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Item s unavailable for purchase. Please review your cart. You can remove the unavailable item s now or we'll automatically remove it at Checkout. Remove FREE. Unavailable for purchase. Likewise, given the great antiquity of the limbic system, it can be surmised that the Paleolithic human limbic system was well developed, and similar to the limbic system of modern humans Joseph a, ; The Neanderthals were not a very intelligent or tidy people and were unable to fashion complex tools which, along with other indices, suggests they were unable think complex thoughts.
Yet they were people of passion who experienced profound emotions and love; made possible by the limbic system and temporal lobe. In fact, it is because they had the limbic capacity to experience love, spiritual awe, and religious concerns, that these expressions of love continued following death of those they loved, as it has been conclusively demonstrated that these brain structures mediate these functions Joseph , , a, , In overall size, the posterior portion of the Neanderthal brain, i. The occipital and superior parietal areas are directly concerned with visual analysis and positioning the body in space Joseph , As male and female Neanderthals spent a considerable amount of their time engaged in hunting activities, scanning the environment for prey and running and throwing in visual space were more or less ongoing concerns.
A large occipital and superior parietal lobe would reflect these activities. By contrast, concerns about the dead, and attendant mortuary rituals are activities linked to the temporal lobes. The temporal lobes and underlying limbic structures amygdala, hippocampus , could be likened the seat of the soul and the senior executive of the personality. It is the temporal lobes and the amygdala and hippocampus which have been directly implicated in the generation of religious feelings and supernatural experiences including visions of floating above the body, seeing angels and devils, and what has been described as the after-death and near-death experiences Joseph , b, a,b, a, , The amygdala which is buried in the depths of the anterior temporal lobe enables us to hear "sweet sounds," recall "bitter memories," or determine if something is spiritually significant, sexually enticing, or good to eat and makes it possible to experience the spiritually sublime.
It is concerned with the most basic animal emotions, and allows us to store affective experiences in memory or even to reexperience them when awake or during the course of a dream in the form of visual, auditory, or religious or spiritual imagery. The amygdala also enables an individual to experience emotions such as love and religious rapture, as well as the ecstasy associated with orgasm and the dread and terror associated with the unknown.
In fact, the amygdala in conjunction with the hippocampus and overlying temporal lobe contributes in large part to the production of very bizarre, unusual and fearful mental phenomenon including dissociative states, feelings of depersonalization, and hallucinogenic and dream-like recollections involving threatening men, naked women, the experience of god, as well as demons and ghosts and pigs walking upright dressed as people Daly ; Gloor ; Halgren ; Horowitz et al.
Moreover, some individuals report communing with spirits or receiving profound knowledge from the Hereafter, following amygdala stimulation or abnormal activation Penfield and Perot ; Subirana and Oller-Daurelia, ; Williams Intense activation of the temporal lobe, hippocampus, and amygdala has been reported to give rise to a host of sexual, religious and spiritual experiences; and chronic hyperstimulation can induce an individual to become hyper-religious or visualize and experience ghosts, demons, angels, and even "God," as well as claim demonic and angelic possession or the sensation of having left their body Bear ; Gloor ; Horowitz et al.
Much of the visual, emotional, and hallucinatory aspects of dream sleep, have their source in the temporal lobe and underlying limbic system structures Joseph , , , , , It is the evolution of the temporal lobes, this "transmitter to god" which also explains why even primitive humanity likely believed in spirits, souls, and ghosts, and practiced complex mortuary rites for those they feared or loved.
Likewise, the temporal lobes mature more rapidly than the frontal lobes over the course of human ontological development Joseph, , , b, a, b,c. Comparison of the frontal lobes red in different species The Neanderthals were blessed with a well developed temporal lobe, whereas more anterior regions of the brain, the frontal lobes, remained little different from more ancient ancestral primate species.
