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Fiance Wanted Fast! Finding Mr. Claire Silhouette Desire, September First Family of Texas, The by K. Ken Casper Harlequin Romance, November Fit to Be Frisked and Mr. For the Thrill of It! Forever by Judith Gould Onyx, August Fourth Child, The by C. Carmichael Harlequin Superromance, May Gideon's Baby by K. Ken Casper Harlequin Superromance, November Martin's, October Girl Boy Etc. Got a Man by Daaimah S. Poole Kensington Dafina, July Her Best Friend's Baby by C.

Carmichael Harlequin Superromance, January Her Brother's Keeper by K. Ken Casper Harlequin Superromance, May Harlequin Presents, February Highest Bidder, The by Roxanne St. Claire Silhouette Desire, October His Child or Hers? Holly by Jude Deveraux Atria, November Martin's Press, September Martin's Press, August I Do, I Do I Will Find You! I'm Your Girl by J. Murray Kensington, October If Wishes Were Impulsive by Catherine Hart Kensington, October Isn't It Rich? Isn't It Romantic? Jackson's Girls by K. Ken Casper Harlequin Superromance, June Martin's Press, November Just Hold on Tight!

Just Married Just One Spark Martin's Press, January Killer Curves by Roxanne St. Claire Downtown Press, February Killer Secrets by Lora Leigh St. Martin's Mass Paperbacks, March Kindness of Strangers. Kissing Adrien by Siri L. Mitchell Harvest House Publishers, July Lasting Proposal, A by C. Carmichael Harlequin Superromance, April Myers Silhouette, March Leaving Enchantment by C. Legacy by Shirley Hailstock Pinnacle, July Like a Hurricane by Roxanne St. Claire Silhouette Desire, March Like Father, Like Daughter?

Like Father, Like Son? Looking for Mr. Loving You by Maureen Child St. Martin's Press, June Major Comes to Texas, The by K. The more foreign and dense the translation appears, the harsher the critique. The text is predetermined by itself; it simply is, and its potential for translatability resides in its own structure. To understand more precisely how the local- ization of the Harlequin romance takes place, I also had to account for what happened in-between, thus adding the editor to the equation.

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However, the problems inherent in coming to grips with transediting are substantial and crucial to address in detail. Two things followed from my ambition. Because of the practicalities involved in category publishing, arranging this required some planning, and in January , it was clear that the books scheduled for June publication were a possibility.

It was time-consuming work. After the editor had gone through the manuscript and edited it on paper for my sake, since one of them normally does this on her computer , I com- pared her cuts and corrections, changes in language and in content, with my own notes. After that, I interviewed the editor responsible for each series as soon as possible. This was the only way to ensure that they would recollect anything of these particular books — simply because both of them would now be in the middle of six or four new ones and possibly also dealing with as many new translators.

Finally, I read the Swedish book. Problematically enough, translation studies presuppose bilinguality. Bearing this in mind, the actions outlined in the following pages fall into two clusters: on the one hand, there are changes, mistakes and choices that can be questioned but do not overturn the text in any fundamental way; on the other, there is also what looks like more sub- stantial and interesting deliberations on part of translator and editor, indicating either that they on some level understand each other or, conversely, that they are on a collision course.

The most conspicuous cases of substitution or exclusion are references judged too unfamiliar by the intended audience, and where a person, thing, or abstract reference is taken out, supposedly on the basis of its being unknown to the reader, but also since its exclusion does not wreak havoc on the overall impact of the text. Even though it might be an overstatement to credit all Anglo-American readers with such knowledge, the translators exclude this reference in all likelihood assuming that it would be even less the case in Sweden.

By mentioning the aging actor, Dawn Stewardson here presumably takes it for granted that readers will conjure up an internal image so strong, that no further explana- tion is necessary, something that will only serve its purpose if you know who George Burns is, which is not at all obvious in a Swedish context. In a scene from Mariah, the protagonists are working together as chaperones at a high-school dance. Or is it experience you speak from? Maintaining this passage while making it intelligible and humorous in Swedish would be virtually impossible. Avoiding complications, the two sentences mentioning the Fifth Amendment are simply lifted out and given no replacements.

Considering however that this is the only instance in the book where the name Trout causes any problems, the translator preserves the name untranslated, refraining from any Swedish equivalent to the joke. Puns depend on the reader being able to grasp the potential two meanings in the same word. Catriona makes a refer- ence to Lucas about her uncomfortable pillow in Duel in the Sun. Not even Florida Mariah, Without adaptation, this sentence would make absolutely no sense.

