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In it will report on the results, and if necessary make appropriate proposals to fill possible gaps in the current legislation. The implementation of the provisions on registration at national level will be part of this evaluation. Cependant, cette pratique n'a plus cours depuis It would also appear that the rules on the renewal of marketing authorisations MA have not been strictly observed. Does the Commission intend to analyse the dangers of using the pesticides that are currently under scrutiny in France? What preventive measures will it take concerning the seven pesticides that are hazardous to health?

It would appear that derogations have been granted to certain Member States for the use of pesticides. Did the Commission establish whether the Member States benefiting from those derogations had drafted food standards and whether risk mitigation measures had been taken to protect human health and the environment? Does France benefit from any derogations, and if so, since when? The Commission notes the prompt actions taken by the French Ministry of Agriculture and looks forward to the outcomes of the audit on the authorisation system undertaken by the Ministry.

It is not up to the Commission to evaluate or authorise plant protection products. The Commission is only responsible for the approval of active substances used in plant protection products. In the past the Commission allowed some Member States to extend the period of withdrawal of certain pesticides for so called. Poche settimane fa il Bundesrat tedesco ha bocciato la ratifica del fiscal compact. In quale misura e a quale titolo possono essere conferiti alle istituzioni comunitarie poteri di applicazione delle norme contenute nel fiscal compact , la cui natura di semplice accordo internazionale non gli consente di incidere direttamente sui poteri attribuiti dai trattati istitutivi agli organi esecutivi e legislativi europei?

Gli Stati membri devono inoltre conseguire gli obiettivi di bilancio a medio termine. Sia la Commissione che la Corte di giustizia partecipano al funzionamento del patto di bilancio. A few weeks ago, the German Bundesrat refused to ratify the fiscal compact. Member States also need to achieve medium-term budgetary objectives. Concerning the Commission,. Skontrolowano m. Checks were carried out on products such as milk, fish and fish products, frozen foods, ready meals, tea, coffee and bread.

Problems were identified with The most frequent problem was the lack of mandatory information on the ingredients of processed meat products, eggs, meat, bread and fish. In connection with the above, would the Commission answer the following questions:. Fraudulent and deceptive labelling practices can be eliminated with appropriate enforcement of Union food law requirements, which lies with the national competent authorities.

They must conduct appropriate controls and impose dissuasive and effective sanctions. The forthcoming proposal on official controls will aim at further strengthening the existing system, including the provisions on sanctions. In addition to the controls carried by the Member States, Commission experts from the Food and Veterinary Office audit the control systems in place in the Member States for the enforcement of European food safety legislation.

Complaints about the project have been raised by local residents and environmental organisations in the area, on the grounds that it will have a negative impact on the Andalusian environment. The rail circuit will be used to test high-speed trains, an activity which will seriously disrupt the local population and environment. Despite all the violations of European law involved, the Spanish Government is determined to move ahead with the construction of this rail project, and a list of properties to be expropriated has already appeared in the Official Gazette.

In light of developments since , does the Commission consider that this project infringes the directives referred to in my previous question? Could the Commission say whether the loan for construction of the rail test circuit referred to by the Minister of Public Works has been provided by an EU fund? Does the Commission consider said loan to have been granted in accordance with all the European standards which the project itself allegedly violates? Following a petition from the Parliament, the Commission opened a case concerning the project mentioned by the Honourable Member and its compliance with the relevant requirements under EU environmental law.

The investigation into this case is still ongoing.

"Brandgefährlich": Werner Ruf zur Politik Saudi-Arabiens im Nahen Osten

As this letter was only partially answered, the assessment procedure for this project application remains interrupted. The Commission is not in a position to judge if the project complies with all required EU rules and regulations since essential information is still missing. The Commission has therefore not yet adopted any decision concerning the funding of this project. Oggetto: Produzione della mozzarella di bufala campana DOP. Premesso che il Consorzio di tutela della mozzarella di bufala campana DOP in Italia, come emerso dall'interrogazione dell'on.

Alessandri al parlamento italiano n. Lo Stato membro deve in seguito presentare alla Commissione una domanda di modifica che viene analizzata conformemente al disposto del regolamento UE n. The aforementioned Consorzio di Tutela is apparently seeking to replace the current requirement to complete the production of PDO buffalo-milk mozzarella in Campania within 60 hours of the first milking, making it possible to interrupt the production process by treating — freezing — the curd. Can the Commission organise an inspection at the Ministry, the Lazio and Campania Regional Authorities and the Consorzio di Tutela responsible for PDO buffalo-milk mozzarella produced in Campania to demand explanations and establish what monitoring and other measures it is intended to adopt to protect farmers, workers and consumers?

Can the Commission make it clear that, among the methods used to produce PDO buffalo-milk mozzarella in Campania, the use of fresh buffalo milk and its processing within 60 hours of milking constitute local, honest and invariable methods and therefore cannot be changed? Is the Commission aware that any change to the rules on the production of PDO buffalo-milk mozzarella in Campania as described above could cause irremediable damage to the reputation of the product, jeopardise the survival of buffalo farmers and related industries and even result in revocation of the PDO in question?

Facebook, which has only existed since ? How will the Commission justify intervention in the security interests of the Member States should the Court find that the current directive is not compatible with the fundamental rights of EU citizens and thus with the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU? The expert group will advise the Commission on the sorts of developments and requirements which are relevant for the implementation of the directive. Providers of social media services and other information society services are outside the scope of the Data retention directive, and will remain outside its scope since the Commission has no intention to introduce changes in this respect.

The role of the Expert group is to advise on best practice in implementing the directive as it stands. The expert group will carry out its work exclusively on the areas covered by the directive, as its scope mirrors the wording of the directive itself. For cross-border investigations of serious and organised crime, information is exchanged between Member States' authorities in accordance with mutual legal assistance procedures. Europol estimates that around half of all requests for information in cross-border cases include communications data.

There is no timetable at present for this proposal. This came to light after strong winds destroyed much of the beach, uncovering the buried waste. The origin of this waste was identified by the special Environmental Inspectorate. Are the two uncontrolled waste disposal sites referred to above included in the list of uncontrolled waste disposal sites submitted to the Commission by the Greek authorities, a list on the basis of which Greece was recently referred to the European Court?

In both cases the activities are those of individuals acting without the support of national or municipal authorities and it is for those authorities to take adequate measures to apprehend the persons responsible and to clean up the sites. Will the Commission say: what was the outcome of these discussions? What specific commitments were made by the Greek government? During the last review mission, the Commission, along with the ECB and the IMF, discussed with the Greek authorities a number of issues on the public administration reform that will render the administration leaner and more effective.

The discussions focused on the planning mandatory of the exits and mobility of employees, the finalisation of the staffing plans and the planning of the evaluation of the employees. The discussions did not include compulsory retirement of the Greek civil servants. It also provides a summary of the socioeconomic challenges Member States are facing in the implementation of the EU-funded programmes.

In the Staff Working Document accompanying the report, the Commission indicates that, in the case of Greece, Could the Commission provide further information on the reprogramming by fund, theme and absorption rate? An extensive reprogramming of the Greek European Social Fund programmes took place with the main objective of tackling youth unemployment. It targets Actions supporting SMEs had reached a very high degree of overbooking and an adjustment was necessary.

