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Biology, Geography & Health: Section 57
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Cleo Mulder Artist. Clifford Charles Artist. Clubhuis t Vooronder Social worker. Coalition for Racial Justice Activist. Cock van der Ploeg Audience. Code Arts Educator. Cody Hall Audience. Coen Haklander Company. Cokkie Kraaijeveld Commissioner. Collectie Alle Vlaardingers Audience. Colores Musician. Comfort Social worker. Community Foundation for Merseyside Funding body. His domain extended beyond Tibet to include Dunhuang and neighbouring Chinese region Khotan. This teacher was besides teaching the calculation, astrology, medicine, healing and other teachings.
He invented the first writing which did not exist before him. It is considered to be a very holy writing, a divine writing. The life story of Tonpa Shenrab along with the recounting of his previous lives are found in three principal texts: the first, and considered the oldest, is the Dodu Wylie: mdo 'dus in one volume and twenty-four chapters. Second is the Zermig gzer mig in two volumes and eighteen chapters 13 14 discovered in the 10th century, followed by the Zije Wylie: gzi brjid comprised of twelve volumes and sixty-one chapters discovered in the 14th century by Tulku Loden Nyingpo.
The last two texts belong to the Revealed Treasure tradition Tib. Tonpa Shenrab is the fourth member of the important group known as the Four Transcendent Lords. Tonpa Shenrab also appears in six different forms, the Six Teachers of Discipline Outline Page , to train the various beings of the six different realms of existence. There are twelve special forms of Tonpa Shenrab known as the Twelve Ritual Deities representing twelve important events in his life. Tonpa Shenrab is represented in a twelve painting set depicting his life story. Origins oF Peoples of the Karakoram Himalayas, auther Charles Graves The scholarly search for the origin of the people of this region often falls victim to the complex religious history of the area.
If we leave aside the question of the religions of the people it may be possible to determine which 'peoples' at an early age inhabited the region up until recently called 'The Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir'. At 3, years ago at 1, BPE -'before the Present Era' the Indo-Aryans had already entered the Ganges plain and presumably there were some other elements of migrations from Central Asia which reached the more northerly areas of lndia called Kashmir.
Moreover, it is possible some 'aboriginal' groups from Rajasthan and Gujarat had penetrated Kashmir as well as other parts of the sub-continent. Also some 'Dravidian' speakers arriving in the sub-continent circa. Besides all these peoples known to have populated the subcontinent, another group stands out whose descendants still inhabit Kashmir and in particular the region of 'Gilgit-Baltistan', namely those who speak Burushaski i. These languages are of a completely different' language macro family' than 'Indo-European' or 'Indo-Iranian', although as'proto-languages' they could have been similar e.
The implication arising from studyof such groups of peoples is that the origin of the sino-Caucasian language was around Lake gBalkash in central Asia near Alma Aty in Kazakhstan. At one time the area was crossed by rivers coming down from the Altai mountains and it was not a desert as today. Apparently a particular language developed there and its speakers spread out westward to the North Caucasus Hurrians, Chechen, Basque etc.
The speakers of these languages were not influenced by the 'Indo-Aryan' ,'Indo-Iranian, and'Indo-European'languages whose origins were also in Central Asia. Representatives of these latter, through various migrations, inhabited Iran, the Indian sub-continent especially the Ganges basin and later penetrated Europe BPE and later.
Related to these latter are the IndoEuropean, Finno-Ugric, Dravidian, Kartvelian proto-Georgian and the Altaic languages all these were called by professor starostin and some of his colleagues the Nostratic Language macrofamily. The multitude of Amerindian American Indian languages represent the eastward extension of these Siberian groups. Japanese and Korean languages represent not Altaic languages such as Kyrghyz, Kazakh, Turkish or Mongolian but rather a mixture of old Siberian languages oral tradition with borrowings from Chinese.
Of course other major language groups relevant to the Near and Middle East Afro-Asiatic group do not enter the Kashmir scene except with the arrival of Islam. Returning to Burushaski as a constituent language of early Kashmir, and considering its similarity to proto-Tibetan and proto-Chinese, this type was important on both sides of the Karakoram pass at a very early 'date.
