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Quanto mais economizamos tempo, mais carecemos dele. Nascido em , Arcimboldo se notabilizou por pintar rostos de figuras humanas por meio de elementos da natureza. Para diversos autores, entre os quais Mirshawka e Mirshawka Jr. Tabela 2 — O estudo da criatividade na Idade Antiga anterior a 1. Terman — Ralph K. White 2. Burnham — Theodulo Ribot — L. Dugas — Henri Bergson — Federico Queyrat 3. Kirkpatrick — S. Colvin — Laura Maria Chassell — J.
Boraas 4. O processo na atividade criadora — J. Simpson — Graham Wallas — Joseph Rossman 5. Follett — J. Abramson — H. Hargreaves — E. Andrews — C. Spearman — E. Hutchinson — V. Markey — W. Fairbairn 6. Meier — Ernest Harms — C. Seashore — C. Horn — J. Graves — Victor Lowenfeld — George S. Welsh — E. Hutchinson — E. Thorndike — H. Hart — L. Um grande porcentual dos empreendimentos e profissionais dos setores criativos brasileiros atua na informalidade. Isso acontece a cada vez que perdemos a oportunidade de inovar, agregar valor e competitividade por meio de investimentos em produtos e processos que tenham seu diferencial na cultura.
Talvez nem tanto. E uma coisa vai ajudar a outra. Quem tem a oportunidade de visitar Orlando nos dias de hoje — com seus O primeiro dos parques instalados em Lake Buena Vista, nos arredores de Orlando e de Kissimmee, atualmente conhecido como Magic Kingdom, foi inaugurado em 1. A revista Gerente de Cidade n. Segundo o censo nacional de , a cidade propriamente dita possui E assim, infelizmente, muitos acabam se arruinando financeiramente. Los Angeles Mencionar Los Angeles como cidade criativa abre uma gama enorme de possibilidades.
Gerente de Cidade, n. Cidades criativas: perspectivas. Orlando: then and now. La clase creativa. O desafio da economia criativa. The creative economy: how people make money from ideas. London: Penguin UK, Lisboa: Paisagem, A economia criativa no Brasil entrevista. Qualquer cidade pode ser criativa.
Qualidade da criatividade: a vez do Brasil. REIS, A. Barueri, SP: Manole, Cidades criativas — perspectivas brasileiras.
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The Challenge of Assessing the Creative Economy. In: Creative Economy Report Thompson, C. Grande ideia! Barcelona: PPU, Dialogando com a criatividade. Creative Economy Report Qual democracia? Um mundo sem pobreza: a empresa social e o futuro do capitalismo. Criatividade s. Qualidade de criativo. Capacidade criadora; engenho, inventividade. Surpreendentemente, sua monografia estava destinada ao departamento de Economia da universidade.
Na verdade, o departamento onde Steve estudou era razoavelmente respeitado. Ainda assim, decidiram dar uma chance ao rapaz. Levitt publicou mais de 60 artigos relacionados a diversos temas. Samuelson Dale W. Jorgenson David Card Kenneth E. Kevin M. Arrow A. Michael Spence Acemoglu b Lawrence R. Klein James J. Heckman Susan C. Athey Robert M. Solow Jerry A. Hausman Emmanuel Saez Hendrik S. Sanford J. Kreps Jonathan Levin Gary S. Becker Paul R. Krugman Lawrence H.
To provide shoulders on which other scholars can stand, and thus climb higher, has been regarded as an important contribution. Regra 1: Atente aos pequenos detalhes. Regra 2: Questione o senso comum. Regra 5: Interaja com pessoas que possuem maneiras distintas de pensar da sua. Economic imperialism is defined as the extension of economics to topics that go beyond the classical scope of issues, which include consumer choice, theory of the firm, explicit markets, macroeconomic activity, and the fields spawned directly by these areas.