The whole joke is lost on someone unfamiliar with the geographical entity known as the Florida Keys. Keys translated into the Swedish tangent, could never be associated with anything else than something on a computer, typewriter, or piano, least of all a vacation to Florida. Han vill inte ens ta ut pengar i en bankomat Mariah, The word trailer [husvagn] in Mariah 74 causes translator, editor, and ultimately reader, some unnecessary headache. Another problem surfaces in Little Luke, Big Luke, where the heroine Caitlin drives and owns a minivan.

I now turn to those instances where it is obvious that the translator has made mistakes. A common denominator is that they share an element of carelessness, indicating that the work has progressed too quickly. Occasional lapses are one thing, but Mariah is a book where some remarkable mistakes occur. Ultimately, what the translators have Ford say is that horrible is not a word he feels accu- rately describes the tragedy they are talking about, and by settling for this particular Swedish word, the outcome of the conversation strikes a curiously odd note.

In the beginning of Mariah, the heroine returns to her hometown Calloway Corners — arriving too late for her fathers funeral. The previous sentences have made it clear that what she is referring to is the fact that her mother died giving birth to her, the youngest of four sisters. In Little Luke, Big Luke, another mistake illustrates just how easy it is to change a character by shifting emphasis in a sentence. The adult namesake, driving all the way from Florida to Arizona, has just met the baby and his mother.

Even in the most extreme of cases, where the meaning of a word is dis- cussed, even explained in the text itself, mistakes occur. In Passionate Captivity, April is being kept prisoner by the Greek shipowner Michalis Konstantine, all on the basis of a misunderstanding. His lips tiled in a wry smile. I am accustomed to the heat. He shrugged. After visiting her son at the hospital, Luke and Caitlin stop at a restaurant for dinner, delaying their arrival home. But these are only random examples, compared to a book that goes beyond minor instances of exclusion or substitution. As soon as she sets her feet on Egyptian soil, she unwittingly becomes the victim of a mix-up.

Again it was luxuriously furnished, although much too opulently for her English taste, with a large gold-painted bed, big wardrobes, and a dressing- table wide enough to accommodate a chorus line. Everything seemed to be on a large scale, as if big was beautiful Duel, 9. Catriona caught her breath; the room was the complete opposite to what she had expected. Again it was luxuriously furnished, although much too opulently for her English taste, with a large gold-painted bed, big wardrobes, and a[n enormous] dressing-table.

Everything seemed to be on a large scale, as if big was beautiful.

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He looked to be in his late thirties, had olive skin and rounded features with the small beard favored by Arabic men Duel, He looked to be in his late thirties, had olive skin and rounded features with the small beard favored by Arabic men. Although the whole mistake comes to light during their initial conversation, he does nothing to help her get to the excavation site, but instead tries to convince her to stay and work as a governess.

Omar is dark, arrogant, and wealthy, Lucas fair-haired, democratic, poor in money but rich in culture, and Catriona, well, she is having problems adjusting to a new culture. Finally settled in at the dig, she meets the rest of the team: two British archeologists and an Egyptian couple in charge of practical arrangements.

There is however, an infallible cure for this: Everyone was in a brighter mood tonight, after their trip to Luxor. Bryan and Mike had been to an ex-pats club they belonged to where they had swum, played billiards, and had a traditional English lunch of roast beef and Yorkshire pudding. It seemed to have done them good; they both looked relaxed and were quite talk- ative. Even Lamia and Mohammed chatted for ten minutes before Mohammed put the television set on.

So now there was no going back. All the while, she is ambivalent about Omar, a man she allegedly wants nothing to do with, but nonetheless manages to come into contact with almost daily. The treatment of the particular segment above is indicative of how the Swedish translator worked with the whole book: Everyone was in a brighter mood tonight, after their trip to Luxor.

Even Lamia and Mohammed chatted for ten minutes before Mohammed put the television on. She was used to Western men who, however randy they might feel, still lived by a certain set of rules. In view of the already mentioned need to shorten the books, the translator is here in a position actually to edit the book while doing so, taking out images of lazy Egyptian servants, like this one: Mike laughed. The servants were next to come and stand in the doorway to watch. Catriona was afraid they might resent her doing the job instead of them, but the huge grins on their faces told her they were only too pleased not to have the bother.

A command in Egyptian sent them scurrying away and Lamia appeared in the doorway Duel, Mike laughed. A command in Egyptian sent them scurrying away and [soon thereafter] Lamia appeared in the doorway. In contrast to the servants in this example, Catriona is willing to work, but her actions are erratic and confused. Romances may be about many things, but credibility is extremely important, and the young Catriona is potentially someone who does not come across as very credible. For a moment she looked at him through the gauzy material, his outline blurred by it.

Is this how the world looks to a bride looking through her veil? Catriona wondered fancifully. Does the world have this misty look and the bridegroom his hard edges softened? Then you lift the veil and all is reality again. Lucas pushed open the door and went out Duel, He carefully lifted up the net and ducked under it, tucked it in again before going through the doorway.