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No reprogramming was made for the Cohesion Fund. The Commission has published the report and annexes online. Could the Commission provide more information on the educational infrastructure projects that received support in Greece and the number of students who benefited from them? Could the Commission provide further information on the institutional capacity-building programme in Greece? How many people did it involve, what was its budget, what were the objectives to be achieved, and were they achieved?

According to information provided by the managing authority for the OP, the number of civil servants who took part in training and the budget allocated to it were as follows. The Administrative Reform OP is making progress towards achieving its objectives. Why did these three Member States not report on the gross jobs indicator and thus have to use alternative indicators?

The three countries are Cyprus, Greece, and Spain. There was no legal obligation for Member States to use the core indicators in the period Thus, the increase of employment will be measured in each Member State. Could the Commission provide further information on the Members States on which these projects had the biggest effect, in terms of population coverage?

That document, which also contains a short commentary, is available on this webpage:. The Commission points out that it can only disaggregate this data to the level of the individual programmes. The programme authorities have the project level detail. There is a variation in the selection of projects by themes within the Member States, with some themes e. Could the Commission provide information on the project selection trends, broken down by Member State and indicating the three most popular themes chosen by each Member State?

With the publication of the cohesion policy Strategic Report , the Commission published online a detailed breakdown of project selection trends by Member State. According to an article published in the British newspaper The Guardian , a mother in the UK has forced her year-old adopted child to inseminate herself with donor sperm bought by the mother over the Internet. The mother has three other adopted children and had been prevented from adopting more.

This led her to press her year-old daughter to become a surrogate mother. After seven inseminations over two years, using syringes and douches of semen prepared by the mother, the girl finally gave birth to a child at the age of The details of this shocking case, which emerged after a court judgment, raise serious questions about what loopholes may exist in the system for international adoptions and the regulation of the global traffic in gametes.

As the European Union is a full member of The Hague Conference on Private International Law, the Commission follows developments on surrogate motherhood at international level. The Convention aims to implement Art. Possible loopholes in the Convention could be tackled by bilateral agreements between the concerned States. Con deliberazione del Consiglio Provinciale n. Non ritiene utile, necessario ed urgente avviare verifiche sulla sussistenza di una violazione del diritto dell'UE derivante dalla mancata sottoposizione a VAS del piano cave per la provincia di Bergamo, approvato dalla Regione Lombardia nel maggio , e dalla mancata sottoposizione alla Corte di Giustizia, da parte del Consiglio di Stato, della questione di interpretazione pregiudiziale dell'art.

Can the Commission say whether it is aware of the above situation, which seriously harms the environmental protection of an entire province in which extensive mining and quarrying activities are carried out? The Commission will contact the Italian authorities to obtain clarifications on the application of the directive to the plan referred to in the question.

Does the Commission intend to make renewed representations following the suspension of float glass production in Lysychansk? Since these measures were unsuccessful, their continued application appears to be unwarranted. The Commission has indeed been recently informed of the fact that the sole Ukrainian producer of float glass closed its third and last line of production.

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Anti-dumping duties aim at removing injury to a domestic producer and, if it is confirmed that the sole domestic producer ceased operations in this case, there would be no reason to maintain the duties in place. The fact that the producer ceased operation is indeed a crucial change of circumstances as anti-dumping duties would no longer serve their very purpose and would thus not be legitimate anymore.

Acesta va putea fi consultat pe site-ul internet al Comisiei. Can the Commission indicate if and when it has published the above report and where it can be accessed by interested members of the public? What measures are being envisaged by the Commission for inclusion in the action plan to increase the number of nearly zero-energy buildings?

When will this action plan be published? The Commission has analysed the plans received and will publish its report in due course. It will be accessible on the website of the Commission. The Commission will now request further, more detailed information from the Member States based on a specifically developed template. After receiving this information the Commission will undertake a detailed evaluation and develop an action plan. If necessary, the action plan will include proposals to increase the number of nearly zero-energy buildings and encourage best practices as regards existing buildings.

Den Ingen af medlemsstaterne oplyste om dette i deres svar. No Member State included such information in their reply. Giorgio ad Montes, di epoca medievale, ha rappresentato uno dei punti nodali della fitta rete di siti dell'eremitaggio e del monachesimo che ancora oggi costellano il territorio laziale.

Durante il periodo di esecuzione dei lavori, i siti interessati potranno essere terreno di sperimentazione sui quali i ricercatori di diversi ambiti specialistici potranno convalidare un certo numero di ipotesi sulle tecniche costruttive e sui diversi aspetti della vita dell'epoca. Il progetto cui fa riferimento l'onorevole parlamentare potrebbe beneficiare del sostegno finanziario dei Fondi strutturali, nel rispetto delle disposizioni specifiche del Programma Operativo Regione Lazio Tale programma definisce le varie tipologie di finanziamento che il Fondo europeo di sviluppo regionale ha destinato alla regione in questione nel periodo di programmazione sopra menzionato.

Il programma prevede anche un cofinanziamento a favore di iniziative imprenditoriali legate a cultura e turismo. The town of Anagni Frosinone has many particularly valuable archaeological sites, but they are currently in a state of total disrepair; in particular, the medieval abbey of San Giorgio ad Montes was one of the focal points of the dense network of hermetic and monastic sites that are still scattered throughout the Lazio region today.

The primary objective is to recreate the entire operational sequence of a medieval building site and to apply high-level scientific and specialist guidelines. This would provide, both during the restoration phase and once the works are complete, an opportunity to arrange short courses in local medieval history and in specific restoration-related disciplines, with the creation of new job opportunities, including in the tourism sector. Another aim of the project is to create craft shops within the abbey complex and hence an actual medieval village that recreates everyday life in an abbey of the period.

In view of the above, can the Commission provide details of the funding that the town of Anagni could access in order to:. The project referred to by the Honourable Member could be eligible for financial support from the Structural Funds, subject to compliance with the specific provisions of the programme for Lazio. This programme defines the types of support provided by the European Regional Development Fund to the region under the current period. The programme also foresees co-financing in favour of business initiatives linked to culture and tourism.

In line with the shared management principle used for the administration of cohesion policy, project selection and implementation is the responsibility of national authorities. For more information, the Commission therefore suggests that the Honourable Member contact directly the managing authority of the programme:. Is the Commission aware of allegations that by disclosing confidential information, President Anastasiades of Cyprus helped his relatives to avoid losses thereby increasing the losses of other account holders, and increasing risks borne by EU taxpayers in financing the bailout by withdrawing millions of euro from bank accounts in Cyprus days before capital controls were introduced?

Is the Commission also aware that there are widely held suspicions of inappropriate disclosure of confidential information relating to discussions of and decisions reached by the eurozone? In light of such concerns, does the Commission intend:. Examining and investigating the use of insider information to gain a financial advantage remains a national competence.

Questions related to the use of insider information within Cyprus to gain a financial advantage should, therefore, be directed to the relevant Cypriot authorities. Oggetto: Restrizioni alla libera circolazione dei cittadini dell'UE in Svizzera. Tale accordo e il suo protocollo hanno introdotto alcune restrizioni per i cittadini dell'UE che desiderano vivere o lavorare in Svizzera. Cosa consiglierebbe la Commissione a un paese non membro al fine di garantire la sicurezza e l'occupazione interne nell'attuale periodo di crisi?

Sotto il profilo giuridico la Commissione si aspetta che i paesi terzi rispettino le disposizioni degli accordi sottoscritti con l'UE. The recalled Agreement and its protocol have brought about some restrictions on EU citizens wishing to live or work in Switzerland.