A este respeito, ver Hicks , Klamer , e Foley Regra 6: Nunca menospreze uma boa ideia apenas por falta de rigor. Um ponto de vista semelhante foi defendido por autores como Blanchard , Colander e Krugman , , que enfatizam a necessidade de volta a modelos simples, ainda relativamente pouco utilizados em Economia. I read a lot about science. In all of that reading, I have not encountered a single example of a great innovator who was not immersed in his or her field, deeply familiar with its tradition — and therefore able to be truly creative in challenging that tradition.
So here, finally, is the sermon. By all means, try to be a radical innovator — a crazy economist. But understand that being crazy in a productive way is hard work. And realize, in particular, that you are very unlikely to have interesting new ideas unless you have learned to appreciate and respect interesting old ideas No caso de temas relacionados a redes sociais, ver Amaral et al. Acesso em: 6 mar American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings , v. Virtual round table on ten leading questions for network research. The European Physical Journal B, v. John Bates Clark Medal, Acesso em: 8 mar Empirical strategies in labor economics.
Handbook of labor economics. Instrumental variables and the search for identification: from supply and demand to natural experiments. Journal of Economic Perspectives, v. Some developments in economic theory since an eyewitness account. Annual Review of Economics, v. American Economic Review, v. BALL, L. A sticky-price manifesto. NBER working paper n. Economic Growth. McGraw-Hill, Molecular genetics and economics. Acesso em: 13 mar What do we know about macroeconomics that Fisher and Wicksell did not?
Quarterly Journal of Macroeconomics, v. The crisis: basic mechanisms, and appropriate policies. MIT Working Paper n. Brunnermeier, M. Deciphering the liquidity and credit crunch of Nobel laureate Robert E. Lucas, Jr. Facts and myths about the financial crisis of How did Paul Krugman get it so wrong? University of Chicago, manuscrito, 11 set Acesso em: 7 mar Confessions of an economic gadfly. Passion and Craft: economists at work.
Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, The aging of an economist. Journal of the History of Economic Thought, v. The making of an economist, redux. Princeton: Princeton University, The changing face of mainstream economics. Review of Political Economy, v. The making of an economist. Fucape Business School, manuscrito, Surviving Andersonville: the benefits of social networks in POW camps. UCLA, manuscrito, The credit crisis: conjectures about causes and remedies. Freakonomics: scholarship in the service of storytelling.
American Law and Economics Review, v. The probability that a real-estate agent is cheating you and other riddles of modern life. The New York Times, 3 ago Acesso em: 15 mar Blackonomics at Harvard. The New York Times, Ideology and methodology. Columbia University, manuscrito, Acesso em: 21 mar Nobel laureate Gary S. Becker: ideas about facts. GANS, J. How are the mighty fallen: rejected classic articles by leading economists. Business cycle theory and econometrics. Economic Journal, v. Professional etiquette for the mature economist.
Viewpoint: replication in economics. Canadian Journal of Economics, v. The empirical foundations of calibration. Economic methodology in a nutshell. Econometrics and business cycle empirics. IS-LM: an explanation. Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, v. What makes you click? Mate preferences in online dating. Quantitative Marketing and Economics, v.
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Network formation. Macmillan, The burden of knowledge and the death of the Renaissance man: is innovation getting harder? Review of Economic Studies, v. Multi-university research teams: shifting impact, geography, and stratification in science. Science, v. Laboratory experiments.
The Ohio State University, manuscrito, Essays in biography. London: Macmillan, . An accountant among economists: conversations with Sir John R. Boulder: Westview, How to do empirical economics. How I work. MIT, manuscrito, Incidents from my career. How to be a crazy economist. Foundations of research in economics: how do economists do economics? Edward Elgar, How did economists get it so wrong? The New York Times, 6 set Disagreement among economists. The New York Times, 19 mar The computational experiment: an econometric tool. Economic imperialism. Quarterly Journal of Economics, v.
Life among the econ. Western Economic Journal, , p. An open letter to Paul Krugman. The Huffington Post, 18 set Pools more dangerous than guns. Chicago Sunday Times, 28 jul An economist sells bagels: a case study of profit maximization. Freakonomics: o lado oculto e inesperado de tudo que nos afeta. Superfreakonomics: o lado oculto do dia a dia. Rio de Janeiro: Campus Elsevier, Homo Economicus evolves. Org, manuscrito, Acesso em: 9 mar LIST, J. Field experiments. Econometric policy evaluation: a critique.
