Inlet and exhaust system The filter system for the engine inlet air comprises a cyclone type precleaner, and a paper filter which acts as the main filter. The incoming air is made to rotate in the cyclone precleaner. This causes most of the impurities to settle out and collect in the cyclone precleaner dust collector. The paper filter com- prises one or two replaceable filter elements. The paper is corrugated and surrounded by a metal support. The impurities in the air collect at the larger filter element which can be cleaned when necessary.
The inner safety filter prevents impurities form entering the engine should the main filter element break, or be fitted incorrectly. The inlet system also includes the hoses between the air cleaner and the turbocharger and the turbo- charger and the intake manifold. The exhaust manifold is attached to the cylinder head with high tensile bolts without a separate gasket. Retightening of the manifold bolts is unnecessary. In the marine and generator engines a liquid cooled exhaust manifold is used, that is connected to the engines cooling liquid circulation socalled freshwater circulation.
These exhaust manifolds are sealed from the liquid circulation part The compressed air is cooled by the air to water basis. The turbocharger is turbocompressor driven by exhaust gas. The compact design of the turbocharger is sensitive to The cooling cell is installed on the intake manifold and con- react even during low revolutions. The turbocharger is lubri- nected to the engine cooling system. The cooling of the com- cated and cooled by the lubrication system of the engine.
Electronic Engine Management sys- tem EEM The Sisudiesel EEM system is a microprocessor based diesel engine control system to replace the traditional mechanical speed governor on the engine. This system significantly im- proves the properties of the engine and adds several func- tions and operational features that could not be realised with mechanical governors.
The EEM system is applicable to all kinds of vehicles, on or off road. Measuring cylinder liner wear Using a micrometer set the dial gauge to zero using a new cylinder liner indicating the initial dimension of the bore: ,00 mm. Checking cylinder block 1. Clean the cylinder block and all oil ways. Check the cooling channels and remove the scale and sedi- ment to ensure engine cooling. Check the tightness of the cup plugs and threaded plugs in the cylinder block as well as the condition of the cylinder block and sealing faces.
Measure the wear of the camshaft bearing points com- pare with rated. Perform the measurement crosswise at the liner top end, lower end and middle. If it is necessary to machine the upper face of the cylin- der block, the pistons must be shortened by the same dimen- 4. Check the gauge reading for maximum wear and ovalness sion. Observe the valve disc spaces on the piston upper face. Removing cylinder liner D. Changing camshaft bushing 1. If the cylinder liners are to be used again they should be marked so that they can be fitted in the same position.
Extract the bushing with an internal puller, for example Sykes If the camshaft rear end plug is removed the bush- 2. Remove the cylinder liners using cylinder liner puller ing can be forced out with a long drift. Clean the bushing location carefully. Cylinder Block Press in a new bushing. Note the position of the oil hole. It is unnecessary to ream the bushing because it has a correct inner diameter when it is fitted in place. On the and engines from the engine ser. Observe the different outer diam- eters when removing and fitting. Order no Hole diameter. Numbering begins from the front end of the engine.
Oversize bushings for camshaft mm mm Bushings are available even for other camshaft bear- ings which do not normally have bushings. Part numbers and machining dimensions for the bushing locations are shown in the figure. Observe the position of the bushing oil holes. It is unnecess- 5 ary to ream the bushings after fitting. Oversize camshaft bushings for engines. Order no Hole diameter Numbering begins from the front end of the engine. Fitting plug at camshaft rear end 1. Clean the seat for the plug.
Apply sealing compound to the contact surface of the plug. The camshaft rear end plug is replaced with plug and oring after machining. Use plate 3. Drive in the plug with fitting drift Do not drive in the plug too far because it will affect the camshaft end float. Fitting guide pipe for oil dipstick 3. If the recess is damaged, or the cylinder liner height see point 5 needs to be adjusted, use milling cutter If necessary, a light lapping can be executed after milling with 1. Clean the seat for the pipe. Apply lapping paste to the under- side of the cylinder liner flange, and twist the liner with twisting 2.
Apply locking fluid Loctite to the lower end of the guide tool. Lapping is not suitable for adjusting the cylinder liner pipe. Clean the contact surfaces. Tap the guide pipe bent pipe in to the correct fitting height with tool The position of the guide pipe affects an oil level in the engine.
Fit the cylinder liners and fix each liner with two press tools H. Fitting cylinder liner Measure the cylinder liner height with a dial gauge and holder Zero the dial gauge against a flat surface, for example, the cylinder block face. Measure 1. Clean the cylinder liner and its recess in the cylinder block. The height of the liner above the cyl- Without orings the liner should rotate easily in its recess. The height differ- ence between cylinder liners under the same cylinder head 2.