This is implied by the term Sino i. Chinese and Caucasian i. A portion of these speakers e. Other such speakers went northwards to the Yenessei the Ket' or westwards to south of the Caspian Sea extinct Hurrians and still others went to the North Caucasus area Chechen, Inguish, Chirkass, Afkhaz etc. Others migrated into Europe and settled in the Pyrenees Basques. Burushu Brooshoo religious terms rnay be compared with some 'Siberian' religious terminology.
Regarding features of Burushu Brooshoo religion some typical words are in Burushaski as fol1ows. Peri - fairy. Ainu: peure youthful ; upari snow ; pa fog, mist Bilas - female demon. Ainu: wu-yen bad ; osche kamui wolf. Ainu : of ui to bu rn ; Chukct rce : eh' ittin ' f ather of tribe' Boyo - animal god; Ainu: poro big ; baskuro crow, eagle ; kamui God Vzdar - monster. Ainu: antzh ara, n atshar a night Cihil -'djinn'. Koryak: Sisil'khan child of high god The scenario of Burushu Brooshoo religion reminds us of the Tibetan pantheons, especially of the Bon type. These can be compared with Ainu and other 'Siberian'terminology as seen above.
Although the Ainu are associated with their present homeland in northern Japan Hokkaido , the similarities of their terminology with Siberian peoples and Burushu Brooshoo indicates that their origin is Siberia and, in fact, Eastern Kazakhstan. Their language represents an old speech close to some original language when Nostratic and Sino-Caucasian had not yet separated. Thus, the original inhabitants of Kashmir were both 'Sino-Caucasian and 'Indo-Iranian' speakers- the former were originally from the northm and west and the latter were from 'Indo-Iranians'arriving in the Ganges basin after 1, BPE.
Perhaps these two groups represent the Pishachas and the 'Nagas'. Besides such groups the original constituency of Kashmir was enlarged by another groupz namely the Sakas of 'Scythian origin'. P'iankov was entitled The Ethnic Group sakas. The article discussed the sakas but also what were called the Kaspians, i. They were the'indigenous tribes, which held Kashmir, Gilgit, Badakhshan etc. Kaspiria continued under Burushu Brooshoo peoples until the first century of our present era. It encompassed the area of vanda and Nandon, including Gilgit with Hunza and Yasin and also wakhan and the adjoining pamii plateau.
Referring to the term pishachas from Burushaski language point of view 'sinoCaucasian' language macrofamily perspective we can find the following: Burushaski Aiy Ash-sky. In samoyedl,siberian, language group pi-stone; dzha earth. Contriuiig along this line, as for Nagaswe find: Khanty-Mansi: Nai Ekva-goddess of fire; Samoyed nga-shaman; nagila-spirit. As regards Kamraz northem part of Kashmir cf. Regarding Maraaz southern partof Kashmir cf. Ainu mo-i-anasmall mountain; moshiri-country. These Ainu parallels above are quite striking.
As regards the term satisara,the legend says it was a vast sea from which emerged Kashmir as a geographical entity. The term,satisara, could be of Burushaski origin: cf. This study is focused on understanding the mechanism of neurobehavioral toxicity of lambda -cyhalothrin, a new generation type II synthetic pyrethroid in developing rats following their exposure from post-lactational day PLD 22 to PLD49 and investigate whether neurobehavioral alterations are transient or persistent.
Post-lactational exposure to lambda -cyhalothrin 1. A decrease in the binding of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors in frontocortical, hippocampal, and cerebellar membranes associated with decreased expression of choline acetyltransferase ChAT and acetylcholinesterase AChE in hippocampus was observed following exposure to lambda -cyhalothrin on PLD50 and PLD Exposure to lambda -cyhalothrin was also found to increase the expression of growth-associated protein in hippocampus of rats on PLD50 and PLD65 as compared to controls.
A significant increase in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl levels and decreased levels of reduced glutathione and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in brain regions of lambda -cyhalothrin exposed rats were distinctly observed indicating increased oxidative stress.
Inhibition of ChAT and AChE activity may cause down-regulation of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors consequently impairing learning activity in developing rats exposed to lambda -cyhalothrin. The data further indicate that long-term exposure to lambda -cyhalothrin at low doses may be detrimental and changes in selected behavioral and neurochemical end points may persist if exposure to lambda -cyhalothrin continues. Experimental results show that the pressure dependence of the depression and the gravity effect on the measurements are small, in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions.