Understanding business cycles. Stabilization of the domestic and international economy. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, v. Methods and problems in business cycle theory. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking , v.
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Studies in business-cycle theory. Cambridge: MIT Press, Professional memoir. University of Chicago, manuscrito, Acesso em: 20 mar History of Political Economy, v. In defence of the dismal science. The Economist, 6 ago What economists do. Journal of Applied Economics, v. After keynesian macroeconomics. Small menu costs and large business cycles: a macroeconomic model of monopoly.
The reincarnation of keynesian economics. European Economic Review, v. My rules of thumb. How do friendships form? All prizes in Economic Science. NUNN, N. The importance of history for economic development. Witchcraft, weather and economic growth in Renaissance Europe. Steven D. Levitt: John Bates Clark medalist. Prize deflation. The New York Times, 4 jan RGE Monitor, manuscrito, The area and population of cities: new insights from a different perspective on cities. Expectations and the nonneutrality of Lucas. Journal of Monetary Economics, v.
A modern guide to macroeconomics: an introduction to competing schools of thought. Londres: Edward Elgar, Columbia Business School, manuscrito, Completing an economics PhD in five years: let the data literally speak for themselves. The scientific illusion in empirical macroeconomics. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, v.
The American Economist, v. The history of economic thought website. Nobel laureates. The changing age of scientific creativity. Revolution and evolution in twentieth-century macroeconomics. Princeton University, The increasing dominance of teams in the production of knowledge. Measuring the effect of music downloads on music purchases. Journal of Law and Economics, v. Fontes: Nobelprize. Traditionally diplomacy is strictly related to the role of negotiating and advising the State in its foreign relations.
I argue that the globalization changed the face of multinational companies. Today they are so big and complex that they are almost States. They cannot just focus in their traditional attributions related to the market.
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In other words, modern corporations need a corporate foreign policy in order to coordinate its market objectives with its objectives in relation to governments and the organized society. In order to deal with its new challenges multinational companies need a new kind of employee, the corporate diplomat, able to deal with market, government and societal objectives of this new corporation. Keywords: corporate diplomacy, global managers, corporate foreign policy, multinational companies. Introduction The globalization imposes several challenges for organizations operating in a global scale. Multinational companies MNCs must answer not only to increasingly difficult market challenges but also to different pressures coming from its stakeholders.
This is a conceptual paper that explores the idea of a corporate diplomacy. Nevertheless, as I argue, in order to deal with its new challenges MNCs need a new kind of employee, the corporate diplomat, able to deal with market, government and societal objectives of the company. To explore the need of this new professional I first discuss the growing importance of MNCs in the world economy.
I show that only in the last 30 years or so the corporations really began to occupy a central role in the world production and employment. Then, I present the political power of modern companies through the concepts of soft and structural power.
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Corporate diplomats: global managers of 21st century, Gilberto Sarfati, p. I also review the literature on global executives and recognize the several terms and meanings referring to the professional operating in the global environment. I conclude that an extensive agenda of research is needed to further understand the relation between the dimensions of the CFP.
What are the competencies of the corporate diplomat and what can be developed at the universities, among other questions. The debate over the importance of the MNCs in relation to the States is result of the changing nature of these organizations over the years.
Historically we can consider the West India Companies as the first major global corporation over the 17th century. Its operations extended from Japan, through India up to Brazil. In spite of its tremendous economic and political power this company was a very special and isolated case. As a matter of fact the modern history of MNCs can be traced back to the beginning of the 19th century. It was in the s that the European transport network began to improve with the implementation of a railway system.
