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Distributives, or collectives, are those numbers which signify a numbered quantity ; as, a dozen, a score, a thousand, una dozzina, ana ventina, iin migliajo. These numbers are called cardinal, or principal, be- cause they mark a number without order. Cardinal numbers are generally adjectives of both genders ; but have no singular. Uno, as an adjective, makes una for the feminine, and has no plural, see page 54; but as a substantive, it makes wni and une in the plural. See Syntax of Numeral Nouns. Mille is of both genders, and makes mUa in the plural. Milione, which may be called rather a distributive or collective, than a cardinal, makes milioni in the plural ; and, as it is always a substantive, it governs the genitive ; so that we cannot say milione uomini, but un milione, or due milioni, d'uomini, a million or two millions of men.

Instead of due cento and due mila, we say dugento, dumila. In playing at cards or dice, the numbers from two to ten, as the first number in speaking of cards and dice is called assd , become substantives of the masculine gender, and have their plural 1 ; as — Un due, a two ; tre dm, three twos ; un quattro, a four ; tre quattri, three fours ; un cinque, a five ; quattro cinqui, four fives ; un otto, an eight ; due otti, two eights ; un nove, a nine ; due novi, two nines.

Except tre, sei, and died, which have no plural, be- cause tre is an accented word, and sei and died end in i 9 which words, as we have said in speaking of the sub- stantives, have no plural. We think it better to follow the rule of Buommattei. In counting the hours of the day, the cardinal num- bers, from one to twelve, take the definite article femi- nine.

Tuna ,. Ie sei one two three. Jive six o'clock Twelve o'clock, however, may be expressed by mez- zodi and mezzanotte. If they are in the dative, alia or alle is to be used ; and if in the ablative, dalla, or dalle. These numbers are called ordinal. Ordinal numbers, like adjectives, have both genders and numbers. As to the division of pronouns, grammarians are at variance. Some have classed them in one way, some in another, and some have called them by different names; but as names do not alter the signification of things, and as, in teaching, the easiest rules are the best, we, in order to render this treatise on pronouns clearer, have, in a few instances, deviated from our predecessors.

We say, therefore, that there are six sorts of pro- nouns. Personal pronouns are so called, because they mark persons; and they admit of genders, numbers, and cases. First person Io I noi we Second tu thou voi. The persons speaking and spoken to, or rather the first and second persons, both of the singular and plural, are of both genders ; but the persons or things spoken of, or rather the third persons, are marked by a distinc- tion of gender : so that egli, he, marks the masculine gender, and ella, she, the feminine, in the singular ; eglino marks the masculine, and elleno the feminine, in the plural.

Declension of Personal Pronouns. From the personal pronouns are derived — the disjunctive i disgiuntivi, or i separativi the conjunctive i congiuntivi, or gli affissi the relative i relativi, or gli affissi As these pronouns are derivations, they are also called derivatives, derivativi. First person singular. I Io l Gen. They have indeed said something about it ; but they have applied it to things only ; such as, of it or of them, from it or from them, and not to persons, as above. The examples which we have given in the syntax of personal pronouns, will justify us for this bold insertion, as some have been pleased to term it, in order to appear critics.

EEL, Acc. Observations on the Personal Pronouns in their first state. Ella, she, and elle, its plural, as an abbreviation of ellenO have often been used by poets in the oblique cases for lei and loro ; but it is a poetical licence, and not to be imitated. Io vidi Francesco, egli era afHitto. I saw Francis , he was sorrowful. Ho comprato un cavallo, egli e forte. Ho una gatta, ella e piccolissima. Ecco un bel Cupido, egli e ben dipinto. There is a fine Cupid, he is well painted. Ecco Diana, ella e la dea de' boschi. There is Diana, she is the goddess of the woods.

Observations on Disjunctive Pronouns. These pronouns are so called, because they are never joined to the verb, whether they are put before or after it. A lui, to him, a lei, to her, a loro, to them, have often been used without a ; as — Io dissi lui I told kim egli diede lei he gave her noi parliamo loro we speak to them 3. Observations on Conjunctive and Relative Pronouns. The pronouns conjunctive are so called, because they may be joined to a verb when put after it, and make one word with it ; as — ella amavami she loved me egli parlavati he spoke to thee per vederci in order to see us 2.