Keywords: superfluid helium; Lambda transition; heat current. On the Internal Structure of Bacteriophage Lambda. The structure of bacteriophage lambda has been studied by electron microscopy of negatively stained particles. The phage particles will eject their DNA if they are heated or dialyzed against a chelating agent. The ghost particles, so formed, have a channel running down their tails. Since the channel is not visible in normal particles, the channel may be filled with part of the DNA molecule. The round objects, called "cores," have the same buoyant density as the coat protein.
The core may be a protein spool about which the phage DNA is wound. Environmental chemistry, ecotoxicity, and fate of lambda -cyhalothrin. Lambda -cyhalothrin is a pyrethroid insecticide used for controlling pest insects in agriculture, public health, and in construction and households. Lambda -cyhalothrin is characterized by low vapor pressure and a low Henry's law constant but by a high octanol-water partition coefficient K ow and high water-solid-organic carbon partition coefficient K oc values.
Adsorbed lambda -cyhalothrin molecules show decreased degradation rates because they are less accessible to breakdown than free molecules in the water column. On the other hand, lambda -cyhalothrin adsorbed to suspended solids or bottom sediments may provide a mechanism to mitigate its acute toxicity to aquatic organisms by reducing their short-term bioavailability in the water column. The widespread use of lambda -cyhalothrin has resulted in residues in sediment, which have been found to be toxic to aquatic organisms including fish and amphipods.
Mitigation measures have been used to reduce the adverse impact of lambda -cyhalothrin contributed from agricultural or urban runoff. Mitigation may be achieved by reducing the quantity of runoff and suspended solid content in runoff through wetlands, detention ponds, or vegetated ditches. Simple model for lambda -doublet propensities in bimolecular reactions. It applies to reactions in which AB is formed in a pi state, and in which the unpaired molecular orbital responsible for lambda -doubling arises from breaking the B-C bond.
The lambda -doublet population ratio is predicted to be provided that: 1 the motion of A in the transition state determines the plane of rotation of AB; 2 the unpaired pi orbital lying initially along the B-C bond may be resolved into a projection onto the AB plane of rotation and a projection perpendicular to this plane; 3 there is no preferred geometry for dissociation of ABC. The lambda -doublet ratio is the 'unconstrained dynamics prior' lambda -doublet distribution for such reactions. It hosts data from WMAP along with many suborbital experiments. Additionally, we have recently developed a Docker container with standard CMB analysis tools and demonstrations in the form of Jupyter notebooks.
These containers will be publically available through Docker's container repository and the source will be available on github. AL amyloidosis is a disease process characterized by the pathologic deposition of monoclonal light chains in tissue. To date, only limited information has been obtained on the molecular features that render such light chains amyloidogenic.
Although protein products of the major human V kappa and V lambda gene families have been identified in AL deposits, one particular subgroup-- lambda has been found to be preferentially associated with this disease. However, the structural consequences of these alterations have not been elucidated. To determine if lambda 6 proteins possess unique tertiary structural features, as compared to light chains of other V lambda subgroups, we have obtained x-ray diffraction data on crystals prepared from two recombinant V lambda 6 molecules. These components, isolated from a bacterial expression system, were generated from lambda 6-related cDNAs cloned from bone marrow-derived plasma cells from a patient Wil who had documented AL amyloidosis and another Jto with multiple myeloma and tubular cast nephropathy, but no evident fibrillar deposits.
The x-ray crystallographic analyses revealed that the two-residue insertion located between positions 68 and 69 not between 66 and 67 as previously surmised extended an existing loop region that effectively increased the surface area adjacent to the first complementarity determining region CDR1. Further, an unusual interaction between the Arg 25 and Phe 2 residues commonly found in lambda 6 molecules was noted. However, the structures of V lambda 6 Wil and Jto also differed from each other, as evidenced by the presence in the latter of certain ionic and hydrophobic interactions that we posit increased.