Does the Commission think that Switzerland still holds authority over its territorial limits? What advice would the Commission give to a non-member country in order to ensure internal security and employment in the current period of crisis? Politically, the Commission would like to count in the current period of crisis with an equivalent level of solidarity which it usually shows to third countries.

Regarding internal security, the Commission is not aware of any ground of public order, public security or public health in Switzerland which would require its Government to introduce restrictive measures. Regarding employment, taking into account the fact that the unemployment rate in Switzerland remained stable at an average of 4. Has this assessment now been completed and has the Commission subsequently taken the necessary decision?

The Commission has completed its assessment of the Spanish application for EU Solidarity Fund assistance relating to the forest fires in Valencia. Total damage caused by the disaster represented only 4. There was no evidence of serious and lasting repercussions on living conditions or on the economic stability of the region that could have allowed activating the Fund exceptionally. The Spanish authorities were informed accordingly. Betrifft: Rechte Gewalt und fehlende polizeiliche Kontrolle in Griechenland. Violence prompted by extreme right-wing views and xenophobia seems to be increasing to an alarming extent in Greece.

There is growing evidence of a prevailing attitude among the police which ranges from tolerance of these crimes to open sympathy for them. Are there EU programmes in existence to curb these trends, e. The Commission is concerned by the growing of extremism movements across Europe. The Commission continues to work on ways to assist Member States in addressing prevention of such a phenomenon, regardless of motivation and methods. One of its working groups, RAN POL, exchanges on practices related to prevention and detection of violent extremism by law enforcement, through community and local policing.

In a meeting of this group, Greece highlighted the creation of a new service, the General Office for the Confrontation of Racist Violence, which edits a special guide for police and includes a violent crimes division. The project will include a policy recommendations report, best practices and a training for practitioners in countering far-right extremism. The EU Fundamental Rights agency work includes the issue of acceptance of cultural diversity. Finally, the Council of Europe has established the European Code of Police Ethics in and runs human rights training programmes for inter alia prosecutors, police and bailiffs.

However, there now seem to be fundamental problems the concept of commercial availability and the cross-border mail order of books holding up such a treaty. Why is the concept of commercial availability being insisted on, even though this makes access for blind people to books substantially more difficult?

What opportunities does the Commission see for guaranteeing equal rights and treatment for blind and visually impaired persons? What opportunities does the Commission see for ensuring equal access to education and knowledge for all? Certain EU MSs have interpreted the lack of commercial availability of accessible format copies as a condition for this exception and they have a preference for such a condition in the negotiations. Many EU MSs consider that the requirement on the cross-border exchange of accessible format copies could put pressure on publishers to make such copies available in the relevant markets at the same time as the mainstream copy.

Several EU MSs consider that blind organisations have better means to check the eligibility of beneficiaries in their own country than in foreign countries. Thus, MSs have a preference in the negotiations for channeling the cross-border exchange of accessible format copies through blind organisations established in the respective countries. In this scenario, visually impaired persons would not receive the imported special formats directly from foreign blind organisations but via their local organisation.

The Commission cannot determine alone the outcome of the international negotiations but will continue to deploy great effort at the June Diplomatic Conference to reach agreement on a simple and workable treaty that improves access to books to visually impaired persons. Et dansk tv-program berettede den Kender Kommissionen til problemstillingen? The same programme showed that there are large quantities of plastic microparticles in soap, shampoo and other cosmetics. These end up in the oceans and pollute the environment. It is also unclear what effect these plastic particles have on the human hormonal system.

These particles have no business being there. The EU must take action as quickly as possible. My question to the Commission is therefore:. Is the Commission aware of this problem? And will the Commission take the initiative as soon as possible to call for the phasing out of plastic microparticles in cosmetics? The Commission is aware that microplastics, including those from cosmetics, are a potential threat to the environment. The Commission is aware of the calls in some EU Member States for an EU-wide ban on use of microplastics in cosmetics, as well as the ongoing voluntary actions of several EU companies to eliminate or phase-out the use of microplastics in their cosmetic products.

Per il periodo la Commissione ha proposto di introdurre un criterio di crisi tra quelli applicati per ricevere un sostegno dal Fondo europeo di adeguamento alla globalizzazione. Valbelluna is home to a cluster of leading air conditioning and refrigeration companies, which possess a significant industrial heritage in terms of know-how. Does the Commission think it can strengthen future EU legislation on state aid, with specific reference to aid for rescuing companies, by introducing tools to make it easier for entrepreneurs to form consortia which, by taking over local companies, can rescue companies in crisis and thus support jobs and the industrial policy of the internal market?

How will the Commission strengthen the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund to make it a more effective tool for supporting Member States and regions in their ability to limit the effects of the crisis and to help them take proactive measures for workers affected by restructuring and relocation? The Commission notes that the Community guidelines on state aid for rescuing and restructuring firms in difficulty. For the period, the Commission has proposed introducing a crisis criterion as one of the criteria for receiving support from the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund.

Sie ist eine freiwillige Vorleistung der Wirtschaftsbeteiligten. Diese Durchleuchtung bewirkt, dass die zertifizierten Unternehmen und deren Verfahrensweisen dem Zoll bestens bekannt sind. Dies sollte seinen Niederschlag in den Zollverfahren finden. Under the Modernised Customs Code, customs procedures must take account of, inter alia , safety and security aspects. The purpose of safety and security certification as authorised economic operators AEO , provided for in the Customs Code, is to make economic operators more transparent for customs authorities.

This is a voluntary upfront concession on the part of economic operators. Firms which have themselves certified are subject to onerous checks on their organisational and operating structures. As a result, customs authorities are very familiar with certified firms and with how they operate. That should be reflected in customs procedures themselves. So far, accordingly, it is largely customs service providers such as hauliers, plus a number of large firms, which have had themselves certified; but a host of small and medium-sized enterprises, in particular in manufacturing, have so far not acquired AEO status because it is insufficiently attractive.

Such special procedural simplifications are of considerable practical and economic significance — not only where customs arrangements involving Switzerland are concerned. Why, to date, has the Commission not submitted a proposal for substantial procedural simplifications for firms with AEO status, such as waiving pre-departure declarations for exports or entry summary declarations for imports? What arguments are there against waiving individual notifications for local clearance procedures, for economic operators recognised as AEOs by customs authorities, and deeming an entry in company records to be equivalent to a declaration and, at the same time, automatic release too including in connection with prohibitions and restrictions when use of a general licence is possible or the products concerned are known to the customs authorities?

The Commission fully shares the view that the very purpose of setting up the AEO status in was, and will remain in the future Union Customs Code, to grant holders of that status, including SMEs, facilitations relating to security and safety, maximum advantage of widespread use of customs simplifications and more favourable treatment than other operators in respect of customs controls. The entry summary declaration ENS and the pre-departure declarations are platforms for the implementation of the security policy and measures with regard to goods to be brought into or taken out of the customs territory of the Union.

These are not measures related to trade facilitation and as such, even in the existing international framework, the provision of information to customs for the purpose of security and safety cannot be waived simply with regard to the status of the person being responsible for the goods. In the majority of cases the ENS is submitted by the carriers and not by the importers.

Furthermore, in the majority of cases, the pre-departure declaration is the export declaration and cannot be considered as an extra burden. Regional cooperation can play a key role in fostering the integration of the outermost regions into their regional environments. Has the Commission carried out an in-depth analysis of the existing scope for synergies between the structural funds and the EDF with a view to facilitating regional cooperation involving the outermost regions?