The pronouns relative are so called, because they refer to some persons or things spoken of before ; as — Pietro e venuto ed io non Pho visto. Peter is come and I have not seen him. Gioanna e bella, eppure egli non Tama. These pronouns may also be called conjunctive, because they may, like conjunctive pronouns, be joined to the verb, when they are put after it, and make one word with it.

Mi, ti, vi, si, ne, may or rnay not drop their last letter, and take an apostrophe, before a verb beginning with any vowel but i ; for in that case the i must always be dropped. But we think it is better to spell it whole, thus, ci evita. II, and lo. II is put before verbs beginning with any consonant but s followed by another consonant ; as — io il conosco I know him ella il diceVa she said it or so eglino il credono they believe it Lo is put before verbs beginning with any consonant or vowel, as we said above.

Li, and gli. Li is put before verbs beginning with a consonant only. Possessive pronouns are either copulative, copulativi ; or absolute, assoluti. They are called copulative, when, like adjectives, they agree with the substantives with which they are accom- panied, in gender and number. These pronouns are declined with the definite article ; il and la, for the singular; and i and le, for the plural. These pronouns are to agree with the object or thing possessed, not with the possessor, as in English ; so that, in translating her husband, his wife, you are to say, il suo marito, la sua moglie, and not la sua marito, il suo rnoglie.

Suo, sua, suoi, sue, are changed into di lui and di lei, when they cause ambiguity : as, for example, if one were to speak of a brother and a sister, and say, his Jwuse is elegant, and her garden is full of flowers, his and her should not be translated suo, sua, but di lui and di lei, thus : — la di lui casa e elegante, e il di lei giardino e pieno di fiori. I di lui libri, his books ; le di lei case, her houses. Loro, as it is seen, has no variation, being of both genders and numbers. Demonstrative pronouns are those which precisely point out the subjects to which they relate; as- — questo signore this gentleman quella dama..

These pronouns are of three sorts in Italian. The first comprehends those which point out per- sons or things near the person who speaks; as the following. The second sort comprehends those which point out persons or things near the person addressed ; as the following. The third sort comprehends those which point out- persons or things distant from the speaker and the per- son addressed ; viz. All these pronouns are declined with the indefinite article, di, a 9 da ; as — MAS.

The plurals of the adjective pronouns may be subjected to the same rules as the singular, without com- mitting a fault ; but we advise the student not to drop their last vowel, unless that vowel is the same as that with which the substantive begins ; as — questi onori these honours quest' ignorant! QucIIo is put entire before words beginning with s followed by a consonant, and is changed into quegli for the plural ; as — quelio SCOgllO that rock quegli scogli those rocks 5. Qucllo loses its last vowel at pleasure, and takes an apostrophe in the place of it, before words beginning with any vowel but o.

In that case, qucllo is to drop its o without exception ; and in the plural it makes quegli, which, is not to drop the vowel, unless the substantive begins with an i. Relative pronouns are such as relate to some word or phrase spoken of before, which is called the antecedent. In Italian these pronouns are two, che 9 and quale ; to which may be added, cui 9 chi 1. Che, referring to persons or things, is declined with the indefinite article, di, a 9 da.

Che, referring to a whole phrase spoken of before, is declined with the definite article il, and is always of the masculine gender. Egli e partito da Londra, il che me displace molto, he left London, which I am very sorry for. Quale is declined with the definite article, il, for the masculine, and la, for the feminine ; and makes quali in the plural, for both genders.

However, we have inserted them for the sake of facility. Singular, Masculine, and Feminine. Che may drop the last letter, and take an apos- trophe, before any vowel. Che io, or, cK io amw, which I love ; che aveva, or, cK aveva, which he had. Section V. These pronouns are called interrogative, because they serve to ask questions. They are, chi, che, and quale, and are declined with the indefinite article, di, a, da, as follows : — Nom. Che 1 may or may not lose its last vowel before a word beginning with a vowel, and take an apostrophe ; as — Che, or ch'uomo e colui?

Che, or ch'e questo? Che han fatto? The student, however, will do better to make use of che entire, before a vowel or a consonant. Quale may or may not lose its last vowel in the sin- gular, and take an apostrophe at pleasure, before words beginning with a vowel : before words beginning with a consonant, it takes no apostrophe ; as — Qual'e la casa?