Apply a thin layer of marking paint on the underside of the must not exceed 0,02 mm, nor must an intermediate cylinder cylinder liner flange. Fit the cylinder liner without orings and liner lie lower than an outer one. Lift out the liner and check that paint has been deposited on the whole contact surface.
If the cylinder liner height is too low, a liner with a higher flange is fitted. Press the cylinder liners into the cylinder block. It should be easy to press them fully home. Make sure that the liners do not Cylinder liners with oversize flanges higher flanges are rise up after fitting. If the liner height of a cylinder liner is not the same all the way round, the cylinder liner flange and the cylinder block recess depth should be checked. Cylinder liners with warped flanges should be discarded.
Fit the orings into the grooves in the cylinder lower part and lubricate them with a liquid soap not with engine oil. Stretch the orings as little as possible when fitting them. Flywheel Housing Fitting flywheel housing E The flywheel housing is centred on the cylinder block by two tension pins. Even the flywheel housings which are delivered as spare parts have ready made holes for the pins. Changing crankshaft rear oil seal 1. Lift out the engine. Remove the clutch assembly and poss- ible turbine clutch. Remove the flywheel. Remove the oil seal. Do not damage the crankshaft.
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Clean the seal location and grind off any burrs. Apply silicone sealant as shown in figure above. Centre the housing with centring tool Note! This is important of the engines with a turbine clutch and fit the tension pins with drift Tighten the fixing bolts, the inner ring socket head bolts to 60 Nm and outer ring hexagonal bolts to Nm. If the crankshaft is worn at the sealing location, a 2 mm spacer ring, part no , can be fitted in front of the crankshaft rear oil seal.
Cylinder Head Checking cylinder head 1. Remove the soot from the exhaust ports, clean the sealing A. Removing cylinder head surfaces and wash the cylinder head. Clean the engine externally and drain the coolant. Discon- 2. Check for cracks and other damage. Remove the suction hoses between the turbocharger and the air filter and between the turbocharger and the inlet mani- fold. Remove the injector leak off fuel pipes and the delivery pipes. Remove the injectors. Fit blanking off caps on all open connections.
Remove the inlet and exhaust manifolds and the thermostat housing. Check the flatness of the cylinder head by using a straight Note! It is possible to remove the cylinder head even thought edge. An uneven or warped surface should be surface these parts are attached to the head. The height of the cylinder head, after grinding, should not be less than ,00 mm.
The valve disc depth from the 7. Remove the valve cover and the breather hose. Remove the rocker arm mechanism and the push rods. Remove the cylinder head. Ensure that valves which are to be re used are marked, so that they are fitted in their original locations. Straighten and clean the injector location seat in the cylin- der head with cutter Install the counter screw for the valve spring in- stalling tool in the rocker arm cover bolt.
A bolt of suitable length should be used instead. Compress the valve springs using lever Re- move the valve cotters, spring guide and spring. Remove the valves. Measure the clearance between the valve stem and the valve guide with a dial gauge. Lift the valve so that the valve head is 15 mm from the face of the cylinder head, and measure the clearance. It must not be greater than 0,30 mm for the inlet valves and 0,35 mm for the exhaust valves.
In order to establish the valve guide wear, a new valve should be used when measuring. Changing valve guides 3. The guides are the same for the inlet and exhaust valves. Ensure that the steepest chamfer on the guide, faces the valve head. Check that the valves do not bind in the guides. Press or knock out the old guides using drift Clean the valve guide locations. Machine the damaged valve seat with milling cutter. If the width of the seat exceeds 2,3 mm in exhaust and 3,7 mm in 2.
Lubricate the outside of the new guides and fit them using intake, it should be reduced primarily at the outer edge. Changing valve seat rings G. Grinding valves Exhaust valves are fitted with separate valve seat rings. If the In order to ensure that there is a proper seal around the valves, sealing surface is damaged so badly that it cannot be repaired there is a difference in the sealing surface angles.
Thus there with machining, the seat ring should be changed. Grind the valve head on a discarded valve so that it sits down in the valve seat. Fit the valve and weld it in place in the seat. Cool with water. Turn the cylinder head over and knock out the valve and seat. Clean the valve seat location. Cool the new seat ring in liquid nitrogen until it stops bubbling, or alternatively place it in dry A ice. Where necessary, standard size seats can be replaced by inserts with a larger outer diameter. See technical data, point cylinder head.
