Shrines at such sites were the focal point for the local community, the place where healings of individuals were sought and prayers for the well-being of an entire community were offered cf 4. Even though the surrounding context is dissimilar the key phrase directly recalls the transformational qualities of angels given in the Christian bible Psalm LXX and Hebrews Alternately the vernacular version might have applied the sea-crossing story to the first attack on the site, previously mentioned, where Michael causes the torrent of waters to mount up like a wall — the very intertextual connection that Sisinnius made in his retelling.
These utilizations of Scripture from allusion to reference to quotation are not designed, it would appear, to present clarifying typological parallels. Rather, they add a scriptural polish to the popular text, a sheen that reflects the light of orthodoxy, even as it blinds the inquisitorial reader to the presence of pagan elements.
The second device used in the story is a strident affirmation of the ineffable otherness of the Triune God, a lengthy declaration that stalls the narrative flow of the story and thereby focuses attention on it. Michael confesses himself as terrified in the presence of God as Archippos is before the archistrategos. Michael of Chonai and the Tenacity of Paganism God in terms that far surpass what have been used of Michael This archangelic deference to the ultimate divinity indicates that whatever of the pagan gods remains, is now standing subsumed to the form of Michael in the service of the Triune God.
The ultimate act of humiliation of this Zeus-hued taxiarch is then to call himself a slave Here paganism is carved sharply with a horrendously ugly and threatening feminine face in the opening two chapters. Most commentators see these chapters as an odd prelude to the story, borrowed from the Acts of Philip to provide little more than an apostolic contextual authorization for the sacred healing spring.
But no male gods are named or destroyed. Male-framed paganism is absorbed by a named male defender of the necessarily masculine Trinity. The surviving female voice of the story is that of the mute girl brought by a pagan from Laodiceia. When her tongue is released, it is to acclaim that God is truly of the Christians the one named as Father, Son and Holy Spirit by her father and that the power of Michael his archistrategos is indeed great 4.
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Conversely, when the enemies of the shrine — and its custodian and the God whom he serves — are defeated at the end of the story, along with their destructive plans chapter 12 , they are conquered as followers of gods note 9. Here is the dark quaternity that weakly mirrors the quaternity of light. Medusa was closely allied with one of those named at the beginning — Echidna. Prior to this finale however, the full array of masculine pagan characteristics has been able to be harnessed. A subterfuge has occurred, one that allows the male divinities of the pagan Greek world to remain in the story now enhancing the portrait and actions of the archangel Michael.
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The means by which this has been achieved and the masking that it has occurred at all is precisely because the goddesses have been sacrificed. Christian lust for the defeat of paganism has been satisfied by the expulsion of the female deities. Christian determination to survive has pragmatically assimilated the male deities. The story, in the core of its development, provided a large body of devotees with a narrative rebuff to efforts to curtail the cult of the archangel Michael Choniates, directed against the encroachments of the powerful metropolitan church of Laodiceia.
The cult itself stretches back into pagan times but survives with a powerful following because a negotiated settlement with paganism has been reached. Sufficient lines of cultural continuity are retained to ensure that the site could still be patronised, even with the adoption of a development in religious expression.
Zeus and probably other male gods are thereby deftly able to survive, albeit through their key characteristics being subsumed under the name of Michael, taxiarch and archistrategos. Dessain and T. In his Dem.
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Fox, Pagans and Christians Harmondsworth: Penguin, , Bonnet included two of the three Greek versions of the story, the popular anonymous narrative and the refined offering of Simeon Metaphrastes. Michael of Chonai and the Tenacity of Paganism edition is that of J. Stiltingo, C. Suyskeno, J. Periero, J. Bouvier and F. Warren, A. Brock and D. My English translation of the popular version of the story appears in A. Cadwallader and M. The translations of texts in this essay are my own unless otherwise stated. Stenderhoff, , ; C. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 56 : ; M.