When will it publish a strategy designed to exploit the full scope for synergies between cohesion policy funding and development policy funding? Cooperation programmes should set out coordination mechanisms at the appropriate territorial level, where Member States and third countries or territories participate in cooperation programmes that include the use of ERDF appropriations for outermost regions ORs and resources from the EDF, to effectively coordinate the use of these resources.

For cooperation programmes involving ORs and third countries, Member States are required to consult the respective third country before submitting the programme to the Commission and the third country has to confirm its agreement to it. The Commission is not planning to publish the strategy referred to by the Honourable Member.

However, the Commission has asked the ORs to establish action plans to identify their priorities in line with the EU's objectives, which will include, among other things, a section on regional integration neighbourhood plan , in order to supplement the strategies developed in the territorial cooperation programmes for and those in the EDF regional indicative programmes.

Queste misure scadono rispettivamente alla fine di aprile e alla fine di maggio La Commissione ha ritenuto che l'applicazione separata di restrizioni a 8 Stati membri e, successivamente, agli altri 17 non fosse conforme all'accordo. Nel e nel il Consiglio federale non aveva invocato la clausola di salvaguardia sebbene fossero state raggiunte le soglie. Secondo la Commissione, le condizioni economiche generali della Svizzera e la situazione del mercato del lavoro non sono mutate in misura tale da giustificare un allontanamento da questa prassi.

La Commissione sostiene l'attenzione specifica prestata dal governo svizzero agli aspetti che preoccupano maggiormente i cittadini. In and the Federal Council did not invoke the safeguard clause despite the fact that the thresholds were reached. In the view of the Commission the overall Swiss economic conditions and the labour market situation have not changed to justify departing from that practice. The unemployment rate in Switzerland remains stable at average of 2.

The Commission supports the Swiss Government efforts to focus specifically to the causes of popular concern. Conform art. De asemenea, conform articolului 17 din Regulamentul CE nr. Member States informed the Commission that they issued 27, driver attestations during The total number of driver attestations in circulation at the end of was 44, The breakdown by Member State is provided in an Annex to the reply. As there are some 4. The Commission has raised this topic with social partners and Member States.

Does it not feel that offering financial incentives for gambling contradicts the principles it has itself set out in its communications in this field? The Commission is aware of the measure referred to by the Honourable Member. The Finance Ministry has recently clarified that, while gambling losses may be used to lower capital gains derived from gambling activities, the losses do not give rise to tax credits that can be deducted from income tax. The Commission recalls that EU Member States are free to design their tax systems as long as there are no harmonising measures at EU level and as long as the national measures are not discriminatory or otherwise contrary to the Treaties.

The assessment of the potential for addiction of different games of chance or of incentives offered is therefore primarily the responsibility of national authorities.

  • Reference Assessment and Evaluation.
  • (Economics and Management Field, Berlin Free University).
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The Commission, in its communication. A negative ESF balance for Poland, for instance, is the result of such changes in status. How does the Commission see the role of NGOs, both locally and internationally, in the monitoring of the implementation of those conventions? At what stage of the process will NGOs be consulted?

Welche „traditionelle“ Familie?

The information must be adequate and accurate. Genaue Zahlen liegen indes nicht vor. Die neue Verordnung EU Nr. Millions of people in Europe prefer to adhere to a vegetarian or vegan diet. Far more Europeans choose to eat only a little meat or, for any number of different reasons, consume vegetarian products. As people become more aware of dietary and environmental issues, further growth is likely.

However, no precise figures are available. While the Commission intends within the foreseeable future to issue an implementing act concerning information about the suitability of food products for vegetarians, there is a lack of reliable statistics on:. Will the Commission, without undue delay, ask Eurostat and Eurobarometer to survey the social and economic aspects of vegetarian diets and the market for vegetarian products?

December Orient News. March Orient News English. April January International Policy Digest. Details Link to full text Khatib, Hakim : Radicalisation in Europe: Between prevention and instrumentalisation of religion. Eurasia Review. February Details Link to full text Khatib, Hakim : Why global Jihadism remains notoriously in spotlight today. July The Secular World Magazine. Second Quarter: September Muslim Mirror. This article was also featured on The Daily Journalist on March This article was also published by YME under the title An emerging inter-cultural space in downtown Amman on March This article was republished by Qantas.

This article was republished by Eurasia Review on January 07 under the title The controversy of blasphemy in Egypt, by Egyptian Streets on January 08 and printed by Egypt25 on January August Almasdar News. November This article was reprinted by Journal Digest. Normative orders exist in the plural, with non-state forms of norm setting and norm implementation complementing state-based regulation at the domestic as well as the international level. Their interplay takes various forms. On the one hand, governmental and intergovernmental regulators can still define the room for, provoke, condone or suppress non-state forms of regulation.

Narratives of regulatory legitimation need to redefine their purpose as well as their justifications. The overarching research interest of this project concerned the question of whether the privatization and transnationalization of normative ordering goes along with a general decline of democratic standards for legitimizing regulatory regimes. The expectation of such a decline is supported above all by two developments: the rise of neoliberal governance paradigms that rely primarily on performance-based criteria of legitimacy and the growing importance of non-state actors as norm-setters whose regulatory authority usually rests on non-democratic grounds of legitimacy.

The project investigated the normative reference points for the legitimation of normative orders. The work of both projects rested on a shared conceptual frame of reference and a range of questions developed in regular joint meetings: Do legitimation narratives for state and non-state regulations differ systematically or do they rest on a shared normative basis? Do changes in the predominant form of regulation call for changes in the legitimation narrative?

Taking its guide from these and related questions, the ultimate aim of the project is to evaluate patterns of legitimation for state and non-state forms of regulation from a normative perspective. In an attempt to widen the scope of our comparative research and include different cases of public, private and hybrid types of normative ordering, we invited renowned international and national researchers to share their expertise on legitimization patterns in the context of local, regional, national and transnational political ordering from the early 20th century to the present in a joint workshop held at the MPIeR in April An overall assessment of the various findings shows that no single identifiable pattern can be discerned that could provide an easy answer to the overarching question.

The significance of criteria for legitimacy varies over time and according to the specific context. Moreover, the contributions highlight that justifications of the exercise of authority by private actors are closely intertwined with the perceived crisis of parliamentary systems. The values used to appraise the state-based components of the regime do not differ systematically from those used to appraise the private elements.

One reason for this may in fact be the new quality of public authority exercised by private regulators. International Dissidence , Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, Schneiker and A. Kruck eds. Norms emerge historically and are differently operationalized in specific social and political contexts, so that they can neither be implemented nor contested in the same way at all times. This makes the practice of critique particularly challenging. The project strove to analyze the forms of subjectivation and emancipation that align with this particular mode of questioning and contesting norms.

It scrutinized how these practices can be understood within the ambivalent relations between modernity and postcoloniality. Within the overall research program of the Cluster, this project examined in particular the ambivalences of the normativity of critique as a form of the exercise of power. In the process, it confronted the normativity of critique with the critique of normativity, analyzing how normative orders are continuously denaturalized, but also reproduced, and how in these processes agential subjects are constituted.

The second project, conducted by Aylin Zafer, examined how political subjectivity emerges in the spaces between passivity and resistance. In the third project, Johanna Leinius analyzed how, in the encounter between heterogeneous social movements, difference is negotiated and solidarity created. The fourth project, led by Elisabeth Fink, investigated the relation between local and transnational trade union activism in the garment sector in Bangladesh.