With low barriers for the capital flow the direct investment began to flourish. With this environment the first companies with multinational characteristics emerged, especially in the sectors of financial services, transports and natural resources. The industrial revolution made England the natural home for these companies due the developed production of textiles, cow, steel and iron Jones, Towards the end of the 19th century, when the Dow Jones index was created , most of the 30 companies that composed the index were commodity producers such as the American Sugar Company and the American Rubber Company.
With the expansion of the consumism after the Second World War the MNCs really became big companies and the central organization of production and employment in the national economies. The business administration courses began to be popular at the universities and also the MBAs emerged as a practical tool to improve the decision-making processes in increasingly complex organizations.
The expansion of the companies in the s and s gave place to a first wave of international business and international relations literature. Vernon and Kindleberger were among the first to capture the tension between the State as the main economic unit of production and the MNCs. Keohane and Nye also regarded the companies as important actors with their own interest. Their influence could not anymore be reduced to one country and only be submitted to a country interest. Nevertheless, in spite of their growing size and importance from the s up to the s their relative size revenues in relation to the national economies and its organizational logic very centralized at the headquarters did not justify the development of any specific policy to deal with several governments at the same time.
At this time these corporations were just companies based in one home country with several subsidiaries. As Ohmae notes, towards the beginning of the s the MNCs became truly global corporations that are stateless and independent of their national origin. Corporate planning also began to be conceived globally rather than in national terms. For him, the global company was the natural response to a borderless world economy characterized by homogenous consumer tastes. In there were about 35, MNCs with , foreign affiliates worldwide.
In the figure of MNCs grew to 79, with about , foreign affiliates. These companies employ more than 82 million people against 24 million in This trend is justified by UNCTAD due to: Policy liberalization — In , changes in laws in 71 countries were more favorable to foreign direct investment. Furthermore, 97 countries negotiated bilateral trade treaties rising. Technological change — High investment costs drives the companies towards internationalization. Growing competition — These two factors combined is resulting in increasing competition in a global scale which is resulting in new kind of associations and new forms of productions.
In the last years the MNCs are answering to rapid global changes increasing their internationalization not only as a competitive imperative but also looking for new business opportunities. The international business environment is not only favorable to gains of scale but also to the development of knowledge about new needs driving the innovative efforts to new products and services.
For him the technology leads to a company able to operate with the same products everywhere in the world. More recently Ghemawat states that corporate strategies must be developed in a semi-globalized world were the integration levels are growing steadily but are far from complete integration. Therefore, he suggests that although globalization has a major impact in business they must be aware to cultural, administrative, geographical and economic differences. For Vance e Paik the real challenge for MNCs is to establish systems that can accommodate both globalization and localization.
On other words, to create systems centralized enough for global integration and coordination and decentralized enough to give local responses. Despite the development of corporations power Gilpin states that the international economic relations still State centric. They are still the main actors in any multilateral negotiation process and still able, one way or another, to regulate the action of these companies. Pauly and Reich also observe that in spite of the globalization the MNCs are still very different due to the ideological tradition of their home countries. Nevertheless, Rosecrance notes that there is an increasing virtualization of both states and companies.
The virtual states are those concentrated in very specialized services, centralizing the headquarters of the companies but outsourcing the production outside of the country. At the same time the virtual corporation is a company that concentrates the design, marketing and finances at the headquarters but leaves the production to other companies. The corporations that invest in other countries have a Janus Face since to some extent they are an expansion of foreign states interests.
Yet they also have to respond to the policies and market conditions of the host country. MNCs are subject to influence by host governments through regulation or economic policy which in turn affects its global profitability. This Janus Face is very complex since, in the end, the corporations need the juridical order built by the States. They do not have any interest in weakening the States since the institutional instability is not convenient for them. A business environment where the contracts are not legally binding or, even worse, where the companies can be ripped off certainly is not the best place to invest for most of the companies.
In other words, a lack of legal coercion mechanisms imply in a long term uncertainty about the business perenity. The modern corporation cannot be seen as just a national company with several branches in other countries GILPIN, From a classic international law perspective a State is defined by the following qualifications: a a permanent population; b a defined territory; c government; and d capacity to enter into relations with other States SHAW,