However, with the evolution of the Cro-Magnon people, the brain mushroomed in size, with much of that development in the frontal lobes. Top Neanderthal skull. Bottom Cro-Magnon Skull As based on cranial comparisons and endocasts of the inside of the skull, and using the temporal and frontal poles as reference points, it has been demonstrated that the brain has tripled in size over the course of human evolution, and that the frontal lobes significantly expanded in length and height during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition Blinkov and Glezer ; Joseph ; MacLean ; Tilney ; Weil ; Wolpoff It is obvious that the height of the frontal portion of the skull is greater in the six foot tall, anatomically modern Upper Paleolithic H.
The evolution and expansion of the frontal lobe is also evident when comparing the skills and creative and technological ingenuity of the Cro-Magnons, vs the Neanderthals Joseph , , b. Figure A modern dotted line mesolithic cranium compared with a more ancient cranium solid line. Arrows indicate the main average changes in skull structure including a reduction in the length of the occiput and an increase and upward expansion in the frontal cranial vault. Wolpoff , Paleo- Anthropology. Therefore, whereas the temporal, occipital and parietal lobes were well developed in archaic and Neanderthals, the frontal lobes would increase in size by almost a third in the transition from archaic humans to Cro-Magnon Joseph , a,b, It is the evolution of the frontal lobes which ushered in a cognitive and creative big bang which gave birth to a technological revolution and complex spiritual rituals and beliefs in shamans and goddesses and their relationship to the heavens, and thus the moon and the stars.
Neanderthals died out as a species around 30, years ago; but for at least 10, years they shared the planet with the Cro-Magnon people. The Cro-Magnon men stood 6ft tall on average and the males and females were very handsome and beautiful, with thin hips, aquiline noses, prominent chins, small even perfect teeth, and high rounded foreheads.
There was nothing ape-like or Neanderthal about these people. In fact, the Cro-Magnon brain is one third larger than the modern human brain, i. However, a distinguishing characteristic of the Cro-Magnon brain, was the massively developed frontal lobes. The frontal lobes are the senior executive of the brain and are responsible for initiative, goal formation, long term planning, the generation of multiple alternatives, and the consideration of multiple consequences Joseph, a, a. The frontal lobes are the source of creativity, imagination, and what has been described as free will Joseph , It is well established that the frontal lobes enable humans to think symbolically, creatively, imaginatively, to plan for the future, to consider the consequences of certain acts, to formulate secondary goals, and to keep one goal in mind even while engaging in other tasks, so that one may remember and act on those goals at a later time Joseph , b, , c.
Comparison of the frontal cranium over the course of "evolution:" from Australopithecus, to H. Habilis, to H.
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Note obvious expansion of the anterior portion of the skull frontal lobe. They created underground Cathedrals of artistry and light, adorned with magnificent multi-colored paintings ranging from abstract impressionism to the surreal and equal to that of any modern master Breuil, ; Leroi-Gourhan , And they used their skills to carve the likeness of their female gods. Paleolithic Goddess: Venus de Brassempouy. Thirty five thousand years ago, Cro-Magnon were painting animals not only on walls but on ceilings, utilizing rich yellows, reds, and browns in their paintings and employing the actual shape of the cave walls so as to conform with and give life-like dimensions, including the illusion of movement to the creature they were depicting Breuil, ; Leroi-Gourhan , Many of their engraving on bones and stones also show a complete mastery of geometric awareness and they often used the natural contours of the cave walls, including protuberances, to create a 3-dimensional effect Breuil, ; Leroi-Gourhan , The drawing or carving often became a harmonious or rather, an organic part of the object, wall, ceiling, or tool upon which it was depicted.
The Cro-Magnon cave painters were exceedingly adept at recreating the scenes of everyday life. Moreover, most of the animals were drawn to scale, that is, they were depicted in their actual size; and all this, 30, years ago e. Chauvet, et al. They created art that was meant to be looked at, owned and admired, and for trade, as jewelry and household decorations, and as highly prized possessions as well as for religious reverence.
Picasso was awestruck by these Paleolithic masterpieces, and complained that although 30, years had elapsed, "we have learned nothing new. We have invented nothing. The Cro-Magnon were intellectual giants. They were accomplished artists, musicians, craftsmen, sorcerers, and extremely talented hunters, fishermen, and highly efficient gatherers and herbalists.