These processes were analyzed both at the theoretical level and in empirical studies, in an attempt to identify the potentials for decolonizing alliances and to emphasize the ambivalences of emancipatory desires and practices. Public Lecture: Prof. Dhawan, Nikita ed. Venohr eds. Positionen in Theorie und Praxis , Bielefeld: Transcript, , pp. Profile Project members Zafer, Aylin former member Profile. Special Issue: Wagadu. In: ibid. Springer International Publishing.

New York: Springer International Publishing. The Postcolonial Predicament of Queering Modernities. In: Huffingtonpost. In: Phantasma und Politik. HAU Zeitung S. In: TAZ In: The European. Wiesbaden: Springer: Bielefeld: transcript. Wineheim: Beltz Juventa: Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte 44—45, Localities 2, Although the post secularism debate is mainly concerned with contemporary societies, the questions raised are also relevant to aspects of Ancient History.

This holds for instance for the relationship of religion and public space and its transformation, which is of importance in all periods of history. This project aimed to follow up on the research of the Principal Investigator Hartmut Leppin, who has been looking at questions of the spread of Christianity and whether it prompted the neutralization of public space, which has been inspired by the post secularism debate.

The goal of the project was to examine how the Roman Empire dealt with religious pluralism after Christianity had become established, with its prominent claim to universal validity and exclusive truth. Inquiring into the role played by justification narratives in the formation of normative orders has proved to be very fruitful. This is true in particular when it comes to the importance of Christian narratives for the establishment of the Empire under a Christian ruler, a development that had not been foreseen in Christian discourse. In addition, the project contributed to the comparative perspective of the Cluster, specifically to critical reflection on some of its central concepts, namely, tolerance, recognition and post-secularism.

Work on this project involved, on the one hand, comprehensive studies by the principal investigator and, on the other, a series of studies focussing on particular topics, in part by the principal investigators himself and in part by project collaborators. She submitted her dissertation in January She showed convincingly that this perspective developed out of the Christian tradition of interpretation of the sources. New narratives of justification developed in this context, which to modern ears have the ring of tolerance.

Panel Discussion: Im Namen Gottes? Monotheismus und Gewalt , Prof. Mouhanad Khorchide in conversation with Prof. Rudolf Stichweh, Prof. Eva Geulen, Prof. Andrew Abbott, Prof. Itgenshorst and Ph. Le Doze eds. Vec eds. Lutz-Bachmann ed. Harter-Uibopuu and F. Mitthof eds. Amnestie in der Antike. Wienand eds. Lutz-Bachmann Hg. Manders, Coining Images of Power. The project started from the assumption that normativity both presupposes and produces subjectivity.

Subjectivity is understood in this context as the ensemble of the capacities of normative orientation. Thus the project inquired into the forms of subjectivity that are constitutive for specific structures of normativity. This question was pursued from a twofold perspective: from that of how normative orders are realized and from that of how they are brought about in the first place through the formation of specific structures of subjectivity.

Therefore, this investigation aimed to conceptualize normativity in processual terms: normativity only exists through processes of subjectivation. The ultimate goal of the project was to develop a genealogical conception of normativity. The connection to the overall research of the Cluster was twofold. First, the project focused on the topic of the formation of normative orders.

It asked how the nature and the structure of normativity are to be understood on the assumption that it is generated through processes of subjectivation. Secondly, the project conducted its investigation of forms of subjectivation in an interdisciplinary perspective. The research in the project had two focuses. The first was on the mode of formation of subjectivity and its consequences for the concept of normativity; at the center of this first field of research was the concept of freedom as liberation.

The research in the first field showed that the genesis of subjectivity unfolds in a process of transformation that leads from a merely natural to a normative or mental being. This process constitutes subjectivity, which thus consists in the processual relation between nature and mind. Hence the freedom that defines subjectivity must also be understood as a process, namely the process of liberation. In his dissertation on the young Hegel written in the context of the project, Oliver Brokel showed that freedom stands in a relation of indissoluble tension to every existing normative order.

The research in the second field led to a theory of subjective rights which plays a fundamental role in the modern legal order. At the center of this analysis is the thesis that the form of subjective rights embodies an act of the self-reflection of law which inscribes the difference between norm and nature into the very structure of the norm itself. Further analysis was devoted to the political and social consequences of this subjective empowerment by means of subjective rights.

Honneth und G. Hindrichs eds. Internationaler Hegelkongress , Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann, , pp. Reprint in: Christian Schmidt ed. Geschichtsphilosophie am Beginn des Canadian Journal of Continental Philosopy , 17 1 , , pp. Profile Project members Brokel, Oliver former member Profile. Engel, M. Gebhardt, K. Brocker Hg. Stekeler-Weithofer, B. Zabel Hg.

Details Khurana, Thomas Hrsg. Jahrgang, Juli Details Menke, Christoph : "Umsturz. Ist eine Revolution denkbar? Stuttgart: Metzler. Eine Kulturtheorie Berlin In: Hegel-Studien 49 Jahrgang, Heft 7, Juli , S. Reprint in: Christian Schmidt Hg. Georg Lohmann zum Geburtstag, Freiburg: Alber , S. The representation of violence has been an important guiding theme within cinema since its beginnings. There are very different functions this process can take in different genres. Nevertheless it has always been important to broach the issue of the law of violence and the violence of the law in cinematic narrations.

Fictional films that depict events and states of open or latent violence, often question the legitimacy of social orders, in which violence occurs through their form of narration. These films are about the intimacy between law and violence. Starting from exemplary films from different genres — mainly western, film noir, war films and police procedurals — the research focused on the question of how the aesthetic treatment in these films dramatizes the entanglement of law and violence. The investigation into these genres was based on the assumption that cinema imagines the connection between law and violence from multiple perspectives: movies tell stories about the evolution of normative orders out of experiences of violence and injustice and about the different forms of violence which emerge from a transient establishment or a permanent enforcement of those orders.

With respect to the medium of film, the project investigated how filmic fictions represent, question, diffract and display normative perspectives on social and political conflicts. In this way the aesthetic reflection within cinema was made productive for a theoretically non-illusionary view on normative orders and their dialectical connection with forms of violence that they often try in vain to restrain. At the basis of the project were philosophical and sociological analyses of the dialectic of law and violence as this is enacted in feature films.

An important platform of research was provided by interdisciplinary lectures series and workshops in which speakers from different disciplines contributed to its general themes from their own disciplinary perspectives. One of the central insights confirmed by our research is that views from within normative orders as they are presented by feature films are shaped by an oscillation between justification and questioning, legitimization and de-legitimization which is only rarely unequivocally dissolved. Workshop: Rechtfertigungsnarrative.

Schuff, Jochen and Martin Seel eds. Jahrhunderts Normative Orders Vol. Profile Seel, Martin, Prof. Details Keppler, Angela : Zeigen ohne zu sagen. A special feature of law is that justifications of judicial judgments are not conclusive. This can be seen from the fact that in the law it is always possible to refute or challenge the application of a legal rule R in terms of a justified exception. There are innumerable exceptions to legal rules. The core concern of the project was to deepen our understanding of legal normativity through an analysis of the contestability of legal justifications.