Grind the damaged valve disc with a valve refacer. If the edge of the valve head is less than 1,5 mm after it has 48, If necessary, grind the end of the valve stem. Lap the valves with lapping paste and check the contact 9 surface with marking paint. Clean the cylinder head and valves of any remaining lap- The inlet valve seat machined direct on the cylinder head, can ping paste. Machine the seat insert location on the cylinder head see figure above.
Fit the insert like a seat of the exhaust valve. Fitting valves More powerful engine specs are equipped with separate inlet 1. Check the valve springs for straightness, length and ten- valve seats. Use in these engines when repairing seat ring no. Compare with specifications.
Lubricate the valve stems and fit the valves in the correct order in the cylinder. Fit the springs, spring guides and valve keepers with the aid of a lever for compressing valve springs, Tap the end of the valve stems lightly after fitting the valve in order to ensure that they are secure. Fitting cylinder head 14 10 7 5 9 15 1. Measure the length of the cylinder head bolts. Compare 16 1 3 17 with dimensions shown in figure below. Change too long bolts. Screw the cylinder head stud bolts in to the cylinder block to a torque of 30 Nm.
Fit the valve tappets if removed. Check that the sealing surfaces are clean and fit the cylinder head gasket s and the cylinder head s. Ensure that on the 4. Pictures above show the correct tightening order of the cyl- six cylinder engines both cylinder heads are parallel by inder head bolts.
The order has also been marked on the cyl- fastening lightly the exhaust manifold before tightening the inder heads. Clean and lubricate and fit the bolts. Tighten the cylinder head bolts progressively as follows:. First tightening to 80 Nm 2. Adjust the valve clearances see instruction 4 C. After this the cylinder head does not need retightening. Reconditioning valve mechanism 1. Check the valve tappets, especially the contact surface against the camshaft. Worn or damaged tappets should be discarded.
Fit the plug to the other end of the rocker arm shaft. Lubri- cate the shaft and fit various parts in a correct order. Note the correct position of the shaft and the bearing brackets. The split side of the bracket and the shaft oil holes must be turned to the valve side see figure above. Fit the other end plug. Check the straightness of the pushrods by rolling them on a surface table. Check also the spherical surfaces at the ends.
The modification effects mainly the under mentioned parts: 3. Dismantle and clean the rocker arm mechanism. Check the shaft for wear and that the oilways are clean. Check that the rocker arm bushings are not worn. After pressing in the bushings they should be re- The plugs in both ends are replaced by threaded plugs.
Where necessary grind the rocker arm valve contact surface to the correct shape. Do not The rocker arm is without bushing. The adjusting screw is grind more than necessary as the hardened layer is thin. As spare part the separate parts are not exhangeable. The 3 whole valve mechanism can be replaced with the new one to- gether with the new push rods. The fastening parts do not have to be modified. Valve Mechanism Adjusting valves 1. Remove the inlet pipe between the turbocharger and the induction manifold. Remove the valve cover and the breather pipe. Remove the rocker arm mechanism. Remove the radiator, cooling fan, alternator and the v belt.
Remove the crankshaft nut. Remove the V belt pulley in- cluding the hub on engines the belt pulley must be re- moved first. Remove the timing gear casing cover engine front cover. The valve clearance, which can be adjusted on a hot or cold engine, is 0,35 mm for both inlet and exhaust valves. The clearance is adjusted when the respective piston is at T. The valves for the different cylin- ders are adjusted in the same sequence as the order of injec- tion.
The clearance is correct when a 0,35 mm feeler gauge is slightly tightfitted between the rocker arm and the valve stem end. Adjust clear- 6 ance by rotating the adjusting screw. Connect the pushrods in pairs, using orings or elastic bands to prevent them from falling through. Do not connect the pushrods too tightly as this might cause them to bend or snap. Extract the cam- shaft. Separate the camshaft from the gear wheel using a press or suitable drift.
Fit the key in its groove. Lubricate bearing surfaces and lobes and insert the shaft in the cylinder block. Ensure that the aligning marks on the gears agree. Fit the timing gear casing cover and the crankshaft V belt 8 pulley and hub. Free the pushrods and fit the rocker arm mechanism. Fit the valve cover and the breather pipe and the inlet pipe between the turbocharger and the induction engines manifold.
Check the valve clearances in the injection order of the en- gine. Injection order is Fit the alternator. Fit the fan and the fan belt. Fit the radiator. Check the valve clearance of the 1st cylinder. Check valves in the 2nd cylinder. Check valves in the 5th cylinder. Injection order 1 5 3 6 2 4 Valves rock in cyl. Disconnect the balancing unit lubricating oil pipe from the cylinder block and unscrew the balancing unit fixing bolts. Re- move the balancing unit and the lubricating oil pipe only engines.