Lucas pushed open the door and went out. She could imagine him becoming cynically amused and hurtfully mocking if some poor female tried to get really close to him. What the editor knows is that Lucas may have been the obvious love-object from the very beginning, but for her feelings to make any sense, he has to be sympathetic and not only scornful and reserved. There is something unpleasant and unattractive about Lucas in the previous quote, and for the reader to respect someone who treats a woman in the way Catriona implies may be suspending disbelief too much. Whatever patterns occur in this book are not the results of explicit intervention in the sense that they follow instructions put on paper by the publisher.

In this case, the translator has been more apt to keep the harsh language, but the editor has altered or deleted every trace of the erotically charged violence of the original. Even if the company is striving for a good mix within the series, some- thing, the editors tell me, that the number of books published each month allows for with substantial margins, the virginal heroine and the powerful hero are still the strongest sellers in any given month.

Interestingly enough, her quote does more than reveal how extremely con- scious she is of objectionable elements in the romance, something that might have to do with the fact that she is talking to an academic and therefore feels that she needs to be on guard. As the prior examples show, the editors consistently take out violence and abuse from the books.

The editors are aware of the possible criticism of the publisher if violence, abuse, and racism are too prominent, but they are in all probability also acting from a much more subtle and ingrained set of social factors. Not when two people care about each other. When you care about someone, you want to touch them And children need parents who can take care of them]. As it turned out, both the translation, and in the end the book itself, caused the editors a lot of irritation and work. She feared that her extensive rewriting might have destroyed the logic of the story.

After an initial hesitation, then, the book was given to a male translator who works sporadically for Harlequin and who has a background translating action- adventure books for the publisher B. Because of the dialogue and action, not many descriptive passages were taken out. He withdrew, holding himself just clear of her opening. Kelly wanted him — she wanted him deep inside.

She arched against him. His orgasm came quickly, but she was ready, meeting each thrust, matching each desperate clench. And when he exploded, she came as well, her body shudder- ing under him. The problem here, is not that the passage is unusually explicit, because during any given month, sex in Exklusiv will range from a few sentences to being almost the focus of the story. Hon tog emot honom och han kom sakta in i henne, allt djupare och djupare.

Det var som en berusning. Instead, predicaments concerning collo- quial expressions, humor, cultural allusions, and, as we have seen, sex and romance, present themselves. So, if this had been a matter of acquiring the book initially, that is, if the editor in Stockholm had been in the same position as the editors in Toronto, she would have rejected it.

In doing so, I hope to bring into focus several interrelated issues. On the most basic level, this chapter looks at the subject matter, the plots, of a set of Harlequin romances. But my centering on the plots of some of the books in these two lines also aims to show how they are molded, localized, through various strategies associated with what I have called transediting, and, equally importantly, how both the plots and Swedish editorial responses to them change over time.

Thus, this choice addresses both the British as well as the more recent North American romance tradition. Guidelines underline some key elements. The heroine is often younger than the hero, who in turn is a dynamic, successful personality. Whatever the aesthetic arguments for or against such a treatment of a Harlequin romance, however, it seems clear that center- ing on one single text would not allow us to come to grips with most of the questions at stake in this study. What it does is to provide enough familiarity with a certain line over time to uncover continuity as well as rupture and change in a large mass of texts, something that would not be possible within a smaller, more select material.

Therefore, to provide a more complete picture of the Harlequin text, I have also undertaken two other types of readings. The other focuses on authorship. Louis in , interviews in preparation for which I read all their books until that time. In St. It seems, when you do that, you feel as if the author is going through the motions. Almost run over by a passing car, the man who steps out of this vehicle shows himself to be blond, overpowering and contemptuous. Angrily, he insinuates that she has only herself to blame for what just happened. After kissing her brutally, Jake lets her go with equal fervor.

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Wanting nothing to do with what they consider a cheap nightclub singer, his parents have persuaded Ross that Zoe only wanted him for his money and left him callously after the accident. When they meet, he has no memory of their previous relationship and treats Zoe as he would any woman — with utter scorn. Hon tystnade och log brett. His letter is a reply to one of hers, a request to collect on her inheritance given to her by her father and entrusted to Conal that would enable her to buy a small bookshop in Sydney.

By virtue of his age if nothing else, the hero comes to this new relationship armed with a previous life. Therefore, if an ongoing relationship between the heroine and a child exists, then it is limited to younger relatives or friends, and thus suggests the kind of nurturing inherent in the care of an infant. When Stacy the aspiring actress, goes sailing with Jake Weston the best-selling writer in Sanningen om Jake, she is nineteen, he thirty-eight. As a consequence, he is as experienced as she is inexperienced.

