Gefahr! Dem Spiegel und der Bild meinschaften bilden. Das hat meine geworden! Dort sind Leute aktiv und meckern nicht nur rum. Film und Theater sind politisch genug. Doch jetzt macht die deutsche Regierung einen Strich durch diese Flirt-kultur. Doch welche? Sollte manfragen: Hey, sag mal, kann ich einen Schluck von deinem Bier trinken? Doch wie auf neue Anmachen reagieren?
Soll ich Schneckenessen benutzt werden sollte. Dann stellt man sich einfach dazu. Dies ist der so genannte Doppelherzeffekt. Denn eigentlich bleibt alles beim Alten. Das Flirten wird nur aufschnitt — und dann auch noch Butter darauf schmierte! Und was gibt es denn Besseres, als gemeinsam Nun, wenn das so ist, werde ich ihn sofort bestellen. Freiherr Knigge wohl andere Sorgen. Partiamo perdisinteresse e inconcludenza da quelli ziose. Entriamo cercandomeno possibile. Gli spazi per crescere e realizzare progetti? Il giorno prima, gli stu- Lagos. Poi il ritorno a Milano. Queste immagini su che cosa si basano?
Allo stesso tempo, gli territori interni del Niger, per fotografare una enorme diga inritrarre utilizzando un apparecchio artisti che sono passati alle macchine costruzione. Esistono variimmobile. Alla domanda su come punti di vista e allo stesso tempo dif-individuare un tema principale nella ferenze oggettive dal punto di vistasua operazione di artista , Linke ris- della resa effettiva.
Il viag- talking Almeno per quanto riguarda il cinema. Denn wie jedes vertreten. Che vuol dire? Nessuna barriera ideologica lin und Umgebung. Chiediamo: Der Pitch! Die jungen Leute kommen machten? Dann warich sie besser verstehe, und vielleicht Fotos in unserer Laube gemacht. Als ich die verlorengegangen. Pearson two-tailed bivariate correlations for the variables with statistically significant correlations with the measures of idiom processing. The first number in each cell represents the r value, the second the p-value and the third the number of observations entering in the correlation in a few cases some observations were missing due to technical problems.
Statistically significant correlations are in reported in bold. Descriptive statistics for the individual difference measures entered in the stepwise regression analysis. Given the large number of tests, the alpha inflation was controlled by setting the False Discovery Rate to 0. In our analyses, the 0. Errors represented only the 1. Means of the correct responses for idiomatic and control targets of predictable P and unpredictable idioms UP idioms.
Bars refer to standard error. The relatively low number of stimuli per condition is presumably responsible for the lack of by-item significant effects in both cases. In sum, we found contextually-driven activation of the idiomatic meaning for both predictable and unpredictable idioms in line with our prediction and with previous studies e. Following the suggestion of one the reviewers, we also used linear mixed models with random intercepts to investigate the effects of the Idiom type and Target factors, and their interaction.
Idiom type, Target, and Idiom type by Target interaction were included as fixed effects in the model, whereas Item and Subject were included as random effects in the model. Results replicated those showed above. As the study was originally designed to be analyzed using the conventional by-participant and by-item ANOVA, we prefer to retain and discuss those results. For sake of clarity, we present each component separately. Significant correlations only concerned the Listening Span test.
In sum, the faster participants were in correctly responding to idioms, the higher was their verbal WM. In sum, the better the participants performance was in the Vocabulary test, the faster participants were in responding to idioms. In sum, higher levels of temporary anxiety due to a specific event presumably the experiment were associated to faster response times to these targets. In sum, the higher were the scores of Agreeableness and Openness to Experience, the faster were the response times to unpredictable idioms, and in general to control targets; the higher the scores of Openness to Experience, the faster the responses to idiomatic targets of predictable idioms, and lastly the higher the scores of Extraversion, the faster the responses to control targets of unpredictable idioms.
In the hierarchical regression analyses, significant effects were observed for the response times to idiomatic targets of predictable idioms. Block 2 also including WM and Inhibitory control measures accounted for Significant effects of a single predictor Vocabulary were found in the response times to control targets of predictable idioms, where Vocabulary accounted for None of the Blocks or single predictors produced significant R 2 changes in the response times to the other experimental conditions. In line with prior evidence and with our predictions, when ambiguous idioms were embedded in idiom-biasing contexts the idiomatic meaning was equally available for predictable and unpredictable idioms.
Clearly, the joint effects of the contextual bias and familiarity facilitated semantic processing making the idiomatic meaning available at the end of the idiom strings regardless of predictability. The correlation and regression analyses showed important contributions of WM, inhibitory control and crystallized verbal intelligence, as well as marginally significant contributions of State Anxiety and Openness to Experience.