Di qual onor parlate? A qual casa appartiene? See the first examples of quale, underneath. Chi is used in speaking of persons of both genders and numbers ; as — B. Disse Beltramo : e chi e la damigella? Bel- tram said : and who is the young lady? The ladies who were awake hearing the noise, said, who is there?

Che is used in speaking of persons and things, and is of both genders and numbers. Or che avesti, chefai cotal viso f Now, what is the matter with you— why do you make such faces? Quale is used in speaking of persons and things, is of both genders, and makes quail in the plural. Qual amore, qual ricchezza, qual par entado avrebbe i sospiri di Tito con tarda efficaciafatti a Gisippo nel cuor sentire, se non costei? What love, wealth, or affinity, could have wrought so effectually upon the heart of Gisippus, as to make him feel the pangs of Titus, but this friendship?

Quali stati, quai meriti avrebbon fatto Gi- sippo non curdr di perdere i suoi parenti per soddisfdre air amico, se non costei? What greatness, what merits, could make Gisippus heedless of disobliging all his rela- tions to satisfy his friend, but this friendship? Section VI. These pronouns are also called indefinite, and indeter- minate, because they express their subjects in an indefinite or general manner. Some grammarians have divided these pronouns into different classes ; but as we think that such a division would only tend to puzzle the student without much benefit, we shall put them down alphabetically, and speak of them in the same order.

Some of these pronouns have no plural, others have no singular, and others have both singular and plural, as we shall presently see. Some of these pronouns are also adverbs, and as such, we shall speak of them in their respective places. The following pronouns, taken as adjectives, have genders and numbers. These pronouns are declined with the indefinite article, di, a, da.

Altro, however, taken in a determined sense, has the definite article; as, gli altri uomini, le altre donne, the other men, the other women. All these pronouns may, in the singular, lose their last vowel, and take an apostrophe, before words beginning with a vowel. Alcuno, however, may lose its last vowel before words beginning either with a vowel or a con- sonant, but not in the feminine. The following pronouns are indeclinable, admit of both genders, have no plural, and are declined with di, a 9 da.

The following pronouns have no singular. Altri is of both genders, and of both numbers, and is declined thus : — Nom. A verb, verbo, is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to suffer ; as, Io sono, I am ; Io amo, I love ; Io soiw amatol I am beloved. Verbs in Italian are of two kinds, personal and imper- sonal. The personal is that which has three different persons, and is divided into — active attivo passive passivo neuter neutro reflective reflettivo reciprocal reciproco A verb active expresses an action, and necessarily implies an agent, and an object acted upon ; as, to love, amare ; I love God, Io amo Dio.

A verb passive expresses a passion or a suffering, or the receiving of an action, and necessarily implies an object acted upon, and an agent by which it is acted upon ; as, to be loved, essere amato ; Peter is loved by Anna, Pietro e amato da Anna. A verb reflective expresses an action in which the agent acts, and is acted upon by himself. I love myself, io mi amo ; he knows himself, egli si conosce. A verb impersonal is that which has not all the per- sons required to conjugate a verb. They are of three sorts — 1. Those of the first are called impersondli rigorosi, impersonal absolute ; as, tuona, it thunders ; balena, it lightens.

The third sort contains impersonals formed by verbs personal used in the third person with si before it ; as, si dice, it is said ; si fa, it is done. In a verb, therefore, are to be con- sidered — numbers numeri persons persone moods modi tenses. Verbs have two numbers, the singular and the plural: as, I speak, io parlo; we speak, noi parliamo.

Mood, or mode, is a particular form of the verb, shewing the manner in which the being, action, or pas- sion, is represented. There are, in Italian, four moods of verbs. Pinfinito the infinitive II. We begin to reckon the moods by the infinitive, because all the other moods are derived from the infinitive. The infinitive mood expresses a thing in a general and unlimited manner, without any distinction of number or person ; as, amare, to love ; andare, to go ; perdere, to lose.

The indicative mood simply indicates or declares a thing, or asks a question ; as, egli ama, he loves ; egli e andato, he is gone ; or, ama egli?