A specific focus was the analysis of the question of the relationship between contestability and indeterminacy. Does the fact that the exceptions cannot be enumerated also mean that the situation is normatively indeterminate? The project was a contribution to the study of the normativity of normative orders and, in particular, to the partial question as to whether normative orders are subject to an incessant process of revision. The basis was provided by a bibliography compiled in advance on the theme of contestability.

At a meeting in March , some of the sub-questions of the project were examined by renowned legal and moral philosophers. According to this approach, contestability and legal indeterminacy are mutually exclusive, because contestability means specifically that a judgment is accorded greater weight at the substantive level of justification than at the level of rules, and thereby implies normative determinateness. Ruth Chang, Prof. Jonathan Dancy, Dr. Susanne Mantel, Prof. Josep Joan Moreso, Prof. Matthias Klatt, Prof.

Andrei Marmor, Prof. Willaschek eds. Grazer Philosophische Studien 87, , pp. Grazer Philosophische Studien , 87, C. Willaschek, Marcus: "Moral ohne Sanktion? Vesper eds. Rainer Enskat, Berlin: de Gruyter. Grazer Philosophischen Studien 87, hg. Janvid, H. Matthiessen und M. Hartmann, J. Liptow und M.

Willaschek, Berlin: Suhrkamp Details. The supposed conflict between individual self-interest and the common good is one of the hottest debated issues in economic ethics, environmental ethics as well as at the intersection between ecology and economics. All these phenomena may be summarized under the heading tragedy of the commons given their lack of economic, social and environmental sustainability. This research project has been analyzing potential trade-offs and compatibilities between self-interest and common welfare. Both norms play a key role in economic theory as well as for the development and implementation of new concepts for economic policy and regulation.

The project is especially interested in the respective narratives that are used to justify the two norms. Because such narratives typically have their origin beyond economics in the narrow sense, the interdisciplinary framework of the Cluster is an ideal setting for studying the genesis and development of these norms in close collaboration with related disciplines.

The clash of different and differently motivated normative concepts, the emerging conflicts of interest and trade-offs as well as possible solutions were studied from a conceptual point of view as well as in the light of two case studies. One case is the emergence and implementation of the Equator Principles, a voluntary Corporate Social Responsibility initiative in the banking industry; the other case concerns the pros and cons of a paternalistic economic policy.

As was elaborated in the project, this view is the result of a particular narrative that only emerges in early modern times and has always been confronted with other views from within and outside economics, in particular ethics, which point out the conflicting nature of both norms. The project showed both at the conceptual level and in the discussion of the two case studies that appropriate mechanisms of regulation, monitoring and sanctions are needed in order to make the results of economic behavior compatible with both norms.

In the implementation of those mechanisms and interventions the danger of paternalism needs to be addressed if it is to be avoided. Martens, W. Bertelsmann Verlag; S. Wendt ed. Details Link to full text Klump, Rainer : Wirtschaftspolitik. History, Methodology, Philosophy 3 4 ; At all times, holy texts have been used as reference points for the legitimation and justification of political decisions.

They served as an overarching framework from which particular political and social decisions of, for instance, early modern societies in Europe derived their claim of perennial validity. One example would be the use of certain biblical passages from both the Old and the New Testament in order to illustrate the character of good governance, to prove the validity of particular forms of political constitution, to sanction the use of violence and so on. In this project, the reference to biblical passages as an absolute norm — as norma normans — was analyzed on the basis of certain groups of sources, especially collections of sermons, and with a focus on a comparison between different Christian confessions and between different regions.

The project helped to foster our understanding of how sacred texts legitimize fundamental norms and how respective narratives of justification function in society. In this way we were able to arrive at new insights into historical chronology and the genesis of basic rights as fundamental norms of modernity.

Transitional rites in early-modern Christianity — in particular baptismal rites, marriage rites between members of the different Christian confessions as well as members of Christianity and Judaism or Islam , and the rituals associated with death consolation rites in the event of death, mourning — were analyzed as providing a key to understanding interconfessional and interreligious disputes.

The basis of the research was provided by the rich sources in the Vatican archives. Our analysis confirmed that the shared horizon of the controversies analyzed was invariably provided by the scholarly interpretation of the Old Testament and the New Testament. The controversies turned exclusively on the extent to which the Bible could be function and be recognized as norma normans both in theological justification and as regards its practical effects in the world.

Based on an examination of the sources, the project was also able to prove that the emergence of basic rights had already begun in Europe during the sixteenth century. The elaboration of a comprehensive database provided the foundation for a systematic analysis of the argumentative use of certain Biblical passages New and Old Testaments in the conflicts to be analyzed, e. Vorgeschichte, Verlauf, Wirkung , C. Lanzinger, D. Rizzo, pp.

Dursteler ed. Profile Project members Cristellon, Cecilia, Dr. Ellermann u. Sedmak Hg. Vorgeschichte, Verlauf, Wirkung, 7. Melloni Hg. Ein Christ zwischen Reformation und Moderne , Berlin. Vorgeschichte, Verlauf, Wirkung, 6. Regensburger Hgg. Leppin Hgg. In: Das Haus in der Geschichte Europas. Ein Handbuch, Hg J.

Eibach, I. Schmidt-Voges, De Gruyter , S. In: Il genere nella ricerca storica, Hg. Chemotti, M. Details Cristellon, Cecilia : Il giudice come confessore nei processi matrimoniali veneziani Beaulande-Barraud, M. Charageat, Turnhout: Brepols , S. Dursteler Leiden, Boston: Brill , pp. Cristellon -- pp. Systems of legal norms constitutions, law collections, judicial texts for teaching purposes and mathematical theorems or systems of mathematical rules both represent formal structures which are valuable for specific legal theory and epistemological aspects, as they are of a high inner coherence which enables deductions, aiming at enabling unique decisions for the solution of specific problems.

The guidance provided by such meta-norms, which are the basis for a formal understanding of judicial and mathematical structures and procedures, is a characteristic feature of a modern idea of law and mathematics. It was mainly devised and established in the first decades of the 20th century within the context of scientific and cultural concepts of the modern era.

Hans Kelsen for the domain of legal theory and David Hilbert for the domain of mathematics are key figures in this development. However — and this is where our current project starts from — even very early stages of written judicial and mathematical systems and procedures display certain formal structures. This is also apparent in further domains, where knowledge was put in written form. To understand this process in its important stages better is the aim of our project. The project analyses the normativity of formal structures and procedures with reference to ancient Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Hittite, Greek and Roman judicial and mathematical texts.

Systems of norms which were generated by the earliest literate cultures indicate requirements for the normativity and characteristic aspects of formal structures, e. The study of the systems of rules of ancient cultures that used writing provides fundamental insights into the conditions for the emergence and acceptance of formally structured systems of norms. Such features as the importance of casuistic practices, regional and chronological changes and the need for consistency and coherence in their logical structure make it possible to draw conclusions about the nature of normative systems in question that may also be useful in research on later and even on recent developments.

The close collaboration with Prof.

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Moritz Epple and Prof. Guido Pfeifer fostered the discussion of the results beyond the boundaries of our project. Discussion of the research topic and the selection of suitable source material took place at an introductory workshop in April This workshop also served as preparation for the international conference held in March The papers delivered at this conference were then discussed in a further workshop held in February This served to make interconnections between the chapters of the corresponding volume that is currently being prepared for publication. Pre-modern mathematical and judicial texts exhibit distinctive formal structures whose normativity can be identified as early as in the texts from Mesopotamia and Egypt and enables conclusions to be drawn about the division of their content e.

