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By Karen Elaine Smyth. Edition 1st Edition. First Published Imprint Routledge. Pages pages. These referents can be described, for instance, as regnal, calendrical, seasonal, mechanical; or as subjective and objective, traditional and modern, functional and aesthetic, structural and descriptive, communal and personal. These labels are not used to imply formulaic categories of medieval perceptions of time. There is no blueprint for exploring micro expressions of time.

Imaginings of Time in Lydgate and Hoccleve's Verse by Karen Elaine Smyth (2011, Hardcover)

In one part of the poem a type of referent — such as a tide, a seasonal reference or astrological calculation — can have multiple functions. Rather, each micro expression of time can only be described in relation to its context, to the occasion, in which it is used. To that end, a simple list of the referents does not suffice for this database; an indication of the narrative context the place where it is used and its effect on the narrative also accompanies each referent.

However, there was no place within the book to include this list of referents and to that end this digital resource provides an ideal home. This list is intended as a research tool for further studies to be undertaken. In my published study, I concluded that Hoccleve considers the paradoxes of viewing time as an ordering tool while being uneasy about the nature of temporal representation.

Currie explains:.

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Narrative is understood as retrospection more readily than it is understood as anticipation, but it cannot really be one without also being the other. If, in order to look back at what has happened, we tell a story, we must also know that the present is a story yet to be told.

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The present is the object of a future memory, and we live it as such, in anticipation of the story we will tell later, envisaging the present as past. In The Regiment of Princes, this takes the form of an exchange between an Old Man and the Hoccleve-narrator: the narrator is trapped in his present consciousness with anxieties about the past and his future potential impinging on his current behaviour. Simultaneously, our consciousness of the advisory text that is to follow undermines the didactic reading strategies on offer.

Thus temporal consciousness of the processes of interpretation in the Prologue complicates and undermines the universalizing effects of the indefinite time referents in the text-proper. In drawing our attention to how the present is a story yet to be told, Hoccleve gives voice to cultural anxieties about the unease of representations in time, of time management and of the ambiguities in processes of recollecting time. To that end I have provided this digital archive with the concordance of list of time markings that I compiled in my research.

This concordance lists all forms of time markings in the Regiment of Princes. Time referents have been understood as the micro markings that mark moments and durations precise and abstract, objective and subjective of people, nature and civilisations. Included therefore are: seasonal markings, astronomical, solar and lunar, astrological, planetary and zodiac, liturgical, prophetic, subjective, relative, objective, mechanical, historical, memorial, mnemonic and structural narrative time markings.

Similar time indicators sometimes operate in different ways. Such findings disclose how time indicators act as significant micro structures, playing active, integral and occasionally dynamic roles in enacting the lessons of the narrative.

I hope making the list below available will allow for yet more patterns to be discerned. It also allows those scholars who wish to explore specific aspects of medieval time consciousness — whether it is a study of the memory or of astronomy for instance, to also use this aid. Charles R. See online edition here. This page is under Construction, but a demo version of a concordance-building tool that is being used to create a display version of this concordance coded by Mark Watts is available here:.

The titles below are divided into two sections. My study was dated The second section acts as an indicative bibliography of some of the most influential studies on time in the medieval period, with a particular focus on studies that treat time as a cultural construct, as literary strategy, or linguistic influences.


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Section One: Hoccleve and General Studies. Bowers, John M.

Burrow, J. Boitani and A. Carlson, David R. Ellis Exeter: University of Exeter Press, , pp.

Imaginings of Time in Lydgate and Hoccleve's Verse : Karen Elaine Smyth - Book2look

Hammond, E. Hasler, Antony J. Kurtz, B.