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Egli gode di per- fetta salute, benclie paja ammaldto, he enjoys perfect health, though he seems sickly. Paja is the subjunctive governed by benclie, a conjunction. Io non credo sia partito, I do not think he is gone away. Sia is the subjunctive governed by the verb credo, and the con- junction che which is understood, thus, io non credo che siapartito. The imperative mood is used for commanding, ex- horting, entreating, or permitting ; as, vditene, begone ; Jute attenzione ai vostri affdri, mind your business ; pre- ghiumo Iddio, let us pray to God ; anddte in pace, go in peace.

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Though this last mood derives its name from its inti- mation of command, it is used on occasions of a very opposite nature, even in the humblest supplications of an inferior being, to one who is infinitely superior ; as, ddcci oggi il nostro pane quotididno, e rimetti a noi i nostri debiti, give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses.

Some grammarians have reckoned five moods instead of four, but we have been satisfied to exhibit such only as are obviously distinct, and necessary to answer our purposes. Tense, tempo, being the distinction of time, admits of present, presente ; past, passdto ; future, futuro. The present tense represents an action or event, as passing at the time in which it is mentioned. The past tense represents an action or event, as elapsed at the time when it is mentioned. The future expresses an action or event as yet to come, either with or without respect to the precise time. As every mood is susceptible of tenses, we shall speak of each of them separately.

The infinitive has three tenses in Italian, the present, the past, and the future, as we observed before ; but without any precise determination of time. The present is simply amdre, to love; vedere, to see.

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The past is formed by the infinitive, avere, and the participle of any verb; as, av'ere amdto, to have loved ; avere creduto, to have believed. The indicative has likewise three tenses, present, past, and future. The present tense is — io amo I love tu leggi This tense is used in speaking of an action or event, as passing at the time in which it is mentioned. Io conosco qudnto possono leforze d 'amore, I know how powerful love is.

I vostri rammarichii piu dafuria, che da ragione incitdti The present tense is likewise used in speaking of actions continued, with occasional intermissions, to the present time. Ed avviene, che ogni Verier dX in su quest'' or a, io la giiingo qui, e qui ne fo lo strdzio che vedrdi ; and it happens, that every Friday about this time I overtake her here, and torment her, as you will see. Giungo and fo are the actions taking place with the intermission of a week ; that is, from one Friday to another.

This tense is substituted for the past in animated narrations. Esce veloce da quella tomba, corre al paldgio ; riort e piu incerto il suo passo, non e piu dubbia la via, non e piil oscura la notte ; he went quickly out of that tomb, ran to his palace; his steps were no longer uncertain, the way was no longer doubtful, night was no longer dark.

Esce, corre, and e, are all in the present tense, instead of the past, usci, corse, era. The present tense is used in speaking of a future action, as in the following cases : — B. This tense in Italian represents the action or event, as remaining unfinished at a certain time past. Io lavorava un loro giardino, bello e grdnde, e oltre a questo, andava alcuna volta al bosco per le legne, attigneva aequo,, e faceva cotdli altri servigetti ; ma le donne mi davano si poco, che io non ne poteva appena pagare i calzdri; I had the care of a large garden ; and, besides that, I used sometimes to go to the forest for wood, I drew water, and did other services for them ; but my wages were so small, that they would scarcely find my shoes.

La moglie, die Isabella avea nome, his wife, who was called Isabella. Era questo giardino vdgo molto, this garden was very pleasant. La moglie era una giovane di pelo rosso, his wife was carroty. Una vecchia die pareva sdnta Verididna che da beccdre alle serpi, an old woman who appeared St. Veridiana, feeding serpents. II quale assdi giovane, e bello della persona era, who was a very young and handsome man. Aveva, era, pareva, first imperfect, not ebbe, fu, parve ; for in the latter case it would mean an action which took place only once.

This tense is used in speaking of actions inter- rupted. Mentre stavan cendndo, venne il marito, while they were at supper, her husband came. Egli mcontrb la Catella die veniva, he met with Catella, who was coming. Stavan and veniva are actions interrupted. II preterito indeterminate, the second imperfect tense, is — io amai I loved tu dicesti thou saidst egli parlo he spoke noi andammo we went voi scriveste you wrote eglino finirono they finished 1. This tense represents an action or event past and finished a long time since, though the precise time is not denoted by the verb itself ; or, otherwise, it represents an action or event happening only once, without leaving any traces of it behind, when the verb is accompanied with an adverb of time past.