Moderate-resolution spectral standards from lambda to lambda We present a grid of stellar classification spectra of moderate resolution R approximately in the range lambda lambda A, compiled from high signal-to noise spectra of stars, most in the open clusters Praesepe and M We catalog atomic and molecular absorption features useful for stellar classification, and demonstrate the use of luminosity-sensitive features to distinguish between late-type dwarf and giant stars.
The entire database is made available in digital format on anonymous ftp and through the World Wide Web. On the theoretical link between LLL-reduction and Lambda -decorrelation. The LLL algorithm, introduced by Lenstra et al. Math Ann , , plays a key role in many fields of applied mathematics. In particular, it is used as an effective numerical tool for preconditioning the integer least-squares problems arising in high-precision geodetic positioning and Global Navigation Satellite Systems GNSS.
In , Teunissen developed a method for solving these nearest-lattice point NLP problems.
The preconditioning stage of Lambda corresponds to its decorrelation algorithm. From an epistemological point of view, the latter was devised through an innovative statistical approach completely independent of the LLL algorithm. Recent papers pointed out some similarities between the LLL algorithm and the Lambda -decorrelation algorithm. We try to clarify this point in the paper.
With regard to this problem, the potential qualities of these bases can then be compared. As a consequence of this basic link, all the recent developments made on the LLL algorithm can be applied to the Lambda -decorrelation algorithm. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats. Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.
Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde MDA , reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase PON in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. Results: In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, ALT , and aspartate amino transferase AST , as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase AChE and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups.
Conclusions: In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters. Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas's examination at the end of the experiment.
In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, ALT , and aspartate amino transferase AST , as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase AChE and glucose level. In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters. The results of extraction of lambda -cigalotrin from dioxan aqueous solutions by hydrophobic organic solvents are presented.
It is shown that the degree of extraction depends on the nature of the extractant, the water to dioxan ratio, and saturation of the water-dioxan layer with the electrolyte. The highest efficiency of lambda -cigalotrin extraction was achieved using chlorophorm as a solvent under desalination conditions. The extraction factor was calculated necessary to obtain the desired amount of lambda -cigalotrin from the water-dioxan solution with the help of the extractants being used.
Suppressor Analysis of the Fusogenic Lambda Spanins. These proteins form a complex that bridges the cell envelope and that has been proposed to cause fusion of the inner and outer membranes. Accordingly, mutations that block spanin function are found within coiled-coil domains and the proline-rich region, motifs essential in other fusion systems.
To gain insight into spanin function, pseudorevertant alleles that restored plaque formation for lysis-defective mutants of Rz and Rz1 were selected. Most second-site suppressors clustered within a coiled-coil domain of Rz near the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane and were not allele specific. Suppressors largely encoded polar insertions within the hydrophobic core of the coiled-coil interface.
Such suppressor changes resulted in decreased proteolytic stability of the Rz double mutants in vivo Unlike the wild type, in which lysis occurs while the cells retain a rod shape, revertant alleles with second-site suppressor mutations supported lysis events that were preceded by spherical cell formation. This suggests that destabilization of the membrane-proximal coiled coil restores function for defective spanin alleles by increasing the conformational freedom of the complex at the cost of its normal, all-or-nothing functionality. Recent genetic analysis identified the functional domains of the lambda spanins, which are similar to class I viral fusion proteins.
While the pre- and postfusion structures of model fusion systems have been well characterized, the intermediate structure s formed during the fusion reaction remains elusive. Genetic analysis would be expected to identify functional connections between intermediates. Since most membrane fusion systems are not genetically tractable, only few such. Lambda Probe Measurements of Laboratory Spheromaks. A combined current and magnetic probe lambda probe has been constructed and is being tested for the purpose of investigating the behavior of spheromaks formed by the Caltech planar spheromak gun.
The probe consists of a 1. A high voltage power supply was used to test the probe's ability to measure pulsed currents with submicrosecond rise times. Magnetic calibration was obtained by using the capacitor bank to power a 16cm diameter Helmholtz coil. Both magnetic and current calibration were in good agreement with estimates based on geometry. An existing steel shaft will be replaced by a ceramic shaft in order to minimize undesired effects on the plasma by a conductor.