Significant differences can be found between written legal texts from Egypt and from Mesopotamia Annette Imhausen. In addition, Guido Pfeifer documented the use of mathematical values within Mesopotamian legal texts as a further connection between the two subject areas. Workshop: Normativity of formal structures and procedures in the ancient world.

Profile Project members Schmidl, Petra, Dr. Fincke Hrg. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, Leiden - Boston: Brill, The question as to how non-state and quasi-state rule is to be legitimized became insistent already before the beginning of the 19th century, as modern statehood and civil society based on private law took shape as independent, autonomous spaces.

The central concern of the project is the identification and accentuation of patterns of legitimation that arise with the emergence of such non-state or quasi-state activities, which themselves correspond de facto or de jure to the exercise of sovereign power. This can include the diverse forms of legislation, adjudication and the exercise of administrative competences as they were practiced in the 19th- and early 20th-century legal orders.

Such narratives of legitimation are identified by investigating legitimation requirements, legitimation criteria, such as legality, the common good, effectiveness and efficiency, and various sources and topoi of legitimation, such as autonomy, sovereignty, democracy or self-rule. As a result, work during the funding period beginning in was able to address the conceptual foundations and considerations arising from state theory and jurisprudence in relation to such modes of regulation and the references they make to legitimation.

Wolf was very fruitful and it benefitted from a workshop whose results have been published in the meantime. While we were able to determine that the intensity of the contemporary scholarly debate on the legitimation of non-state regulation in Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries was, generally speaking, fairly thin, and thus did not play a significant role, there were indeed noteworthy exceptions. This seeming contradiction has to do with the fact that until the middle of the 20th century no uniform understanding or conception of democracy had emerged.

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Of more central importance were debates among practitioners and functionaries of the associations to which the project paid special attention. Topoi of legitimation with sector-specific contours developed within the context of these debates. The Case of the lex sportiva, in: Global Constitutionalism 3: 3 , The project investigates the formation of transnational regimes of criminal law in the 18th and 19th centuries as manifested in international treaties, national criminal law codes, international discourses among experts and various state practices.

One of the principal goals is to analyze interdependencies among transnational and national norms, actual state practice, and international discourses, conferences and organizations. Of particular interest in this context is the study of political crimes, which were perceived as posing cross-border threats to security and served as a narrative to promote the development of transnational regimes of criminal law. The subproject enriches the research area with valuable empirical and historical material on the development of transnational legal orders in modernity.

It reconstructs the formation of transnational regimes of criminal law in the 18th and 19th century. Fu Ying, chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the National People's Congress of China, rejected the criticism, but expressed her government's displeasure with Pyongyang's action. Former Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd also warned of a further nuclear armament of North Korea and called for a diplomatic solution to the conflict. The Asia expert warned that should this approach fail, it would be "very, very ugly". For the first time, the heads of important Western Intelligence Services took part in a public panel discussion at the security conference.

James R. Cerf , Internet pioneer and vice president of Google , [] the relationship between security and civil liberty. He described that IS was using high-tech online methods for recruitment and propaganda purposes. The Intelligence Service officials agreed with the demand for an improved data exchange between their services. In connection with the new transatlantic data agreement " Privacy Shield ", Clapper announced that it should also respect the privacy rights of citizens of other countries. In a panel discussion on the situation in Africa , former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan described the grim prospects of African youth as an important root cause for refugee flows and terrorism.

He called for more humanitarian and social engagement in solving the crises, stressing that purely military measures will not succeed. Hassan Sheikh Mohamud , President of Somalia , reiterated Annan's views and described that in his country many militiamen had joined the al-Shabaab terrorist group because of economic reasons. During a panel discussion on the refugee crisis, Peter Altmaier , Chief of the German Chancellery and Federal Minister for Special Affairs , stressed the importance of a ceasefire in Syria.

Altmaier called for a quota of refugees in Europe and stated that accommodations should be located near their countries of origin to provide them with homes and schools there. In this context, Altmaier also emphasized the transfer of refugees to Turkey or their repatriation to safe countries of origin. Therefore, the foreign minister called for protection of the EU's external borders and better controls of those who entered. Gentiloni warned that this was becoming a major threat for the continent. The 51st Munich Security Conference was held from 6 to 8 February Among the more than international participants [] from nearly 80 countries were also 20 heads of state, 70 foreign and defense ministers [] and 30 CEOs of large companies.

In her speech, she explained Germany's willingness to assume international leadership responsibilities. It consisted of "leadership from the center", the minister explained, and not one "with Pickelhaube ". Based on the German history, von der Leyen derived the commitment of her country to defend human rights [] and added however that the German population was "cautious" on this issue. In regards to the conflict in Ukraine , the minister accused Russia of leading an "undeclared war".

In her speech, Merkel rejected the idea of supplying weapons to the Ukraine and spoke in favor of a diplomatic solution, and the revitalization of the Minsk Protocol , since the conflict could not be resolved militarily. At the conference, Russian Foreign Minister Lavrov accused the West of deliberately intensifying the conflict in Ukraine. Russian Foreign Minister called the current situation a "turning point" in which the West must decide whether they want to "build a secure architecture with, without or against Russia".

Lavrov spoke positively about the Franco-German peace efforts. He asked Moscow to show more willingness to compromise and told Lavrov that his speech had not contributed to resolving the conflict. Steinmeier ruled out a quick end to the hostilities. Like Chancellor Merkel before, Steinmeier rejected weapon supplies to the Ukraine and described them as "highly risky" and "counterproductive".

Philip M. At the same time, General Breedlove ruled out the deployment of ground troops. In connection with the negotiations about Iran's nuclear program, the Iranian Foreign Minister Zarif stated at the conference that he was opposed to a further extension of the current negotiations, which had a deadline of the end of March He spoke about the support from the Supreme Leader of Iran , Ali Khamenei , for Tehran's nuclear negotiations, and called for lifting the sanctions against his country.

Israeli Minister of Strategic Affairs , Yuval Steinitz , warned at the conference of a nuclear arms race in the Middle East, should Iran obtain nuclear weapons. In the fight against the Islamic State terrorist group IS , the Israeli minister urged Western countries to provide more military and financial support for Egypt , Jordan , the Kurds and moderate rebel forces in Syria.

The strikes had helped to liberate square kilometers from IS control. In connection with the IS burning of the Jordanian pilot Muath al-Kasasbeh alive, Kerry spoke of a "new level of depravity" and announced that the international community should relentlessly tackle terrorist groups like IS and Boko Haram. The Lebanese Prime Minister Tammam Salam described the situation in his country - which with its population of four million had taken 1.

The collapse of global order was the subject of another panel discussion, in which Martin Schulz , President of the European Parliament , Kumi Naidoo , international director of Greenpeace , and George Soros , investor and philanthropist, discussed the possibilities of a future new world order. In his speech Gauck called for a new German foreign policy, together with a stronger foreign policy commitment from Germany, which would show a greater self-confidence and take on more responsibility.

To address the federal government , he pleaded "not to flee from threats". Finally, the President urged to correct the German self-image. The previous six decades of the Federal Republic as a free and stable nation should justify the Germans having "trust and confidence" in themselves. Gauck called it a requirement to be "reliable for their partners" in the world. A dominant theme of the conference was the violent clashes between government and opposition in Ukraine.