This fact is readily acknowledged by writers such as myself, who have compared royalty statements with other writers.

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It is also substantiated by an exami- nation of the best-seller lists. Because the relationship between hero and heroine is tantamount to the plot, aggression as a tool in upholding erotic suspense, the early marriage and ensuing separation; contrasts having to do with age and class, virginity and experience are, as we have seen, frequently occurring themes.

Misunder- standings that could be cleared up by a single conversation support the tension; one such example is the belief that there is a romantic rival where no one exists. Lisa in Som en stormvind, is initially engaged to Peter. Their relationship can hardly be deemed passion- ate, and kissing him, she asks herself if love really should be as cozy as a pair of old slippers? Suddenly, she sees Richard standing in the doorway, examining her.

Despite such treatment, or perhaps precisely because of it, the heroine has to admit to herself her undying love for the hero. Since he still remains incom- prehensible, distant, and above all silent, she believes that her feelings are not answered. While she is home by the hearth like Cinderella, Elisabeth instead socializes in the highest circles and meets Luke Marlis, a Greek millionaire. Han skrattade och var uppenbarligen mycket road vid tanken. Instead of realizing that Luke is a cold, insensitive, arrogant man, unworthy of the kind of attention she lavishes on him, Colette blames herself for eavesdropping.

By coincidence, they meet at a wedding reception. Condescending to a dance, Luke makes her oblivious to time, so much so that she by the stroke of midnight realizes that she should have been home by ten. Lacking a pumpkin for transportation home, Colette bursts into tears, knowing that her step-father is quite capable of turning both her and her mother out on the street, and begs of Luke to take her home and explain the delay.

Fortunately, Colette is not without suitors. In fact, Davy is everything Luke is not: kind, considerate, loving, willing to take responsibility for both Colette and her victimized mother. At the opening of the fourth chapter, Colette and Davy have been married for three years. They have a good life. Everyone is happy in a quiet sort of way, and Colette loves Davy like a brother. Fate however lurks around the corner, and as they are out driving one day, they collide with a meeting truck.

The only thing that remains constant is the dream of Luke. Following an appropriate time in mourning, Colette takes to traveling and eventually lands on a cruise in the Mediterranean. Almost immediately, he invites her to stay with him as his mistress. But no such proposal comes. Now Elisabeth suddenly surfaces on the island and like Luke, does not recognize Colette, only a potential rival.

Elisabeth is thrown out of the house, and Luke and Colette confess their love for each other, with Luke telling her that despite what he might have said previously, he would have married her, mistress or not. In pages that cover a period of eight years, Colette has gone from being ugly to being beautiful, from being terrorized to being in control, from being alone to being loved. In view of the lack of explicit sex in this line, certain stylistic features have instead been developed to underline sexual tension, such as the tendency to lick lips nervously.

What the hero interprets as a cool facade, is in reality an emotional armor of distance, the only defense against a man the heroine perceives as threatening and contemptuous. When Brittany Daniels meets Gabe Spencer, she is a young and ambitious reporter working undercover as a prostitute to reveal illegal gambling activities. As opposed to earlier heroines, Brittany is older twenty-six , has a rewarding professional career, and comes from a loving family. Gabe is described as someone actually capable of emotion, apparent by the way in which the story is also written from his point of view.

After the misunderstanding has been cleared up at the police station, Gabe takes her home, falling asleep on the couch where Brittany lets him stay the night. Leaving her apartment after breakfast, Gabe ponders whether or not he should ask her out for dinner, somewhat anxiously wondering if she will accept. Brittany however, is more interested in continuing to work on her story in order to get transferred to the more prestigious newsroom. Knowing that he has withheld important information from her, Brittany takes the initia- tive of asking Gabe to dinner to sort it out.

He accepts. Their relationship matures as they continue to work on the assignment together, and neither one can deny the growing attraction between them. Waking up with a hangover, Gabe remembers nothing, whereas Brittany, pre- tending that they made love, leaves him speculating about what actually did take place.

Through his partner Mike, Brittany learns that his hatred for reporters comes from the time when he once shot and killed a seventeen-year-old boy. A reporter named Helen Francis made it look as if the shooting was deliberate, when in fact it was in self-defense. Finally, after having made love for real, Brittany tells him that she knows all about the incident.

He immediately becomes defensive, even accusing her of being just another Helen Francis and although they have admitted that they are in love at least to themselves, their positions are gridlocked. But the morning after, every credit is given to him and Mike in what is not only a well-written, but also accurate article. Deeply ashamed, Gabe refuses to get in touch with her, convinced that she wants nothing to do with him now. As he sits at home feeling sorry for himself, Brittany calls at the door, once again taking the emotional lead, eventually even asking him to marry her.