These results represent an interesting, although still exploratory, addition to the literature and extend to idioms previous evidence about the components associated with metaphor and sarcasm comprehension Blasko, ; Kazmerski et al. Specifically, our regression analyses showed that WM and Inhibitory control as estimated respectively by recalled words and intrusion errors of the Listening Span accounted for a significant part of variance The Listening Span task as other types of WM span tasks requires the active maintenance of information in memory in face of concurrent processing and interference Conway et al.
This is particularly important to idioms since, as we mentioned, processing idioms may be more engaging for the cognitive system than it may appear given the rapidity with which familiar idioms are generally understood. In fact, it has been extensively shown that momentary activation of at least part of the literal meaning of the idiom composing words and retrieval, after idiom identification, of the idiom meaning from semantic memory are both necessary to idiom comprehension Cacciari et al.
How many of the words composing the idiom string are literally processed depends on factors such as idiom predictability, familiarity and contextual information. It has been observed in fact that reading some of the words composing highly predictable familiar idioms may suffice to actively pre-activate the word s that are more likely to appear Molinaro and Carreiras, ; Vespignani et al. At the same time, when the activated literal meanings are irrelevant to the idiomatic interpretation, these are actively suppressed for a discussion on this point, see Rommers et al.
Fanari et al. In this case, the literal meaning of the idiom composing words was fully activated. But when the same idioms were embedded in idiom-biasing contexts, idiom recognition was anticipated and the idiomatic meaning was already available at the string offset. Regression analyses revealed that the predicting role of inhibitory control was particularly evident only in the comprehension of predictable idioms.
Admittedly, we do not have an explanation of the reasons why we did not find similar effects also on unpredictable idioms. One possibility is that effects of inhibitory control manifest themselves particularly with faster response times. Another, not necessarily alternative possibility, is that individuals scoring higher in WM and inhibitory control were more likely to possess a more robust knowledge about word co-occurrence which further speeded up the response times to predictable idioms.
Future studies specifically devoted to test these possibilities are needed. Vocabulary scores contributed to the response times to predictable and unpredictable idioms. Many studies documented an association of vocabulary knowledge to efficient sentence comprehension Hunt, For instance, Kazmerski et al. Similarly, Chiappe and Chiappe found that vocabulary knowledge together with inhibitory control, and print exposure predicted the quality of generated metaphors see also Beaty and Silvia, We documented the important contribution of crystallized verbal intelligence also on idiom comprehension.
To the best of our knowledge, few studies on idiom comprehension reported similar evidence. For instance, in a study testing idiom comprehension in people with paranoid schizophrenia and matched controls, Pesciarelli et al. Stepwise regression analysis suggests a role also of personality-related variables. As the marginally significant effect of State Anxiety suggests, a temporary state of anxiety, presumably related to the experimental setting, was associated with faster response times to idiomatic targets of predictable idioms the cognitively easiest experimental condition.
Presumably, this unpleasant temporary emotional arousal led participants to recruit more cognitive resources speeding up idiom processing as documented for literal language by Svenson and Maule, ; Breznitz and Berman, Openness to Experience as well although again in a marginally significant way contributed to the response times to idiomatic targets of predictable idioms.
Recently, Beaty and Silvia reported that Openness to Experience contributed to creative metaphor quality see also Goetzman et al. Several studies have suggested that Openness to Experience and also Extraversion, in some studies has a positive association with creativity in different domains for an overview, see Batey and Furnham, This is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that an association of Openness to Experience with the comprehension of conventionalized figurative strings is reported.
Surprisingly enough, we did not observe specific contributions of Digit Span and Stroop tests, and of verbal fluency and fluid intelligence tests that were instead reported in prior studies on figurative language comprehension. However, these effects were reported for metaphor interpretation and production e.
Metaphors and idioms differ in important respects mostly related to processing workload: first, familiar idioms possess a ready-to-go meaning that has to be retrieved from semantic memory, and not fully composed as in metaphors. The less demanding workload on the processing system necessary to compute idioms, compared to metaphors, together with the specific characteristics of our idiom experiment, can have made the contribution of these tests less visible than in metaphor studies. Again, specific studies testing different forms of figurative language are required to test this possibility.
Even more strikingly, we did not find any effects of general speed of processing, at variance with a previous idiom study Cacciari et al. However this may reflect methodological differences between the two studies.
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Finally, one might wonder whether we can derive alternative predictions on the role of individual differences in idiom comprehension from Lexical Look-Up models and from Non-Lexical models. These models were not designed to take individual differences into account. Notwithstanding, it seems fair to hypothesize that specific contributions of cognitive and personality components would be best accommodated by Non-Lexical Hybrid models of idiom processing since these assume that idioms are processed just like any other linguistic input, up to idiom identification after which the idiom meaning is retrieved from semantic memory, and the activated literal meanings decay.