Dumbarton Oaks Papers 56 : Byzantion 75 : The Choniates brothers were born in the mid-twelfth century. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23 : Zograf 20 : ; C. Abel and A. Ekklesia kai Theologia 1 : , G. Michael of Chonai and the Tenacity of Paganism xx 3. See F. It should be noted that Archippos, the one most qualified to fulfil the witness to Christian verities in the countryside, only comes to his role of custodian of the shrine chapter 4 and following after the healing site has been established for some time.
Belke and N. Theodoret, Comm. PG Bovon, A. Brock and C. The distinction arose early in the Byzantine period: see J. Athanassiadi and M. Paris: Boccard, , Aune and R. He is correct however in drawing attention to the repetitious use of w v and its cognates eg 4. Not all of these pick up biblical allusions however and even those that do may be the requisite compensation for the retention of pagan features in the same episode.
See further below. Cook sees a direct reminiscence of this in the Michael Choniates story. Dunn, D. Luckensmeyer and L. Similar motifs and setting of the apostolic battle with the evil forces of goddesses are also found in the story of the icon of Maria Romaia: see E.
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The Egyptians are held in temporary abeyance and whilst it might be argued that the writer is presenting an a fortiori argument, nevertheless the story has already been coloured by the associations with the goddesses in the opening chapter. Medusa was frequently blended with Echidna Nonnus, Dionysiaca See Y.
Works Cited von Aulock, H. Belke, K. Phrygien und Pisidien. Bonnet, M. Paris: Librairie Hachette, Bouvier, B and F. Pao eds. Cadwallader, A. Cross eds. Strathfield: St Pauls Publications, , Trainor eds. Vigouroux ed. Dictionnaire de la Bible. Cook, A. Zeus: a Study in Ancient Religion. The story goes that Saint Martin was competing with the devil in transporting enormous blocks of stone to the top of Mount Gouvry. The devil was on the verge of winning when a miracle occurred: The enormous Stone of Saint Martin was carried to its resting place on a cart hitched to two calves and led by Christ himself.
It happens that there is a large number of Saint Martin stones in France, where the saint is alleged to have left a marked trace of his passage.
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Saint Martin is said to have left a print of his knees in Dun-les-Places and that of his feet in Vauclais near Clamechy. Two other Saint Martin stones can be counted in Cuzy, and there are many others in a number of regions throughout France. The date of the mentioning of these sites confers on them a great value and compels their examination as tangible signs of an active myth. Even if all the Saint Martin stones were not recognized, the fact that two of them were is sufficient to accept the existence of a Martinian folklore during the early Middle Ages and to take into consideration this lore in a mythological study of the saint.
Throughout France and Europe, other saints and illustrious figures are supposed to have left similar imprints on stones, suggesting the survival of old mythic beliefs that, over the years, human imagination has applied to saints or heroes. In truth, the Saint Martin stones together constitute the popular version of a mythology the written traces of which are often slender and a matter for careful interpretation, but which exists as a major European mythology.
It is impossible for a contribution of this magnitude to disappear at the time of the Roman invasion or as a result of the conversion of peoples to Christianity. He lives in France. Weston and Sir James Frazier. He describes a rich complex of pagan, European traditions that inform Christian ritual. In doing so, he illuminates beliefs that underlie some of our most cherished stories and practices. I will recommend this book to my students.
In this ambitious scholarly treatise, professor of medieval French literature Walter marries the pagan and Christian calendars in great detail by examining ancient myths, saints, and celebrations. This volume makes a strong scholarly contribution to understanding the evolution of belief. Rather than destroy the pagan beliefs and temples, Pope Gregory the Great advised Saint Augustine of Canterbury to add the pagan rituals into the mix of Christian practices and transform the pagan temples into churches.
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Download PDF. Redeem Token. Full Text PDF. Allen , Barnham , T. Rocks of nation The imagination of Celtic Cornwall. Information Subjects: Literature and Theatre Keywords: detective fiction ; Celtic Britain ; Cornwall ; landscapes ; national territory ; nationhood ; geological folklore ; geological journals ; geological poetry ; ghost stories ; gothic fiction ; modernist novels ; native race ; New Age writing ; nineteenth century ; romance novels ; travel narratives Page Count: total Publisher: Manchester University Press.
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