Once sealed with epoxy, the probe will be ready for insertion into the vacuum chamber and used to measure the magnetic field and parallel current during spheromak formation. The control of lambda DNA terminase synthesis. Nu1 and A, the genes coding for bacteriophage lambda DNA terminase, rank among the most poorly translated genes expressed in E. To understand the reason for this low level of translation the genes were cloned into plasmids and their expression measured. In addition, the wild type DNA sequences immediately preceding the genes were reduced and modified.
It was found that the elements that control translation are contained in the base pairs upstream from the initiation codon. Interchanging these upstream sequences with those of an efficiently translated gene dramatically increased the translation of terminase subunits. It seems unlikely that the rare codons present in the genes, and any feature of their mRNA secondary structure play a role in the control of their translation.
The elimination of cos from plasmids containing Nu1 and A also resulted in an increase in terminase production. This result suggests a role for cos in the control of late gene expression. The terminase subunit overproducer strains are potentially very useful for the design of improved DNA packaging and cosmid mapping techniques. Images PMID The chemical composition of the Lambda Bootis stars.
Measurements of the equivalent widths of 24 ultraviolet lines from IUE spectra of 10 Lambda Bootis or suspected Lambda Bootis stars and 19 normal standard stars of spectral types B8-A7 have been compared with line strengths determined using model atmospheres. Abundance differences are estimated via a differential analysis technique. It is found that the ratio of C, N, and O to the heavier elements Mg to Ni is significantly larger than that for solar composition stars.
High accuracy thermal conductivity measurements near the lambda transition of helium with very high temperature resolution. Over the past few years extensive thermal conductivity measurements near the lambda point of helium were made. Subtle effects in the apparatus near the transition were observed which reduced the ability to interpret the results. Nevertheless, for resolution of t is greater than or equal to 10 -7 reliable data was obtained, extending previous measurements by more than an order of magnitude.
Deviations from theoretical predictions were observed for t is less than or equal to 3 x 10 -6 leading to the question of the validity of the present renormalization group analysis of transport properties, at least for the case of helium. This anomaly led to closer examination of the boundary effects in the measurements.
During the experiments a totally unexpected effect in the very dilute He-3 - He-4 mixtures was observed which led to the explanation of the anomalous results.
The concentration dependence of the thermal conductivity near T sub lambda in the superfluid phase was found to deviate strongly from the predictions. The results gave an independent verification of this behavior and caused reanalysis of the Khalatnikov theory of hydrodynamics of the mixtures. An alternative solution was found which is in better agreement with the experiment. Stream macroinvertebrate drift response to pulsed exposure of the synthetic pyrethroid lambda -cyhalothrin.
Outdoor experimental channels were used to study the behavioral changes of stream macroinvertebrates exposed to a pulse of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda -cyhalothrin. The primary end point was the number of macroinvertebrates drifting, but the mobility of macroinvertebrates caught in the drift also was assessed. Macroinvertebrates were allowed to acclimatize for 26 h prior to a min pulsed exposure to lambda -cyhalothrin. Measurement was initiated 2 h before pesticide application and continued for the following 24 h. Pulse concentrations of lambda -cyhalothrin of 0.
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All three species responded to the pesticide pulse with catastrophic drift. The 0. Drift response onset followed the applied pulse concentration, with the highest concentrations resulting in more individuals of all species entering drift at an early stage. The majority of individuals caught in drift samples during low concentrations showed no change in mobility. At the two highest concentrations, however, both Baetis and Leuctra were in the process of being immobilized, with Leuctra the more sensitive of the two.
In contrast, only a few of the Gammarus individuals caught showed changes in mobility after the high-concentration treatments. The present study shows that lambda -cyhalothrin is a potential hazard for macroinvertebrate populations in headwater streams. The clear species-specific responses indicate that sublethal doses have the potential to change the macroinvertebrate community structure. Non-LTE radiative transfer with lambda -acceleration - Convergence properties using exact full and diagonal lambda -operators.
We investigate the convergence properties of Lambda -acceleration methods for non-LTE radiative transfer problems in planar and spherical geometry. Matrix elements of the 'exact' A-operator are used to accelerate convergence to a solution in which both the radiative transfer and atomic rate equations are simultaneously satisfied. Convergence properties of two-level and multilevel atomic systems are investigated for methods using: 1 the complete Lambda -operator, and 2 the diagonal of the Lambda -operator.