These models would at least predict a role for WM and inhibitory control in idiom comprehension since some literal computation precedes idiom retrieval, and in most cases the literal meanings of the words activated prior to idiom recognition must be actively suppressed. It is more difficult to detail which of the components examined in the present study would be associated to idiom comprehension according to Lexical Look-up models that posit that idioms are computationally similar to long words.
In this view, in fact idiomatic meanings do not undergo any linguistic computation being directly retrieved from semantic memory as for any other words. Individual differences in WM capacity, inhibitory control, crystallized verbal intelligence, State Anxiety, and Openness to Experience indeed seem to be associated with the contextually-driven comprehension of an important part of multi-word expressions, namely idioms.
This is the picture emerging from this exploratory study. Admittedly, the correlational approach of the study has important limitations. In fact, we cannot a priori exclude that some or all the significant correlations found in this study may be due to higher level factors whose specific nature is not yet clear. Studies with a higher number of stimuli and also matched literal sentences and participants testing specific hypothesis about each component of the cognitive and personality architecture underlying language processing are required before we can ultimately decide whether the complex architecture subserving idiom processing totally or partially coincides with that used to comprehend literal language, and what are the roles and weights of each component in idiom comprehension.
One might also wonder whether these results are specific to idioms or they are generalizable to other kinds of literal and non-literal word strings. Again this is an empirical question that requires future studies to be properly answered. Since this study used ambiguous idioms, the disambiguation of the idiom meaning required the presence and use of contextual information to decide which of the two meanings of the string was appropriate.
Of course providing idiom-consistent information has facilitated idiomatic meaning activation speeding up response times see Fanari et al. Future studies on the role of individual differences in idiom comprehension may adopt a different approach testing unambiguous idioms, presented in and out of context, with different behavioral paradigms e. Why it is important to study the role of individual differences in language acquisition and processing not relegating them to error variance Kidd et al. First, because the presence of individual differences obscured by group data may be one of the causes of inconsistent findings in the cognitive science literature Hannon and Daneman, and of unresolved theoretical controversies in psycholinguistics Kidd et al.
Second, studying the role of individual variability may shed further light on the neural and cognitive architecture underlying language and in general any mental processes and on how it interacts with language experience. A related question is why idioms are relevant to these aims. The response is that they indeed are relevant not simply because they are pervasive in everyday communication, but rather because the study of individual differences in idiom comprehension can provide a better understating of the role of distributional information in language processing.
Interestingly, the relevance of the notion of predictability in contemporary models of language processing for an overview, see Kutas and Federmeier, has led to an increasing interest in the mechanisms underlying idiom comprehension Vespignani et al. Idiomatic expressions, together with other types of multi-word literal and non-literal expressions, represent an interesting test case of how the brain and the mind handle the frequency with which we are exposed to linguistic input in the environment statistical learning. In fact, the brain is sensitive to distributional information in the input as reflected, for language, by the frequency of co-occurrence of words in compositional e.
CC initially conceived the idea for the study which was then further developed and finalized by CC and PC. The stimulus materials were prepared by PC. Data collection was made by PC. The majority of this paper was written by CC. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Per arrivare alla fine della lunga maratona il podista ha dovuto stringere i denti. Il medico diceva sempre a Luca di smettere di fumare ma lui si tappava le orecchie.
La polizia stava indagando sull'omicidio da mesi, ma continuava a brancolare nel buio. Il padre sapeva che il figlio era in crisi, ma ugualmente gli ha voltato le spalle. Sara stava raccontano una favola alla nipotina ma si accorse di aver perso il filo. Fabio voleva uscire con la nuova studentessa francese e ha cercato di rompere il ghiaccio.
Dopo i gravi episodi di razzismo molte associazioni per i diritti umani sono scese in campo. Il rapinatore non fece in tempo a scassinare la cassaforte e dovette tagliare la corda. Andrea ha perso tutti i soldi al gioco d'azzardo ed ora ha veramente toccato il fondo. La mamma era molto arrabbiata col figlio e gli ha detto che quella sera avrebbero fatto i conti.
Front Psychol. Published online May 1. PMID: This article was submitted to Cognitive Science, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Received Jan 24; Accepted Apr The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In this exploratory study, we investigated whether and to what extent individual differences in cognitive and personality variables are associated with spoken idiom comprehension in context.
