The management activities of MSW are considered public services which are directly controlled by governmental institutions. Such management arrangement is considered weak as it lacks the market mechanisms, and in this case economical incentives cannot be used to improve and develop the MSW management services.
Another related common problem is the absent of effective and comprehensive legislative frameworks governing the solid waste sector and the inadequate enforcement mechanisms, which are no less important than the legislations themselves. Such short comings in the management of MSW create gabs and intensify the problems.
Standards and norms are also critical for the implementation of the legislative frameworks especially that concern the setting, design, and operation of the landfills and the dealing with possible hazardous and healthcare wastes. In many developing countries where financial resources exist, shortcomings are found in both the human and organizational capacities.
In Palestinian Authority donors have spent considerable amount of funds for rehabilitating devastated infrastructure and for providing facilities for the collection, transportation, and disposal of solid waste but they have compromised building the needed institutional and human capacities and raising the public awareness Khatib and Al-Khateeb, This created a problem that was only recently rectified as will be elaborated in the successive sections.
The last significant problem related to management of MSW is the availability of the significant amount of accurate background data and information on the status of solid waste, including MSW, such as rate of generation of different solid waste constituencies, assessment of natural resources and land-use, collection and transportation needs, scenarios of treatment, growth scenarios of solid waste which is linked to several driving forces.
Data and information are the crucial elements for developing MSW management system including the adequate monitoring of the sector. To overcome the a. Enabling management of the generated solid waste in an adequate approach will mitigate any adverse impacts to the environment, natural resources, and the public health, which are obviously the main aims of MSW management. In developed countries integral management of MSW has reached an advanced stage where MSW are reduced in amount at sources, i.
This has been achieved with both, the intervention of the available technology and the public awareness.
Technology has provided better design for the consumable products with less material in size, weight, and packaging. The benefits of this integrated management approach are many, including:. Reduced amount of waste to be recycled or transported to landfills or waste recycling facilities. Developed countries have also succeeded in applying different treatment and re-use methods for the generated MSW, including; recycling, composting, and energy recovery, in addition to the disposing of the waste in proper landfills.
The ISSWM is a system approach that recognizes three main dimensions including stakeholders, elements, and aspects.
These dimensions are shown in figure 8. The stakeholders are the people or organizations participating in solid waste management. This includes the waste generators who use the services, the service providers, the formal and informal private sector dealing with solid waste management, and other local or international institutions.
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Elements comprises the technical components of the waste management system starting from the generation of solid waste then the collection, transfer and transportation of waste to dumpsites or to treatment plant. Treatment ranges from. In order that the integrated waste management be sustainable, all required aspects, such as financial, social, institutional, political, legal, and environmental that assesses the feasibility of the management should be addressed in a sustainable way.
The different dimensions are interrelated and their linkages institutionally, legally, and economically enable the overall function of the system. It could therefore, be indicated that ISSWM considers MSW management not just a technological system with infrastructure and facilities that facilitate handling and disposal of MSW, but it is a management system that consider and deals with many other elements including the socio-economic settings, the physical environment and growth in public demands and management scenarios.
Moreno et al. These could be summarized based on figure 8 as follows:. Technological and operational principals should be adapted to the physical setting, local environment, and land use, of the region.
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Environmental and health principles that ensure that any technical setting is clean with the minimal impact on the environment and its elements. This is attained by following the waste management hierarchy preferring options that promote waste reduction and separation at sources,. Financial principles should ensure highest productivity of labor relying of capital intensive system and not on labor intensive.
Full cost recovery should also be considered,. Socio-economic principles that permit public in all regions to receive adequate and affordable management system without any adverse health impacts while acknowledging the different economical incomes of beneficiaries,. Administrative principles necessitate building the capacities of the personal involved in the management of MSW, in addition to encouraging the involvement stakeholders in the planning and implementation of the management activities,. Policy and legal framework principles, that while support decentralizing of relevant authorities and finance they, at the same time, encourage the involvement of stakeholders including non-governmental organizations and the private sector.
Palestinian Authority PA is considered as a developing entity having many in commons with other developing countries. It is only after the emerging of the PA that development in the Palestinian territories started taking place although it has been heavily retarded after the Israeli re-occupation of the Palestinian areas in in response to Palestinian second Intifada Uprising. The solid waste sector is managed by different institutions. In towns and villages, municipalities and village councils are providing the services whereas in refugee camps the United Nations Relief and Works Agency UNRWA is taking care of the services.
The long-term occupation with its daily harsh measures against Palestinians and their infrastructure have exerted heavy burden on the PA and other responsible institutions for launching a complete development process. In and with the help of donor countries and institutions, the PA has started preparing its first strategy for integrated solid waste management while facing huge challenges similar to those facing other developing countries and mentioned previously in the chapter.
This is due to the fact that the Israeli military incursions into PA areas after and through until has left a devastated infrastructure, let alone the Israeli occupation closure policies which prohibit people commuting among Palestinian communities. After money has been spent as previously mentioned on rehabilitating the destroyed infrastructure and for providing the required facilities but without building the needed institutional and human capacities.
In the effort to describe the solid waste status in the PA, a survey study was conducted in and Khatib and Al-Khateeb, which showed that the daily average per capita generated municipal solid waste is in the range 0. This average takes into account communities living in urban, rural, and refugee camps. It was found also that solid waste consists mostly of biodegradable organic waste, a characteristic that agrees well with studies done for other similar developing countries El-Edghiri, Later in same characteristics were reaffirmed by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics PCBS which further suggested an annual generated solid waste of one million tons in the PA area.
Subjects History. Published 2 March ISBN Ebook File Size Narrative history tracing the development of Australia's broad political, strategic, economic and people-to-people links with Asia over the century since the federation of Australian colonies. Facing North is the first substantial history of Australia's relations with Asia since Federation. Volume 1 chronicles Australian-Asian relations from to the s. Volume 2 now carries the story through the last decades of the century.
Both make extensive use of official government sources and of the private collections of ministers and public servants. This volume discusses the changing relations between Australia and Asia in the period from the s to Over this time, integration became a dominant theme as Australia looked increasingly to its near neighbours to form political, social and economic alliances. By: Feng Yongfeng. Biographical Note Yang Dongping is co-founder and vice president of Friends of Nature and professor of education at the Beijing Institute of Technology.
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The organization has more than active members and has been recipient fifteen prestigious national and international awards. She has published extensively on modern and contemporary China, including Mao's War against Nature Cambridge, , an account of China's political campaigns to conquer the natural world. He has published over twenty journal articles and book chapters on contemporary social issues in China, including environmental activism, voluntary associations, and the politics of the internet.
Because it is nontechnical, even readers with limited formal environmental education can easily understand the material Changes and Struggles is a worthy addition to university and public libraries. All those interested in developments in China's environment and environmental policy. Also an excellent primary source for analysis of the political climate for NGOs and public intellectual and policy discourse in China.
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