We find that the convergence properties for the method utilizing the complete Lambda -operator are significantly better than those of the diagonal Lambda -operator method, often reducing the number of iterations needed for convergence by a factor of between two and seven. However, the overall computational time required for large scale calculations - that is, those with many atomic levels and spatial zones - is typically a factor of a few larger for the complete Lambda -operator method, suggesting that the approach should be best applied to problems in which convergence is especially difficult.
Antiviral Activity of Lambda Interferon in Chickens. Interferons IFNs are essential components of the antiviral defense system of vertebrates. This is the single most precise measurement of tau Lambda b0 and is 3. Somatic diversification of chicken immunoglobulin light chains by point mutations. A major problem is which somatic mechanisms expand this extremely limited germ-line information to generate many different antibodies.
Weill's group [Reynaud, C. Here we demonstrate that chicken light chains are further diversified by somatic point mutations and by V lambda 1-J flexible joining. Somatic point mutations were identified in the J and 3' noncoding DNA of rearranged light-chain genes of chicken. These regions were analyzed because point mutations in V lambda 1 are obscured by gene conversion; the J and 3' noncoding DNA are presented in one copy per haploid genome and are not subject to gene conversion.
In rodents point mutations occur as frequently in the V-J coding regions as in the adjacent flanking DNA. Therefore, we conclude that somatic point mutations diversify the V lambda 1 of chicken. Sequence variability at the V lambda 1-J junctions could be attributed to imprecise joining of the V lambda 1 and J genes. The modification by gene conversion of rearranged V lambda 1 genes in the bursa was similar in chicken aged 3 months 9.
This preimmune repertoire can be further diversified by somatic point mutations that presumably lead to the formation of antibodies with increased affinity. In this article we describe evanescent field imaging of material nonuniformities with a record resolution of 0. A chemically etched tip is used as a point -like evanescent field emitter and a probe-sample distance modulation is employed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Images obtained by evanescent microwave probe, by optical microscope, and by scanning tunneling microscope are presented for comparison.
Probe was calibrated to perform quantitative conductivity measurements. The principal factors affecting the ultimate resolution of evanescent microwave probe are also discussed. Thereby hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes are induced, which modulate various immune functions via complex forward and feedback loops. In addition, the modulation of adaptive immune functions via macrophage. These predicted new resonances definitely cannot be accommodated by quark models with three constituent quarks.
Persistence behaviour of thiamethoxam and lambda cyhalothrin in transplanted paddy. A field study was conducted in Pre-Kharif season on paddy to determine the persistence of thiamethoxam Spraying of insecticide was done during milking stage of the crop 63 days after transplantation. The half-life values were 5. No residue was detected in the harvested paddy, straw, grain, and soil samples. The algebraic theory of latent projectors in lambda matrices. Multivariable systems such as a finite-element model of vibrating structures, control systems, and large-scale systems are often formulated in terms of differential equations which give rise to lambda matrices.
The present investigation is concerned with the formulation of the algebraic theory of lambda matrices and the relationship of latent roots, latent vectors, and latent projectors to the eigenvalues, eigenvectors, and eigenprojectors of the companion form. The chain rule for latent projectors and eigenprojectors for the repeated latent root or eigenvalues is given.
Use of lambda pMu bacteriophages to isolate lambda specialized transducing bacteriophages carrying genes for bacterial chemotaxis. A general method for constructing lambda specialized transducing phages is described. The method, which is potentially applicable to any gene of Escherichia coli, is based on using Mu DNA homology to direct the integration of a lambda pMu phage near the genes whose transduction is desired. With this method we isolated a lambda transducing phage carrying all 10 genes in the che gene cluster map location, The products of the cheA and tar genes were identified by using transducing phages with amber mutations in these genes.
It was established that tar codes for methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein II molecular weight, 62, and that cheA codes for two polypeptides molecular weights, 76, and 66, Possible origins of the two cheA polypeptides are discussed. Convergent mechanisms favor fast amyloid formation in two lambda 6a Ig light chain mutants. Extracellular deposition as amyloids of immunoglobulin light chains causes light chain amyloidosis. Among the light chain families, lambda 6a is one of the most frequent in light chain amyloidosis patients.