Keywords: idiom comprehension, individual differences, working memory, inhibitory control, vocabulary, cognitive flexibility, personality, predictability. Introduction Idioms still represent a challenge to theories of language processing after more than 40 years from the first psycholinguistic study on idiom comprehension Bobrow and Bell, Models of idiom processing Decades ago, Bobrow and Bell proposed that idioms are semantically empty long words accessed as such from the mental lexicon Bobrow and Bell, ; Swinney and Cutler, ; Gibbs, The role of individual differences in figurative language processing As recently pointed out by Kidd et al.
Rationale of the study The main goal of this study was to explore the different contributions of cognitive and personality components to moment-by-moment spoken idiom comprehension when supported by contextual information. Materials Norming phase for the cross-modal lexical decision experiment Idiom familiarity and knowledge of the idiomatic meaning. Table 1 Mean values, standard deviations in parentheses , and statistics of the norming of the psycholinguistic variables of predictable and unpredictable idioms.
Predictable idioms Unpredictable idioms Statistics Idiom recognition Open in a separate window. Table 3 Examples of experimental materials in Italian and with word-by-word English translations in parentheses. The customer listened to the seller's offer and decided to take it on the fly. When Luisa realized that she had lost the old ring, she torned her hair.
Lucia did the competition at her university because she knew she was playing at home. Sara was telling a story to her granddaughter but realized she had lost the thread. Table 2 Mean values, standard deviations in parentheses , and statistics of the norming of the psycholinguistic variables of Idiomatic and Control targets. Idiomatic targets Control targets Statistics Number of characters 8. Testing of individual differences The cognitive and personality components tested in this study were assessed with the following tasks: General speed : Simple Reaction Time task.
Procedure In the cross-modal lexical decision experiment, participants were tested individually in a sound-attenuated room. Data analysis We conducted analyses of variance ANOVAs on the average reaction times of correct responses for condition to the cross-modal lexical decision experiment considering both participants and items as random factors.
Table 4 Pearson two-tailed bivariate correlations for the variables with statistically significant correlations with the measures of idiom processing. Extraversion 1 0. Agreeableness 1 0. Table 5 Descriptive statistics for the individual difference measures entered in the stepwise regression analysis.
Figure 1. WM and inhibitory control Significant correlations only concerned the Listening Span test. Stepwise regression analyses In the hierarchical regression analyses, significant effects were observed for the response times to idiomatic targets of predictable idioms. General discussion In line with prior evidence and with our predictions, when ambiguous idioms were embedded in idiom-biasing contexts the idiomatic meaning was equally available for predictable and unpredictable idioms.
Conclusions Individual differences in WM capacity, inhibitory control, crystallized verbal intelligence, State Anxiety, and Openness to Experience indeed seem to be associated with the contextually-driven comprehension of an important part of multi-word expressions, namely idioms. Author contributions CC initially conceived the idea for the study which was then further developed and finalized by CC and PC. Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Ficcare il naso La cameriera ha visto l'agenda aperta sul tavolo e ci ha ficcato il naso. Aprire gli occhi Anna si era innamorata dell'uomo sbagliato, ma ora finalmente ha aperto gli occhi. Prendere al volo Il cliente ha ascoltato l'offerta del venditore e ha deciso di prenderla al volo. Stringere i denti Per arrivare alla fine della lunga maratona il podista ha dovuto stringere i denti. Tapparsi le orecchie Il medico diceva sempre a Luca di smettere di fumare ma lui si tappava le orecchie. Vuotare il sacco Dopo avere a lungo negato le accuse, alla fine il ragazzo ha vuotato il sacco.
Brancolare nel buio La polizia stava indagando sull'omicidio da mesi, ma continuava a brancolare nel buio. Voltare le spalle Il padre sapeva che il figlio era in crisi, ma ugualmente gli ha voltato le spalle. Perdere il filo Sara stava raccontano una favola alla nipotina ma si accorse di aver perso il filo. Rompere il ghiaccio Fabio voleva uscire con la nuova studentessa francese e ha cercato di rompere il ghiaccio. Scendere in campo Dopo i gravi episodi di razzismo molte associazioni per i diritti umani sono scese in campo.
Tagliare la corda Il rapinatore non fece in tempo a scassinare la cassaforte e dovette tagliare la corda. Prendere di petto Matteo aveva un serio problema di salute e senza aspettare l'ha preso di petto. Toccare il fondo Andrea ha perso tutti i soldi al gioco d'azzardo ed ora ha veramente toccato il fondo. Alzare il gomito Ieri sera gli amici sono andati in osteria e qualcuno di loro ha alzato il gomito. Fare i conti La mamma era molto arrabbiata col figlio e gli ha detto che quella sera avrebbero fatto i conti. Chiudere un occhio La maestra si era accorta che Giulio aveva copiato dal compagno, ma ha chiuso un occhio.
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