E dietro a lei vide venire un cavalier bruno, and he saw a knight dressed in black following her. Ma il cavaliere che questo vide, gli grido di lontano, but the knight who saw it, cried from afar to him.

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Uno di la Badessa il vide, one day the Abbess saw him. Ilpreterito determinato 9 the perfect tense, is — io ho avuto I have had tu sei stato thou hast been egli e amato he is loved noi abbiamo veduto we have seen voi avete scritto you have written eglino hanno parlato they have spoken 1. This tense refers to what has taken place a little while before. Che ti pare? Hottf io bene la promessa ser- vata? Messer 9 no : voi m 1 avete fatto parldr con una stdtua di mdrmo. What do you think of it?

Have I not kept my promise? No, Sir ; you have made me speak to a marble statue. Ed or volesse iddio che io fatto Vavessi 9 perciib che voi avete comperato, ed io non V ho venduto ; and now, would to heaven that I had done so ; because you have obtained it by purchase, without my selling it to you. Hotf io servata, voi vri avetefatto, avete comperato, ho venduto, show the actions thai have taken place but a little while before, as the promise was made just before. This tense denotes a thingvthat is past in such a manner that there is still actually remaining some part of the time to slide away, wherein we declare that the thing has been done ; and it is generally accompanied with an adverb of time.

Io 9 misera me, gia sdno otto anni, f ho piii die la mia vita amato. In the first example, ho amato, e convenuto, show that the actions are passed ; but a part of the time still remains, that is, she still loves him, and is still afraid. Likewise, ho amato, in the second example, shows that the eight years are not yet elapsed. Per tre secoli intieri non c'emai stato alcun cangiamento nelle leggi. For three whole centuries no alteration has taken place in the laws, L'ho veduto due volte quest' anno, i" saw him twice this year.

Non sono stato all' opera questa settimana. With regard to questa mattina, this morning, it is to be observed, that if the morning is already elapsed, we use the second imperfect with questa mattina ; but if the morning is not elapsed when we speak, the perfect tense is used. II trapassato imperfetto, the first pluperfect tense, is — io aveva avuto I had had tu eri amato thou wast loved egli aveva veduto he had seen noi avevamo dato.. This tense represents an action, not only as past, but also, as done prior to another action which is about to begin.

Qudndo i monaci che detto avevan mattutino, corsono cola, e conobbero la voce di Ferondo ; the monks who had just ended their morning service ran thither, and recognised the voice of Ferondo. Era Ferondo tutto pdllido, come colui, che tanto tempo era stato senza vedere il cielo ; Ferondo was quite pale, as he had been so long confined, without see- ing day-light. In these examples, avevan detto shows an action done before corsono ; and era stato, before he came out of the tomb. This tense, however, is subject to the same rules as the first imperfect, always observing the rule as above, namely, of using it in speaking of an action done just before another action is to begin.

II trapassato perfetto, the second pluperfect tense, is — io ebbi avuto I had had tu fosti amato thou wast loved egli ebbe veduto he had seen noi avemmo dato.. Or a in cost fdtti ragionamenti e in simili Ma poiche la gente alqudnto si fu rassicurata con lui, domanddndolo di indite, cose, Ando nella camera alia donna, e quando detto 1'ebhe come agevolmente poteva il palqfreno guadagndre, le impose ; he went to his wife's room, and when he had told her how easily he could get the horse? The future represents an action or event as yet to come, and is expressed two ways in Italian, as well as in English, viz.

This tense is used to express future actions. E come, disse la donna, vi pot? Disse I abate ; eg li convien ch 7 e' 1 muoja, e cost Sandra ; And what! He must die, answered the abbot, and thus he shall go thither. This tense is made use of, instead of the present, in doubtful actions.

Che le avete fdtto che piange? Dunqne piangera, Pallegrezza Bonfil. No 9 pidnge per verecondia. What have you done to make her cry? Jn these two examples, parra and piangera are two actions, shewing doubt in the speaker. In like manner, if any one knocks at the door of a room, those who are within say to each other : Chi mai sard? Who can it be?