Its germline protein, 6aJL2, and point mutants, R24G and P7S, are good models to study fibrillogenesis, because their stability and fibril formation characteristics have been described. Both mutations make the germline protein unstable and speed up its ability to aggregate. To date, there is no molecular mechanism that explains how these differences in amyloidogenesis can arise from a single mutation.
To look into the structural and dynamical differences in the native state of these proteins, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations at room temperature. Despite the structural similarity of the germline protein and the mutants, we found differences in their dynamical signatures that explain the mutants' increased tendency to form amyloids. The contact network alterations caused by the mutations, though different, converge in affecting two anti-aggregation motifs present in light chain variable domains, suggesting a different starting point for aggregation in lambda chains compared to kappa chains.
X-Ray Flare Characteristics in lambda Eridani. Bacteriophage lambda : The path from biology to theranostic agent. Viral particles provide an attractive platform for the engineering of semisynthetic therapeutic nanoparticles. They can be modified both genetically and chemically in a defined manner to alter their surface characteristics, for targeting specific cell types, to improve their pharmacokinetic features and to attenuate or enhance their antigenicity. These advantages derive from a detailed understanding of virus biology, gleaned from decades of fundamental genetic, biochemical, and structural studies that have provided mechanistic insight into virus assembly pathways.
In particular, bacteriophages offer significant advantages as nanoparticle platforms and several have been adapted toward the design and engineering of "designer" nanoparticles for therapeutic and diagnostic theranostic applications. The present review focuses on one such virus, bacteriophage lambda ; I discuss the biology of lambda , the tools developed to faithfully recapitulate the lambda assembly reactions in vitro and the observations that have led to cooptation of the lambda system for nanoparticle design.
This discussion illustrates how a fundamental understanding of virus assembly has allowed the rational design and construction of semisynthetic nanoparticles as potential theranostic agents and illustrates the concept of benchtop to bedside translational research. The application of lambda -cyhalothrin in tick control. In recent years, in urban areas of Novi Sad, unique ecological conditions, specific floristic and faunistic composition and poor habits of citizens in sense of public health, facilitate the development and maintenance of ticks.
Regarding the importance of ticks as vectors of severe human and animal diseases, complex and detailed studies are conducted with an aim to find the most efficient methods for tick control. Two tick species, Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor marginatus, were identified during a 3-year period on the territory of Municipality of Novi Sad. During , the efficacy of the pyrethroid lambda -cyhalothrin in tick control varied from The highest efficacy recorded in was The efficacy of lambda -cyhalothrin in varied from Lambda -cyhalothrin showed high efficacy in tick control at localities which were improved before the application mowed, litter removed, abundance control and euthanasia of abandoned cats and dogs.
The results of this research indicate that lambda -cyhalothrin has a toxic effect on ticks and could be used as efficient acaricide for tick control, although its efficacy depends on formulation, terrain features and methods of application. Neither the standard Particle Data Group resonance parameters, nor free parameters fitting to a single Breit-Wigner resonance represent the line shape.
Furthermore, with increasing photon virtuality the mass distribution shifts toward the higher mass pole. Federal Register , , , , Physical interactions between bacteriophage and Escherichia coli proteins required for initiation of lambda DNA replication. The process of initiation of lambda DNA replication requires the assembly of the proper nucleoprotein complex at the origin of replication, ori lambda.
The complex is composed of both phage and host-coded proteins. The lambda O initiator protein binds specifically to ori lambda. The lambda P initiator protein binds to both lambda O and the host-coded dnaB helicase, giving rise to an ori lambda DNA. The dnaK and dnaJ heat shock proteins have been shown capable of dissociating this complex.
The thus freed dnaB helicase unwinds the duplex DNA template at the replication fork. In this report, through cross-linking, size chromatography, and protein affinity chromatography, we document some of the protein-protein interactions occurring at ori lambda. Our results show that the dnaK protein specifically interacts with both lambda O and lambda P, and that the dnaJ protein specifically interacts with the dnaB helicase.
Approaches for the direct estimation of lambda , and demographic contributions to lambda , using capture-recapture data. We first consider the estimation of the finite rate of population increase or population growth rate, lambda sub i, using capture-recapture data from open populations. The parameters of interest are identical to the seniority parameters, gamma sub i, of Pradel We review estimation of gamma sub i under the classic, superpopulation, and temporal symmetry approaches.