All through this book Brittany has taken the initiative, both sexually and morally. For example, although a heroine need not be a career woman, she is likely to have a job she likes a lot. Sometimes quite a high-powered traditionally masculine one. Harlequin Romance and Presents stories have featured the commercial airline pilot, the doctor in a busy hospital, the college professor and the garage mechanic. She will almost certainly not be waiting around for Mr. Right to enter her life. Marriage may be the last thing on her mind, and her relationship 31 with the hero will represent an exciting challenge for them both.

If he has treated her aggressively she now has to be made to understand that the reason for this was frustrated love, pure and simple. To atone for his previous sins, the hero now has to be as open-hearted and frank as possible. Over the years, Superromance guidelines have become less and less strict, mirroring the continuously broadening scope of the line. The near chaos at the beginning of the traditional romance in Special is replaced by another type of disorder in Exklusiv. Problematic as the situation is, the heroine in Exklusiv has social stability, a network of friends and family — and most importantly, she is actively engaged in the world around her, able to take charge of the challenges that lay ahead.

As for the setting, after Smaragder glimmar farligt by Christine Hella Cott, no book in my selection take place outside North America. Although a more formalized relationship as employer-employee is only the case in four titles, quite often, the protagonists immediately take opposing sides in reference to a professional matter.

It is the glue that holds it together and makes the reader want to keep on going. We have to have a very compelling reason that the hero and heroine cannot get together on chapter one. We have to have a compelling reason. Something that tears at the heart of the heroine and something that taps into everything that is male in the 39 hero. And if it has that intensity, it will sustain a whole book.

Posing as a Catholic priest he meets Julie, a socialworker for the church. While they are attracted to each other, Julie cannot interpret Father Gregory as anything but a hopeless romantic endeavor and as much as he would like, Greg is in no position to reveal his true identity.

The hero or heroine might be unable to reveal their correct identity due to their work, or because they need to cover for a friend or out of concern for a relative. Kevin Anderson is a senator and he and Lisa Malorey meet at a party given by mutual friends in Washington. Lisa, equipped with a Ph. Under the circumstances, Lisa decides that neither she nor nasa stands a chance, takes the consequences and leaves him.

Turning his back on the rat-race, Kevin leaves the Senate, sells his farm in Kansas, and resolves to become a ranch owner in Texas, close to Houston and Lisa. During the ceremony, Lisa realizes that she wants a child, and that Kevin must be the father of that child. Harlequin describes the subplot in this way: In theory, the subplot can be removed from the main action and stand alone as a self-contained story, with a beginning, a middle and an end. The range of subject matter of the subplot can be as diverse as that of the main plot.

The secondary action can revolve around a social issue such as child care, illiteracy or teenage 47 pregnancy, or it can focus on environmental issues, such as factory emissions. During the course of the show, Amy receives a totally unexpected note from her absentee husband Sam. Sexuality with the right man emotionally liberates the heroine at the same time as it paradoxically captures the hero. Her release lies in the fact that a part of her old life that did not function very well, now does. Hunt in I festens yra She tells him to go to hell.

Steve, accepting his physical attraction for her, now has to withstand a more important test, that of faith.

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Crisis leads to separation, by now an indesputable fact. After they move into a small, run-down apartment that Dusty immediately starts painting and furnishing, she slowly shows herself to be an amiable young woman, making Taggert increasingly talkative and accessible. Later on, we learn that he once shot and killed a child and that he ever since then harbors doubts about his choice of profession. A young English heiress, Tara is virginal, well-educated, and writes books for children as a hobby.

As she and Jorge announce their engage- ment at the end of the book, her future career seems focused on running the household and bringing up the children. Justin is divorced with a small boy, while Kelly and her younger sister Sylvie are orphaned and have lived on their own for many years. Kelly, used to taking care of Sylvie, feels that Justin places too much responsibility on her shoulders, even taking it for granted. A short time thereafter, a riot erupts between local gangs and vigilante groups.

Using her intelligence, professional experience, and clear judgment, Kelly has to save the day. Justin sees the light. Few men have groveled like Justin. Not until Justin proves himself as a parent by sharing custody of Tommy with his ex-wife, and promising Kelly to take equal responsibility for Tommy, Sylvie, and all other children they might have in the future, does their relationship start afresh and with better odds.

Well-meaning patriarchs, they know what is best for heroine and employees alike, both of whom are treated like children. Both children and animals warm to her immediately, in contrast to the former Mrs. Rossi, who alienated everything alive. A nymphomaniac, she seduced his father, brother, numerous employees, and even his closest friend, until she eventually staged the kidnapping of her own children. In fact, he welcomes it, and rather than the heroine having to prove her qualities as a mother, the hero is the one to put up the evidence.