And they were the first to contemplate the heavens and the cosmos which they symbolized in art. From the time of Homo Erectus 1. P , humans had utilized fire to keep warm, to provide light, to cook their food, and to ward off animals. However, the Cro-Magnon learned over 30, years ago how to make fire using the firestone; iron pyrite which when repeatedly struck with a flint makes sparks which can easily ignite brush.
They also created the first rudimentary blast furnaces which were capable of emitting enormous amounts of heat, so as to fire clay. This was accomplished by digging a tiny tunnel into the bottom of the hearth which allowed air to be drawn in. Many of these female figurines were shaped so that they tapered into points so they could be stuck into the ground or into some other substance either for ornamental or supernatural purposes, e.
In fact, much of the art produced, be it finely crafted "laurel leafs" or other artistic masterpieces, served ritual, spiritual, and esthetic functions. It is the evolution of the Cro-Magnon and their massive frontal lobes which ushered in a cognitive and creative big bang which gave birth to complex spiritual rituals and beliefs in shamans, goddesses, and the cosmos Joseph , , By contrast, Neanderthals, archaics, and other peoples of the Middle Paleolithic were not very smart, and lived in the "here and now.
Neanderthal tools. As neatly summed up by Hayden , p. They tended to live in the immediacy of the present, with little ability to think about or consider the distant future or engage in creative or abstract thought Binford, , ; Dennell, ; Mellars, , These are capacities associated with the frontal lobes. Lower Right Modern human Upper Right Neanderthal cranium with endocasts of their brains superimposed About one third of the frontal lobe, i. It is this part of the "archaic" and Neanderthal frontal lobe that appears to be most extensively developed.
However, the more anterior frontal lobes are concerned with wholly different functions ranging from creative thought to analytical and planning skills Joseph , , c , and it is this region of the brain which exploded in size with the evolution of the Cro-Magnon people. Thus, whereas mortuary rites and primitive spirituality can be associated with the temporal lobes and the Neanderthals, it was not until the evolutionary expansion of the non-motor regions of the frontal lobes that spirituality and concepts of the soul could be expressed through abstract symbolism.
Therefore, the evolution of spirituality preceded abstract concepts which could be associated with religiosity; all of which in turn are directly linked to the differential evolution of the frontal and temporal lobes. Upper Paleolithic Cro-Magnons buried with tools, ornaments, hunting implements, and other essentials. Left Two boys buried together.
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Right Cro-Magnon adult. Note tools, ornaments, hunting implements, and other essentials. Beginning over 30, years ago the Cro-Magnon were painting, drawing, and etching bear and mammoth, dear and horse, and pregnant females and goddesses in the recesses of dark and dusky caverns Bandi ; Breuil, ; Chauvet et al.
The pregnant females include Venus statuettes, many of which were fertility goddesses. Paleolithic fertility rites. Dancing Paleolithic Goddess surrounded by female dancers. A pregnant woman is a symbol of fertility. However, so to is a slim, big busted female. The Cro-Magnon were able to draw both. In fact, these were the first people to paint and etch what today might be considered Paleolithic porn: slim, shapely, naked and nubile young maidens in various positions of repose. These naked females were not drawn for the sake of prurient interests.
These were fertility gods associated with the heavens and the stars. The Cro-Magon paid homage to a number of goddesses who was associated with the fertility of the earth, as well as the moon and the stars. One great goddess, linked to the moon was carved in limestone over the entrance to an underground cathedral in Laussel, France, perhaps 20, years ago. She was painted in the colors of life and fertility: blood red. Her left hand still rests upon her pregnant belly whereas in her right hand she holds the horned crescent of the moon which is engraved with thirteen lines, the number of new moon cycles in a solar year.
The Cro-Magnon believed in gods. God was a woman linked to the Moon, and the earth was her womb from which life would spring anew. Her other hand rests upon her pregnant belly. This goddess was carved outside the entrance to an underground Paleolitic Cathedral, in Laussel. The shaman appears to be mating with the female.