We then compare these direct estimation approaches for lambda sub i and gamma sub i with analogues computed using projection matrix asymptotics. We also discuss various extensions of the estimation approaches to multistate applications and to joint likelihoods involving multiple data types. Architecture of the 99 bp DNA-six-protein regulatory complex of the lambda att site.
The highly directional and tightly regulated recombination reaction used to site-specifically excise the bacteriophage lambda chromosome out of its E. To gain structural insights into this recombination pathway, we measured 27 FRET distances between eight points on the 99 bp regulatory DNA bound with all six proteins. Triangulation of these distances using a metric matrix distance-geometry algorithm provided coordinates for these eight points. The resulting path for the protein-bound regulatory DNA, which fits well with the genetics, biochemistry, and X-ray crystal structures describing the individual proteins and their interactions with DNA, provides a new structural perspective into the molecular mechanism and regulation of the recombination reaction and illustrates a design by which different families of higher-order complexes can be assembled from different numbers and combinations of the same few proteins.
Rejecting the equilibrium- point hypothesis. The lambda version of the equilibrium- point EP hypothesis as developed by Feldman and colleagues has been widely used and cited with insufficient critical understanding. This article offers a small antidote to that lack. First, the hypothesis implicitly, unrealistically assumes identical transformations of lambda into muscle tension for antagonist muscles. Without that assumption, its definitions of command variables R, C, and lambda are incompatible and an EP is not defined exclusively by R nor is it unaffected by C.
Second, the model assumes unrealistic and unphysiological parameters for the damping properties of the muscles and reflexes. Finally, the theory lacks rules for two of its three command variables. A theory of movement should offer insight into why we make movements the way we do and why we activate muscles in particular patterns. The EP hypothesis offers no unique ideas that are helpful in addressing either of these questions.
Preliminary ital m sub perpendicular spectra are presented for anti ital p 's and anti Lambda 's. The Mount Wilson California synoptic program of solar magnetic observations scans the solar disk between 1 and 20 times per day. The data base of information was analyzed and corrected for effects such as scattered light and atmospheric reflection. The solar variability and the measurement techniques are described. The observation data sets, the corrections made to the data, and the observed variations, are discussed.
All portions of the sun are weighted equally so that it is concluded that, within spectral lines, the radiating area of the sun is increased at the solar maximum. Background Quantitative evaluation of serum free light chains is recommended for the work up of monoclonal gammopathies. Immunoglobulin light chains are generally produced in excess of heavy chains. This study was undertaken to ascertain if the levels of overproduction of the two light chain types and their detection rates are different in patients with neoplastic monoclonal gammopathies.
An illustrative case suggests underproduction of free lambda light chains, in some instances. The results question the medical necessity and clinical usefulness of the serum free light chain assay. Quantitative evaluation of serum free light chains is recommended for the work up of monoclonal gammopathies. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during the biodegradation of lambda -cyhalothrin. In this study, the microbial degradation of lambda -cyhalothrin in soil was investigated using compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The results revealed that lambda -cyhalothrin was biodegraded in soil under laboratory conditions.
The biodegradation of lambda -cyhalothrin resulted in carbon isotope fractionation, which shifted from This study provides an approach to quantitatively evaluate the biodegradation of lambda -cyhalothrin in soil in field studies. The role of template superhelicity in the initiation of bacteriophage lambda DNA replication. The binding of multiple copies of the lambda O protein to the phage replication origin ori lambda initiates the ordered assembly of a series of nucleoprotein structures that form at ori lambda prior to DNA unwinding, priming and DNA synthesis steps.
Since the initiation of lambda DNA replication is known to occur only on supercoiled templates in vivo and in vitro, we examined how the early steps in lambda DNA replication are influenced by superhelical tension. All initiation complexes formed prior to helicase-mediated DNA-unwinding form with high efficiency on relaxed ori lambda DNA.
Nonetheless, the DNA templates in these structures must be negatively supertwisted before they can be replicated. Once DNA helicase unwinding is initiated at ori lambda , however, later steps in lambda DNA replication proceed efficiently in the absence of superhelical tension.