Admitting his need for Marianne, Steve also has to understand that there are things that he, an investigative reporter, knows nothing about. To get her back, he has to beg for forgiveness — something she of course grants. So, while Exklusiv heroines pursue rewarding professions, they can do so in large part because the man in their life understands the necessity of integration of love and work, time and money.

Gabe, the hero, is more emotional and complex, no longer arrogant, angry, or contemptuous. The classical romance story between a virginal, translucent yet insecure beauty and a forceful, dark, and very mascu- line hero, is built on class relations, power, and subordination, characteristics that some look on as very European.

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Both heroine and hero strive for integration and independence. Heroes willingly give up their careers and take responsibility for home and children, and heroines are encouraged to strive for and maintain a professional, even competitive career. Transnational media con- glomerates have come to ignore minor obstacles like national borders and languages, relying instead on a world-wide market that seems to have been planned with the English language in mind. A major premise of this study is that any inquiry into the global and the local is highly context-bound, multifarious, and contradictory.

Its empirical realization and outcome varies with time and space; defying the usage of one single approach or one unifying theory. Here, the global is represented by a product that is still emanating from an Anglo-American horizon, still written in English, still sold and marketed all over the world.

The emphasis on locality and language, independence and autonomy surely lies at the heart of the success of the prospering inter- national markets of the last twenty years. As my interviews have shown, the relationship to books and reading is never emotionally neutral. Despite the rapidity with which these books are published, the editors still describe their experiences of the text they work with in enthusiastic and articulate terms. The very fact that these editors read so much in so little time, indicates perhaps the loss of all distinction capabilities, but in fact the opposite holds true.

As they have said, the book that stands out, that they perceive as unique and satisfying, is still a reality, and the editors look to promote it. What she is not saying, however, is that the editor wants the translator to think like the editor. One of the more pressing questions emerging at this time is how to account for the possible repercussions of transediting? Does transediting have any kind of impact on the construction of new texts? Here, I believe the answer to be both yes and no.

As I have listened to writers at conferences contemplating the fate of their books in the global marketplace, I have also been struck by how little Harlequin in Toronto and its representatives have been able to tell them. I see this, not as one, but several problems, above all stemming from the pragmatic fact that editors are far too busy with their own work here and now to have any idea of what happens on the far side of the moon, as it were.

Thus, knowledge of transediting at Harlequin Enterprises internally has certainly been hampered by its depend- ence on bilinguality. Digressing slightly, there is a kind of inverted economic and ideological logic lying behind these issues coming to the fore of academic discourse. At both national and local rwa conferences that I have attended, writers have expressed great interest in the international market for romances, and precisely for the reasons given in the introductory chapter.

Both economic and creative concerns come into play here. To the Harlequin writers, who have seen category romance publishing go from the sole marketing of lines and series to a situation where they are increasingly becoming recognized as brands themselves, the global market- place highlights profound questions of individuality and self-determination in mass culture.

What impact does transediting really have on the writer and on the publisher? While this should not be taken to mean that there are not others who may assume equally important roles locally, it also sets a fundamental law of inequality in play when it comes to understanding how romances function where they are written and acquired originally, in contrast to where they are transedited.

But how are we then to make sense of translations? And how are we in particular to make sense of a country like Sweden, where, as we have seen, there is a strong tradition of translations and cultural imports? With the proper adaptations, considerations, and empirical research, the passage between countries appears like a minor nuisance. No, the dilemma is located elsewhere. Operating both as professional workshops and social networks, their transformative potential should not be belittled. What I am arguing for, then, is that writing or reading romances does not automatically lead to social passivity.

Feminism should in this context be seen as multialigned, allowing for shifting positions that do not necessarily need to be synchronically coherent or logical. Nonetheless, any lingering impression of their work as non-authoritative, powerless, and static, has, I hope, been invalidated by this very study. From a European-North American perspective, the development of the category romance coincides with a shift in emphasis from male genres to female in the mass market, a shift that took place in the late s and early s, both in the United States and in Sweden.

Although I will refrain from making too much of his argument, I will all the same suggest that the irony in this categorization as it relates to Harlequin Enterprises is that its imagery has been vividly projected onto a Canadian corporation. Gathering against the imperialist multinational becomes so much easier than questioning the power and resources of a company like Bonniers, which has extended its reach into countless areas of Swedish cultural life.

Ever since E. Southworth, women have in fact straddled the mass market with a certain aptitude. This in turn provides me with the opportunity to discuss the readings I conducted on the two series Special and Exklusiv. The conclusion of the category romance brings about a double resolution: on the one hand, sexual tension dissolves into married bliss, and on the other, family and work life, which clash for most of the plot, are ultimately reconciled. What started out as a British tradition has partly changed into an Anglo- American one, and this change is certainly the result of several contributing factors.