These great underground cathedrals may have also served as the Earth-womb of the goddess, where souls were reborn as men, women, and animals. Specific locations within the Earth-womb were of were of ritualistic, mystical, and spiritual significance in that many paintings were in out of the way places where one had to crawl long distances through tiny spaces and along rather tortuous routes to get to them Leroi-Gourhan Moreover, for almost 20, years, subsequent generations of Cro-Magnon artists crawled to these same difficult to reach locations to repaint or paint over existing drawings which were hidden away in deep recesses of these dark underground caverns that were extremely difficult to find Leroi-Gourhan This indicates that the location within the cave was of particular mystical and ritualistic importance.
And not just the location but the journey to these hidden recesses may have been of mystical significance perhaps relating to birth, or rebirth following death. Upper Paleolithic peoples apparently believed these souls and spirits could be charmed and controlled by hunting magic, and through the spells of sorcerers and shamans.
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Hence, in conjunction with the worship of the goddess, the Cro-Magnons also relied on shamans dressed as animals. Galloping, running, and swirling about this ancient sorcerer are bison, stag, horse, deer, and presumably their spirits and souls. Images of an almost identical "sorcerer" appear again in ancient Sumerian and Babylonian inscriptions fashioned four to six thousand years ago Joseph a.
The "sorcerer" has a name: "Enki"-the god of the double helix. Left "The Shaman. Here the Cro-Magnon would light candles and lamps, performing magical and spiritual rituals as the painted animals and spirits wavered in the cave light. Lascaux cave, France. The nature and location of the Cro-Magnon cathedrals, which have been found throughout Europe, and the nature of the tortuous routes to get to them, and the effect of cave light bringing these paintings to life, is significant as it embraces features associated with after death experiences as retold by present day as well as ancient peoples.
In the ancient Egyptian and Tibetan Books of the Dead, and has been reported among many of those who have undergone a "near death" or "life after death" experience, being enveloped in a dark tunnel is commonly experienced soon after death. It is only as one ascends the tunnel that one will see in the decreasing distance, a light, the "light" of "Heaven" and of paradise. However, emerging from the tunnel and mouth of the cave, would also be a symbolic rebirth through the birth canal and womb of the earth Before hunting and killing an animal, its spirit sometimes had to be conjured forth so as to not harm it, or to ask forgiveness Campbell ; Frazier The great hunters respected and paid homage to the souls and spirits of the animals they killed, and the Cro-Magnon were great hunters.
A dead hunter and a birds head. A disembowled bison stands above him. Presumably this scene depicts the death of a hunter and the flight of his soul as symbolized by the bird. Bird heads were commonly employed by ancient peoples including the Egyptians to depict the ascension to heaven. Eventually, bird heads were replaced by creatures with wings, e. However, the symbolism of the birds also refers to flight, and the spirits of the dead were believed to ascend to the heavens which were filled with stars.
Be it human, animal or plant, souls were also believed capable of migrating to new abodes, and that souls could migrate from humans, to animals or plants and then back again Campbell, ; Frazier, ; Harris, ; Jung, ; Malinowkski, The spirit left the body at death, and the body was buried in the womb of the earth, from which new life would emerge.
And the liberated soul might ascend to starry vault of heaven, sometimes taking the shape and form of a bird. Goddesses with bird heads. From Libya, approximately 10, B. The bird head symbolizes the capacity for flight and thus the ability to ascend to heaven. Be it following death, or during a dream, sometimes the soul was believed to take on another form, such as a bird, or deer, fox, rabbit, wolf, and so on. The spirit and the soul could also hover about in human- or animal-like, ghostly vestiges, at the fringes of reality, the hinterland where day turns into night Campbell ; Frazier ; Jung ; Malinowski ; Wilson Not just men but animals too had souls that had to be respected.
Even after death souls continued to interact with the living, and every living being possessed a soul. Hence, the ancients believed that these souls could be influenced, their behavior controlled, and, in consequence, a good hunt insured or with the assistance of a soul. And thus, deep within the womb of the Earth, the Cro-Magnon painted and paid homage to the spirits of the animal world.