Ukrainian Foreign Minister Leonid Kozhara dismissed the allegations that his country's political policies were directed against Europe. Since Ukraine is geographically part of Europe and also carries a very close relationship with Russia, Koschara warned, it should not be faced with the decision "Europe or Russia". The Foreign Minister also declared that Ukraine had already met key demands of the opposition. The panel discussion on the history of the Security Conference to mark the 50th anniversary had attendances from former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger , who both had participated in the first Internationale Wehrkundebegegnung in In combination with this, the former French President justified the military interventions of his country in Africa.

Henry Kissinger also shared the assessment of an increasingly complex global security situation, which hampered the development of "coherent strategies". Kissinger pushed that Europe in turn was very "reluctant to military conflicts" [] and was sometimes too "hesitant" in the fight against violence, a criticism that Giscard d'Estaing already accused Europe of and linked it to "discouragement". Recalling the situation in Afghanistan and Iraq, Kissinger warned however to be cautious that the decisions of military intervention should not be influenced by a "moment of rage", if willingness is not given to such wars to "endure to the end".

Egon Bahr emphasized the risks of new, hard-to-find threats such as cyber-attacks on power grids and other infrastructure facilities. These threats had even made the US vulnerable and revealed an existing inability to defend themselves against them. Bahr further demanded a policy of deterrence analogous to that of the days of the nuclear threat. Former German Chancellor Schmidt said Europe was decreasing in importance. Schmidt stated that the consequences of global population growth were crucial for the continent's future.

Europe will make up only seven percent of the world population in , while in more than one in five people had lived in Europe. No approaches were made towards the transatlantic conflict over NSA surveillance in Europe. Throughout the discussion he called the carried out spying on German citizens "exorbitantly" [] and demanded a "signal from the Americans to their closest partner in Europe". Company representatives from Deutsche Telekom , Huawei and Microsoft demanded a binding international standard of Internet security.

Microsoft Vice President Matt Thomlinson announced the opening of the company's own transparency centers, including one in Brussels , where governments could check the source code of Microsoft products to insure that they contain no backdoors for US intelligence agencies. Both leaders reaffirmed their intention to seek solutions, "that advance the two nations".

The conference also housed a meeting of the Middle East Quartet in which the EU Representative Ashton put economic aid for Israelis and Palestinians in view that both parties consented to a peace agreement. After the previously unsuccessful negotiations in Geneva of the Syrian civil war parties, discussions at the security conference took no further approach towards the Syrian conflict. Despite his announcement of follow-up negotiations designated UN special envoy Lakhdar Brahimi stated the international peace efforts in Syria had failed. During a debate on Iran's nuclear program Zarif insisted on his country's right to use nuclear energy.

In connection with the forthcoming international negotiations were "many steps" to go, the Iranian foreign minister stated. The 49th Security Conference was held from the 1 to 3 February [] More than senior politicians and business executives, as well as high-ranking military officials and security experts [] from 90 countries attended the event. This included over 90 delegations, a dozen heads of state, 70 foreign and defense ministers, [] ten US senators, five EU Commissioners, five German federal ministers and 60 members of the German Bundestag and an equal number of CEOs.

The conference focused on the European debt crisis, transatlantic relations, the crisis regions of Mali and the Middle East , [] as well as energy security and cyber terrorism. The Euro crisis and the future of the European Union were the themes of the opening debate. The second day of the conference focused on the transatlantic relations. Speaking about the importance of Europe, Biden stated that "Europe is the cornerstone of our commitment to the world and a catalyst for global cooperation" and called the Europeans "oldest friends and closest allies" of the US.

Biden also announced improvements in the US relations with Russia. However, he refused a military intervention on the part of his country. In the debates on the final day of the conference, Iranian Foreign Minister Ali Akbar Salehi expressed the willingness of his country to accept the US's negotiated bid [] on the Iranian nuclear program, but imposed certain conditions. Barak reiterated his countries determination to prevent Iran from building nuclear weapons. A panel discussion on cyber security was accompanied by reports of hacker attacks against Twitter and leading American newspapers.

Friedrich stated that cyber security had become a key issue of the 21st century. Deutsche Telekom CEO Rene Obermann called upon affected companies to report cyber attacks, since the disclosure of security issues contributes significantly to their resolution. Further topics of the conference included the future of the responsibility to protect , [] digital diplomacy in the age of social media, [] European defense policy [] as well as security and stability in Southeast Europe and the Caucasus.

In two other events were launched and have been conducted annually since then. In , the Cyber Security Summit was created as a fourth conference series. Held in parallel to the Security Conference, this annual roundtable series is designed to directly involve the next generation of decision-makers into the main conference proceedings. The subsequent events took place in Moscow in , [] Beijing in , [] as well as Doha in The issues discussed in New Delhi were the threats of terrorism and cyber-attacks, questions of maritime security, [] regional and global security structures and concepts for new global governance.

The Core Group Meeting was held in Vienna. Klimkin urged the European states to confront the Russian government head-on. Key topics of the meeting were the implementation of the Vienna Agreement concerning the Iranian nuclear program and the political situation in the region. German Foreign Minister Steinmeier, who opened the conference together with the Iranian Foreign Minister Zarif , [] [] emphasized the importance of transparency and trust for the successful implementation of the Vienna agreement: [] "After the game is before the game".

The security situation in Africa, the fight against international terrorism, and the challenges posed by climate change and epidemics were central themes of the meeting. ON were in attendance. During the summit several working groups analyzed existing cyber risks and dangers for the following industries:. On November 11, the second summit took place in Bonn. The gathering had the following four topics: [].

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The third summit was held on 3 November MSC Chairman Ischinger described the great geopolitical importance of cyber security as a result of Ukraine conflict, which had marked the return of war as political means in Europe. Further topics were the defense against cyberterrorism , the future of warfare , the economic relevance of cybersecurity and the development of norms and rules for the Internet. Goodman predicted the Internet would feature an "epic battle" of different interest groups.

Neumann from King's College London described the hierarchical structure of law enforcement agencies as an organizational problem in combating cyber-crime, at odds with the de-centralized operating mode of the Internet. Other topics of the event were climate change , the geostrategic consequences of fracking and the German Energy transition. Key topics of the meeting included the " shale gas revolution" in the United States [] and the conflict in Ukraine. In his speech, Foreign Minister Steinmeier stressed the important role of energy policy for foreign and security policy.

The minister stressed the need to make compromises in the Russia-Ukraine gas dispute, [] and warned against too high expectations of substituting American shale gas for Russian gas supplies. The strategic issue of energy would require Germany to get involved with its technological and political competence, Oettinger stated. Yatsenyuk reiterated his country's refusal to pay a "political price" in exchange for gas supplies from Russia. The premier also expressed the willingness of his country to participate in a common energy policy with the EU.

After the previously reached deal to resolve the Iranian nuclear crisis, the Minister demanded the rapid lifting of the economic sanctions. He dashed hopes that Tehran would build a gas pipeline to Europe to weaken the dominant role of Russia in the European gas market, citing transit problems and costs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Historisches Lexikon Bayerns. Retrieved 22 November Cohen 28 January Munich Security Conference. Retrieved 21 February Geneva Centre for Security Policy. The Telegraph.

Retrieved Retrieved 14 January Der Tagesspiegel. Die Presse. Bundesministerium der Verteidigung. Focus Online. Zeit Online. Deutsche Welle. Asia Times. February 20, Retrieved 24 January Stuttgarter Zeitung.