One thing is certain. However, the most manifest change that has taken place, is that the name of the author has become more im- portant. Finally, I would like to end with a conjecture about the future, saying some- thing about what possible areas of research my study points to. Such a focus will undoubtedly uncover choices and deliber- ations unlike those discussed here, thus adding to our overall knowledge of transnational publishing.

Third, the continued analysis of transnational publishing should look further into the relationships among cultural politics, languages, and the nation-state. In what sense does it not? Lawrence Venuti, The Translators Invisibility. A History of Translation London: Routledge, , Anthony D. King London: Macmillan, , Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

Sites in Literary and Cultural Studies, eds. Marjorie Garber, Paul B. Franklin and Rebecca L. Walkowitz London: Routledge, , Den Svenska Litteraturen. At this point, I should also say something of the way in which I have chosen to treat Swedish words, sentences, and quotes in this book. Whole sentences and longer quotes are translated into English in the note pertaining to the original quote. The Page, The Image and the Body, eds.

Margaret J. Source: Federal Communications Commission. On global corporations and their strategies more generally, see Richard J. Barnet and John Cavanagh, Global Dreams. One hardly needs to go looking for descriptions such as this one, referring to Victor Weybright, the man behind the commercial and critical success of nal New Ameri- can Library.

Kenneth C. Davis, Two-Bit Culture. Lewis A. Powell, Books. Saskia Sassen, Losing Control? Globalization and the Formation of New Claims? Since publishing is a highly centralized business think only of Paris, where a few blocks on the left bank basically encompass the entire French publishing scene , one could certainly envision an interesting study of publishing from the geo-political perspective of the city. I have chosen to emphasize those discussed in the special issue of The Nation mentioned in the previous note, where publishing takes precedence over other media. However, one should keep in mind that mergers and buy-outs occur with astounding speed in the media world, and that information tends to become obsolete almost from one day to the next.

Thomas Whiteside, The Blockbuster Complex. Conglomerates, Show Business, and Book Publishing Middletown, Conn: Wesleyan University Press, is still a useful introduction to the changing face of American publishing and bookselling. The names of these French publishers are not disclosed, nor is the percentage dated. Resa L. Until the fall of , Norstedts was owned by Liber ab, in turn held by the Dutch company Wolters Kluwer. On 7 October , kf Media acquired Norstedts. News, Publishers Weekly, 14 October , Barnet and Cavanagh, Global Dreams, Tania Modleski, Loving With a Vengeance.

Janice Radway, Reading the Romance. See for instance Lisbeth Larsson, En annan historia. Rabine, Reading the Romantic Heroine. Radway, Reading the Romance, 4. None of them seemed to equate television with reading, and when they watched television they did so very selectively.

Bridget Fowler, The Alienated Reader. Postmodernity and Transnational Feminist Practices, eds. All interviews in this study were made with a tape-recorder. They have then been transcribed and I have quoted all participants basically without editing their language. Romance Writers on the Appeal of the Romance, ed. John Tebbel, Between Covers. See also Coser, Kadushin and Powell, Books, esp. My abridged version of Brother Jonathan and the history of the paperback in the United States and its rela- tionship to romances, owe a great deal to these books and to Radway, Reading the Romance, esp.

Radway, Reading the Romance, For reasons of brevity, this is a highly schematic description. Dudovitz, Myth of Superwoman, Gedin, Literature in the Marketplace, Davis, Two-Bit Culture, Tebbel, Between Covers, Additional information on Albatross and other, similar European publishing houses can be found in Davis, Two-Bit Culture, esp. Coser, Kadushin and Powell also reached the conclusion that there were fewer bookstores per capita in the United States than in Japan and many European countries. They relied on data from the United States census to show that the number of bookshops increased from 2, establishments in to 12, in Coser, Kadushin and Powell, Books, It is important to remember though, that the expansion of the superstores occured after their study ended.

Anyone searching for detailed biographical information on these writers and others mentioned here, is well advised to consult Aruna Vasudevan, ed. James Press, Hardly any book dealing with the romance phenomenon fails to recount this story. Jayne Ann Krenz, interview by author, tape recording, St.

Louis, mi. Guinzburg quoted in Whiteside, Blockbuster Complex, For a longer account of these events, see Whiteside, Blockbuster Complex, esp. The cost of these market reports is prohibitively high and I have never been able to rely on anything but secon- dary sources when it comes to these statistics.

Book club sales accounted for Trade books and school textbooks are the big money makers for publishers. Login www. Login home. Without getting lost in the trenches of statistics, it seems safe to say that romances play a major role in mass market publishing of the United States today. Renewal and Critique in Social Theory 23, 3 : Janice Radway notes that her bookseller informant Dot claimed that her customers were able to tell whether or not a man could be found behind the pseudonym. See Radway, Reading the Romance, Jim Collins, Uncommon Culture.