Souls were also believed by ancient humans to wonder about while people sleep and dream Brandon ; Frazier ; Harris ; Jung , ; Malinowkski That is, among many different cultures and religions the soul is believed to sometimes wonder away from the body, especially while dreaming, and may engage in certain acts or interact with other souls including those of the dear but long dead and departed.
These peoples believed in an afterlife and a spirit world which could be entered through a doorway of dreams. Thus, at death, the soul or spirit would be completely liberated from the body. Spirits and the souls wondjinas of the dead Paleolithic spirits ascending to the heavens. According to the ancients, the soul could exit the body following death and thus we see that the peoples of the Paleolithic peoples often buried their dead in sleeping positions.
And, because the Cro-Magnons obviously believed in an after-life, they buried their dead with food, weapons, flowers, jewelry, clothing, pendants, rings, necklaces, multifaceted tools, head bands, beads, bracelets and so on. The Cro-Magnon were a profoundly spiritual people and they fully prepared the dead for the journey to the spirit world, equipping them so that they could live for all eternity in the land of the ancestors and the gods. The Cro-Magnon people were keen observers of the world around them, which they depicted with artistic majesty.
The heavens were part of their world and they searched the skies for signs and observed the moon, the patterns formed by clusters of stars, and perhaps the relationship between the Earth, the sun, and the changing seasons. Although it is impossible to date cave paintings with precision, the first evidence of this awareness of the cosmic connection between Sun, Moon, Woman, Earth and the changing seasons are from the Paleolithic; symbolized in the creations of the Cro-Magnon. Consider, the pregnant goddess, the Venus of Laussel, who holds the crescent moon in her hand though others say it is a bison's horn.
Although the length of a Cro-Magnon woman's menstrual cycle is unknown, it can be assumed that like modern woman she menstruated once every 28 to 29 days, which corresponds to a lunar month 29 days long, and which averages out to 13 menstrual cycles in a solar year. And not just menstruation, but pregnancy is linked to the phases of the moon. When the Cro-Magnon turned their eyes to the heavens, seeking to peer beyond the mystery that separated this world from the next, they observed the sun. With a brain one third larger than modern humans, and given their tremendous power of observation, it can be predicted these ancient people would have associated the movement of the sun with the changing seasons which effected the behavior of animals, the growth of plants, and the climate and weather; all of which are directly associated with cyclic alterations in the position of the sun and the length of a single day over the course of a solar year which is equal to 13 moons.
The four seasons, marked by two solstices and the two equinoxes have been symbolized by most ancient cultures with the sign of the cross, e. The "sign of the cross" generally signifies religious or cosmic significance. The Cro-Magnon also venerated the sign of the cross, the first evidence of which, an engraved cross, is at least 60, years old Mellars, Yet another cross, was painted in bold red ochre upon the entryway to the Chauvet Cave, dated to over 30, years ago Chauvet et al.
The entrance to the underground Upper Paleolithic cathedral. The Chauvet cave. Note the sign of the cross. Reprinted from Chauvet et al. Dawn of Art: The Chauvet Cave. Henry H. New York. Thus over a span of 13 moons, it appears to an observer that the days become shorter and then longer and then shorter again as the sun moves from north to south, crosses the equator, and then stops, and heads back north again, only to stop, and then to again head south, crossing the equator only to again stop and head north again.
The two crossings each year, over the equator in March and September are referred to as equinoxes and refers to the days and nights being of equal length. For example, the ancient temples and pyramids in Egypt were oriented to the solstices, whereas the Temple of Solomon faced the rising sun on the day of the equinox. Thus the sign of the cross is linked to the heavens and to the sun. Understanding the heavens and the sun, has been been a common astronomical method of divining the the will of the gods, and for navigation, localization, and calculation: these celestial symbols have heavenly significance.
The sign of the cross was the ideogram of the goddess "An", the Sumerian giver of all life from which rained down the seeds of life on all worlds including the worlds of the gods. An of the cross gave life to the gods, and to woman and man. The God Seb supporting the Goddess Nut who represents heaven. Note the repeated depictions of the key of life; i. For example, like the Catholics, the Mayas and Aztecs adorned their temples with the sign of the cross. Quetzocoatl, like Jesus, was a god of the cross.