Or, if any one goes out, he who remains at home, says : Dove sard anddto colui? Where can he be gone? Ilfuturo perfetto, the second future, is — avro avuto I shall have had sarai stato thou wilt have been avra amato he will have loved avremo detto we shall have said avrete fatto you will have done avranno scritto they will have written 1. This tense intimates that the action will be fully accomplished at or before the time of another future action or event.

Fdtevi dire qudndo, e dove io gli tdgliai la borsa, ed io vi diro quello eke io avro fatto ; order them to say when and where I robbed them, and I will tell you what I have done. Avro detto che ho da anddre per una lettera che trdtta di mio zio. He told me he was to go to Venice on account of a letter sent to him by his uncle ; and now he says his uncle is on his death- bed.

Perhaps I have said that I am to go for a letter which concerns my uncle, Avrd detto for ho detto. In like manner, if we are told that such a person is come where we are, without knowing the cause of his coming, we say, perche rnai sara venuto? Wherefore is he come? Or, if any one were to ask another to guess where he has been, the answer is, Jbrse sarai andato alV Opera- perhaps you have been to the Opera ; sarai, for sei.

The indicative, then, has eight tenses, namely — I. As to the English names, we have made use of those in Murray's Grammar ; and with respect to il preterito determinato, and trapassato perfetto, which the English language comprehends under the name of imperfect and pluperfect, the second imperfect, and second pluperfect, have been substituted. Of the Subjunctive. The tenses of this mood express, as the indicative, the present, the past, and the future. This tense represents a present and future action, only by the sense of the sentence. Mi place die voi mi marinate— I am glad you wll get a husband for me.

Tutta fidta, non voglio che tu creda, che io nelV dnima stdta sia quello che nel viso mi sono dimos- trdta ; yet, do not imagine that I was as hard hearted as I seemed to be. Creda here may be considered as the present tense, because it represents an action going to take place directly. The imperfect likewise represents either a future action, or a past one. Volesse represents a future action, as yet to come. Avesse here denotes a past action, as the gentleman had a good opinion of his lady.

The past tense denotes only a past action, and has no need of examples. This mood has also two tenses, simple and compound, which Buommattei calls passato and trapassdto indeterminate ; but as this name is the same as the pluperfect of the indicative, we will call them condiziondle semplice and composto. See the conjugation of avere, page With respect to the use of the sub- junctive, see the Syntax.

The imperative has only two tenses ; namely — The present and the future, which have no first person singular. The present is — abbi tu The present tense is used for commanding, exhort- ing, or entreating. The mistress com- mands her maid. A lady exhorts a man not to be afraid. A lady begs her lover to go away. The future is the same as that of the indicative, and is likewise used for commanding, exhorting, and praying, to do an action, not in the present tense, and quickly, but some time after. Tu prenderai un huon bastone e andratene al giardino In the above examples, a command, exhortation, or entreaty, is evidently implied.

Modern grammarians have not made mention of the future of the imperative ; but in this case we follow the example of Buommattei, as we are persuaded that it is quite necessary that the learner should be made ac- quainted with it. Remarks on the Tenses. In treating of the tenses, there are two things to which attention ought principally to be directed, the relation which the several tenses have to one another in OF THE TENSES, respect of time, and the notice which they give of an action's being completed, or not completed.

The present tense and the first imperfect, both of the indicative and the subjunctive, as well as the first future, may be used either definitely or indefinitely, both with respect to time and action. When they denote customs or habits, and not indi- vidual acts, they are applied indefinitely ; as — La religione e la base ffogni virtu — religion is the basis of all virtues. Gli antichi Romani avevano un gran numero d? Pur die sia buono — pro- vided it is good. In these examples, e, avevano, jhro, sia, andasse, are used indefinitely, both with regard to action and time ; for they are not confined to individual actions, nor to any precise points of present, past, or future time.

When they are applied to signify particular actions, and to ascertain the precise points of time to which they are confined, they are used definitely, and are formed by the simple tenses of stare, not of essere, and the active participles of the verb in question ; as in the fol- lowing instances : — Io sto scrivendo una letter a — I am writing a letter. Credo ctiegli stia scrivendo — I think he is writing. Temevo che egli non istesse scrivendo qualche lettera — I was afraid he was writing some letter.