H Abrams, ed. See also Wendell V. Harris, ed. A, or Young Adult, does not really exist as a separate subgenre in Sweden. For an extended discussion on Y. A, see Linda K. Swedish readers are often assumed to be younger than their North American counterparts. Thurston, Romance Revolution, Stanley Fish, Is There a text in this Class? Cawelti, Adventure, Mystery and Romance, Superromance, , audiotape. Louis Phyllis Strobler, interview by author, tape recording, St. See esp.

See Coser, Kadushin and Powell, Books, When Janis Reams Hudson took over as president in , rwa counted 7, members as of 31 October — up Latest numbers from login www. Fan Culture and Popular Media, ed. Lisa A. Lewis London: Routledge, , See also Fiske, Understanding Popular Culture, This kind of reinforcing strategies have also been noted by John Fiske, Understanding Popular Culture, Data on members from login www. Karen Stone, interview by author, tape recording, St. Grescoe, Merchants of Venus, Straub, eds. The history of Harlequin Enterprises has been covered extensively before me.

For my own account I owe much to Grescoe, Merchants of Venus, esp. Modleski, Loving With a Vengeance, Kay Mussell, Fantasy and Reconciliation. Marsha Zinberg, interview by author, tape recording, St. Harlequin representative quoted in Mussell, Fantasy and Reconciliation, According to Markert, the fact that fewer mistakes were made by publishers after was due to more elaborate communication taking place between publishers and readers, both informally and formally, through conferences, letters, and increasingly sophisticated market research. The following overview of the major romance lines within the Harlequin and Silhouette imprints show where the editorial decisions are made.

Harlequin Enterprises Ltd. Best of the Best are audio books. I am assuming that most likely the editorial departments of these lines are located in Toronto. Although some of these lines constitute the backbone of the company, the total publishing program is under continual revision, meaning that series close down and are introduced continually. For instance, in a Harlequin Enterprises Ltd.

Mira is considered a separate imprint, editorial decisions are made in Toronto. Taylor Pianka, How to Write Romances, 9. Strobler, interview. Zinberg, interview. Scheduled to air on Sunday afternoon, they competed blatantly for the female tv-audience at a time when networks generally show American football or other sports. Editorial Director Randall Toye, letter to romance authors, n. Editorial Director Karin Stoecker, letter to romance authors, n.

The number of readers currently involved in a relationship with a man is 79 per cent.

Two-thirds own their own home. Over half, 51 per cent of them, work outside the home. See also Thurston, Romance Revolution, esp. Interview Zinberg. For an extended discussion on the acquisition process generally in publishing see Coser, Kadushin and Powell, Books, The same number is mentioned in the Annual Report. Unfortunately, I have never managed to sit in on any such session. For further information on the importance of publishing agents, see Whiteside, The Blockbuster Complex, esp.

See Grescoe, Merchants of Venus, Stone, interview. Graham quoted in Grescoe, Merchants of Venus, According to Forbes in , Harlequin had , members in its bookclub. Calculated on the price of the book minus Swedish sales tax. In Sweden, royalties tend to be based on the price that the bookseller gets when buying the book from the publisher or wholesaler f-priset. Jayne Ann Krentz, letter to author, 1 September Readers interested in this company as well as in others making up the history of the Swedish weekly press, should also consult Larsson, En Annan Historia.

A number of books and studies have been devoted to the literary aspects of these social spheres. I will here only mention a few. Den storsvenska generationen Stockholm: Bonnier Alba, , The labelling of booksellers and the regulations surrounding their profession has shifted over the years. See for instance the contributions in Yngve Lindung, ed.

Om kioskitteraturen Stockholm: Esselte Studium, When asked about my own work, I often end up explaining it by using the expression myself — it usually works and indicates perhaps how colloquial the term has become. Information on Alibi. Litteraturutredningens branschstudier Stockholm: SOU , Stockholm: Aldus, , Between and , B. In practice, this meant that between and , B. To this day it remains the most substantial source of information to be found on this particular series, and Lindung does provide interesting data on both writers and publisher.

For more general information on characters and plot in the weekly magazines , see Larsson, En Annan Historia. For information on the personal and professional background of a few Swedish and Scandivian mass market writers, see Lundqvist, Masslitteraturen, We know, to a degree without precedent, what will capture our readers and what they will disapprove of. We know the sex, age, education, interests and social category of our readers to a decimal. When week after week, year after year, systematically and with versatility, you have explored reader reception, a large material crystallizes.

When it was published as a serial in the Swedish edition of Allers in it caused an increase in print run with A number of books may be used to explore these structural changes further. There were [ Half the stock was kept down in the basement.