Quetzocoatl the Mayan and Aztec god of the cross. The round shield encircling the cross represents the sun. In China the equilateral cross is represented as within a square which represents the Earth, the meaning of which is: "God made the Earth in the form of a cross. Ochre etched with crosses, forming a series of cross-hatchings, dating to 77, years ago. Among the ancient, the sign of the cross, represented the journey of the sun across the four corners of the heavens.
The Cro-Magon adorned the entrance and the walls of their underground cathedrals with the sign of the cross, which indicates this symbol was of profound cosmic significance. However, that some of the Cro-Magnon depictions of animal-headed men have also been found facing the cross, may also pertain to the heavens: the patterns formed by stars, which today are refereed to as "constellations. The pattern can be likened to a woman in lying on her back with an arm behind her head, and this may have been the visage which stirred the imagination of the Cro-Magnon.
Cro-Magnon goddess, depicting the constellation of Virgo. La Magdelain cave. Depictions of the various constellations, such as Taurus and Orion, and "mythologies" surrounding them, are of great antiquity, and it appears that similar patterns were observed by the Cro-Magnon people. Consider, for example the "Sorcerers" or "Shamans" wearing the horns of a bull, and possibly representing the constellation of Taurus; a symbol which appears repeatedly in Lascaux, the "Hall of the Bulls" and in the deep recesses of other underground cathedrals dated from 18, to 30, B.
And above the back of one of these charging bulls, appears a grouping of dots, or stars, which many authors believe may represent the Pleiades which is associated with Taurus. These Paleolithic paintings of the bull appear to be the earliest representation of the Taurus constellation. Top The main freeze of the bulls in the Lascaux Cave in Dordogne. There is a group of dots on the back of the great bull Taurus which may represent six of the seven stars of the Pleiades the seven sisters.
As stars are also in motion, not all would be aligned or as bright or dim today, as was the case 20, to 30, years ago. In ancient Egypt, dating back to the earliest dynasties Griffiths , Osiris was the god of death and of fertility and rebirth, who wore a a distinctive crown with two horns later symbolized as ostrich feathers at either side.
He was the brother and husband of Isis. According to myth, Orisis was killed by Set the destroyer and dismembered. Isis recovered all of his body, except his penis. After his death she becomes pregnant by Orisis. The Kings of Egypt were believed to ascend to heaven to join with Osiris in death and thereby inherit eternal life and rebirth, symbolized by the star Sirius Redford Over 20, years ago, the 6ft tall Cro-Magnon, with their massive brain one third larger than modern humans, painted a hunter with two horns who had been killed.
And below and beneath the dead Cro-Magnon hunter, another bird, symbol of rebirth, and perhaps symbolizing the star Sirius. The constellation of Osiris Orion the hunter in Egyptian mythology is the god of the dead who was dismembered; but also represents resurrection and eternal life as signified by the star Sirius. Upper Left Cave painting. The dead bird-headed or two horned hunter killed by a bull whom he disemboweled. We are not called to wield laser beams of biblical authority to destroy heavenly strongholds. We are called to faithfully reflect the glory of Jesus Christ through our obedience to his commands.
Fourth, as important as informed prayer is, seeking information about the spirit realm as a means of overcoming them or gaining special knowledge does not appear to be portrayed as necessary or even significant in Scripture. Indeed, the majority of the warnings against the occult in the Bible focus on unwarranted explorations into the spiritual realms for knowledge or power. Fifth, ultimately a focus on this strategy as the key to effective evangelization demeans the Scriptures: if this strategy is so significant, then why is it not found in the Bible? Additionally, support for the advocacy has tended to come through eisegetical reading into biblical texts the meanings that advocates of SLSW want.
Additionally passages such as Ephesians cannot be used as a mandate for proclaiming the gospel to the powers the verb is passive; the existence of the church is the issue, not the action of the church. Sixth, another possible danger is that we detach demons from people, which de-emphasizes our own participation in the rebellion against God.