Se staro dormendo, non mi svegliate — if I am sleeping, do not awake me. In these examples, sto, stavi, stia, istesse, staro, are the simple tenses of the verb stare, which in English signifies to be. These tenses mark the time ; and the gerund or active participle, with which they are accom- panied, denotes the action. The other tenses of stare are not often used in this acceptation, and even the first future, of which we have given an example, has seldom been employed by good writers.

The conjugation, la congiugazione, of a verb, is the regular combination and arrangement of its several num- bers, persons, moods, and tenses. Before we begin to conjugate these verbs, it is neces- sary to state that Italian grammarians have generally conjugated essere, to be, before avere, to have; but the latter being in English used as an auxiliary to the former, and, besides, as we are to speak of active before we speak of passive verbs, we have thought proper to conjugate first avere, and then essere.

With respect to the tenses, we place the single ones before the compound ; and this change we think will render it easier for the student to conjugate them. Conjugation of Avere, to have. Infinitive present. These participles, however, will be declinable on certain occasions. See Participles. Present Tense.

I have to ho l thou hast tu hai he has egli ha she has I had io aveva 2 thou hadst tu aveVi he had egli aveva Plur. I had io e'bbi thouhddst tu avesti he had egli ebbe Plur. If, however, io is not dropped, aveva must be used. The same may be said of the first person of the imperfect of all verbs in general. The first and third person singular, and the third plural, of this tense, may lose their last v ; thus, io avea, egli avea, eglino aveano : however, if the first person singular is made to end in o, the syncopation cannot take place.

Not to be imitated. First Future Tense. I shall have io avrd i thou wilt have tu avrai he will have egli avra Plur. Sing, I have had io ho avuto thou hast had.. I had had I had had ; I shall have had io avro avuto thou wilt have had tu avrai avuto he will have had egli avra avuto Plur. The first and third persons singular of the future must always have an accent on their last vowel.

I may have. I might have Neither way is to be imitated 5 Avrebbe may also be changed into avria, and avrebbero into avr'ebbono, avnano, and avrieno ; all of which maybe used without impropriety. No first person have thou.. No first person thou shalt have.. To conjugate a verb interrogatively, is to put the pronoun personal after it, as they do in English ; but sometimes the pronouns are dropped, and the interroga- tion is only distinguished by the inflexion of the voice, to learn which, the assistance of a master is required.

The English particle not is rendered by non ; which being accompanied with the verb, is to be put between the pronoun personal and the verb, in Italian. Non avere. I have it not There are more negatives, such as nothing, none, no- body ; which being united to the verb, are resolved by non niente, non alcuno, non nessuno.

I have nothing non ho niente thou hast none non ne hai alcuno he has nobody non ha nessuno Avere, joined with several substantives, forms dif- ferent modes of speaking ; as, avere freddo, to be cold; avere caldo, to be warm; all of which may be found with analogous examples in our Dictionary of Peculiarities. Conjugation of Essere, to be. Infinitive present See the Participle. I was b io era thou wast i I was I shall be io sard thou wilt be tu sarai he will be egli sara Plur.

Not to be imitated 4 Fosti and foste have often been spelt fasti and f teste. Sing I had been I had been l I shall have been io sar6 stato thou wilt have been tu sarai stato he will have been.. Io era stato h I had been, and not io aveva stato ; and so on of all other tenses. Here are some examples, out of the hundreds which we could set down, to confute his assertions. L abate poi alqudnto fu stato — when the abbot had been some time.

La quale, poiche pikna di lagrime ed amaritudine fu stata alquanto — who, after having wept, and been some time afflicted. Sing I may be io sia thou may st be. I might be io fossi 3 thou mightest be tu fossi he might be egli fosse Plur. I should be io sarei 4 thou shouldst be tu saresti he should be egli sarebbe 5 Plur. Both good. All good. No first person be thou sii tu l let him be sia egli Plur. No first person thou shalt be sarai tu 3 he shall be sara egli Plur. Imperfect Tense.

It is to be observed, that ci may drop the i and take an apostrophe before a word beginning with any vowel but a and o ; but vi may lose the i before any vowel, without exception. Qudnte rniglia ci ha? Maso rispose, hdccene piil di milldnta ; how many miles are there? Maso an- swered, there is an infinite number.