In concentrating on finding out the various forms of territorial demonic attachments and focusing our attention on them, we ignore the fact that all too often the enemy is us. Some explore this reality, 41 but by and large the enemy is externalized, enabling us to avoid responsibility for our sin. If the enemy is both inside e. White again has a pertinent question:. How can we know if the negative influence in a given spiritual environment originates primarily from the heavenlies downward or from the corrupt leaders hearts of men outward?
Perhaps the idea that they cannot change until the power of the ruling spirit is broken has merit, but. The first suggestion for refinement in this area is that we must be more cautious in the use of exaggerated claims and anecdotes as the means by which SLSW is established. We must be careful in analyzing the success stories given in the literature not to confuse coincidence with causation. This is attributed to the power and influence of territorial spirits. A second suggestion is that advocates of SLSW emphasize spiritual diagnosis over spiritual mapping, and be more cautious in their pronouncements.
We must enable Christians to develop a world view that acknowledges the powers without capitulating to them or being captivated by an unhealthy interest in them. Along these lines, we should find appropriate ways to stress more strongly the need for discipleship than just warfare. Additionally, we must not overlook the need to die to the powers rather than follow the desire to overcome them, as Wink notes:.
One does not become free from the Powers by defeating them in a frontal attack. Rather, one dies to their control. Here also the cross is the model: we are liberated, not be striking back at what enslaves us—for even striking back reveals that we are still determined by its violent ethos—but by dying out from under its jurisdiction and command. We need to die not only to our privatized egos, but to the outer network of social beliefs also. I close with an excellent eight-point summary given by Clinton Arnold which I would consider an appropriate starting point for a Lausanne statement on engaging territorial spirits in spiritual warfare:.
There is a hierarchy among the demons and angels in the evil spiritual domain. Some evil angels have assignments over empires, people groups, countries, regions, territories, or cities. There is struggle and warfare between the angels of God and the angels of Satan in the supernatural realm that has an impact on the unfolding of events on earth. Through biblical revelation, God has heightened our awareness of the angelic realm. The knowledge he has given us is for the purpose of prompting our dependence on him through prayer.
Although God has given us the responsibility of exercising our authority in Christ over unclean spirits that afflict individuals, there is no biblical evidence that God has given us responsibility to bind, expel, or thwart the territorial rulers. Although we do not have the authority to directly engage territorial spirits, we certainly have the right to appeal to God to hinder and obstruct the grip of a demonic ruler over an area so that the gospel can be proclaimed and the darkness may be lifted from the eyes of the unbelieving.
It is also beneficial for informing the teaching and discipling of new believers. Christians do not need to feel a responsibility or a call to engage in a direct confrontation with the principalities and powers over a city, region, or a country We appeal directly to God, who will direct his angels to fight the battles against the high-ranking powers.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Downers Grove, Ill. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, Bernal, Dick. Burnett, David. Caballeros, Harold. Edited by C. Peter Wagner. Ventura, California: Regal Books, Carr, Wesley. Chiundiza, Richmond. Dawson, John. Lake Mary, Florida: Creation House, Hiebert, Paul. Kallas, James.
Minneapolis, Minn. Kraft, Charles H. Ann Arbor, Mich. Kraft, Marguerite G. Maryknoll: Orbis, Lea, Larry. Altamonte Springs, Florida: Creation House, Lowe, Chuck. Territorial Spirits and World Evangelization? McAlpine, Thomas H.
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Edited by Edward Rommen. Rommen, Edward, ed. Spiritual Power and Missions: Raising the Issues. Rommen, Edward and Netland, Harold, eds. Schlier, Heinrich. Principalities and Powers in the New Testament. New York: Herder and Herder, Sterk, Vernon J. Ventura, California: Regal, Steyne, Philip M. Houston: Touch Publications, Van Rheenen, Gailyn. Communicating Christ in Animistic Contexts. Wagner, C. Ventura, Calif. Ventura, CA: Regal, Confronting the Queen of Heaven.
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