Unscrew the lubricating oil pump pressure pipe fixing screws from the cylinder block. Remove the oil pump and the suction and pressure pipes. Remove the flywheel and the flywheel housing.
If the bearing clearance exceeds 0,18 mm for main bear- 5. Refer to the specifications for the relevant 6. Remove the connecting rod bearing caps and push the correct undersize and the corresponding bearings, see connecting rods out of the way of the crankshaft. When grinding note that the journal edges must remain round.
Remove the main bearing caps and lift out the crankshaft. If needed, also the main bearing can be fitted with outer diameter 1,0 mm oversize and inner diameter 0,5 mm under- B. Checking crankshaft size. Ordernumber is includes halfs and The main bearing housing is machined to 92, Clean the crankshaft. Do not forget the oilways. Measure the journal wear in several points. Outof round, 1. Apply puller for the crankshaft gears and pull off both gears.
Clean the seat on the crankshaft with, for example, a wire 3. Refit the bearing caps with new bearing shells and tighten brush. Measure the I. Tap them onto the shaft with With this method the indicator shows the actual bearing clear- a suitable sleeve or soft drift. Note the position of the key and ance. Measure in several points in case the worn bearing ensure that the aligning marks on the front gear are visible.
Leave it to cool. Crankshaft Changing crankshaft gear rim 2. Lubricate the bearing surfaces and fit the crankshaft. Fit the crankshaft thrust bearings with the lubricating grooves facing the crankshaft. Mark the position of the gear rim on the shaft. Heat the gear rim with a welding torch and drive it off using a suitable drift. Fit the main bearing caps according to their numbering 3. Heat the new gear rim to max. Fit the gear rim with bearing lock in the block and in the cap are on the same side , the chamfer facing the crankshaft flange, and with the teeth the rear with thrust bearings provided with guide lugs.
Lubri- according to markings or according to figure above. Tap the cate the bolts and tighten them to Nm. The figure above shows a rear view of the crankshaft and no 2 cylinder big end bearing journal. Fitting crankshaft 1. Clean the oilways, bearing shells and bearing locations. Check that the crankshaft is clean. B A 7. Check that the crankshaft can rotate without binding. Check the end float using a dial gauge. The correct end float is 0, If the end float is too large, oversize thrust bearings should be fitted. Bearing shells should never be reamed or machined in any other way, nor should the sides of the bearing caps be filed.
Tightening torque of screws of crank- 3. Tap shaft counterweight is Nm. Apply locking fluid Loctite the timing indicator in its place and tighten the fixing screws on the screw threads. Vibration dampers pulleys delivered as spare parts do F. Crankshaft hub piece not have injection timing mark. Make the marking on the new damper in connection with installation. Rotate the crankshaft until the piston of the 1st cylinder re- aches its top dead centre. Drop cyl. Set the dial gauge on top of the valve stem end and zero it at the piston top dead centre. Then rotate the crankshaft opposite to running direction until dial gauge shows about 15 mm below TDC.
After that rotate the crank- shaft slowly to running direction until the dial gauge shows the figure corresponding injection timing see table below. Mark the injection timing on the tip of indicator with an elec- tric pen do not tap. Piston distance from top dead centre vs.
Grad , , When fitting the hub piece to the crankshaft front end note the mm mm correct position of the hub. Checking element of the rubber I. Housing 2. Damper mass 30 Nm 3. Liquid cavity 4. In the engines and some engine versions there is 10 a vibration damper of socalled viscose type. Inside the damper there is a housing filled with stiff silicone oil in where the damping substance is situated with very small tolerances. Check the alignment marks A on both sides of the rubber element.
If the difference is more than 1,5 mm, change the Note! Even a small dent makes the vibration damper inoper- damper for a new one. Do not remove it by turning forcibly and be careful not to damage it when it is loose. If you detect a dent on the outer surface, do not install the damper back in the engine.
Mark the injection timing on the vibration damper with an electric pen do not tap.
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Check also the condition of the rubber element. If rubber pieces have been loosened from the element, rubber has been pressed to the depth of more than 3,5 mm or the outer circumference is slack or it moves in the direction of the shaft, change the damper. Vibration damper should be replaced every running hours! Connecting Rods and Pistons If the piston pin bushing is worn, it should be driven out using a suitable drift.
Removing pistons together with connecting rods 5 40, Remove the oil sump and the oil inlet and pressure pipes. Scrape off the possible soot in the cylinder liner. If the turn- ing edge is clearly marked, smooth it down carefully with a scraper. Remove the big end bearing caps and bearing shells. Place the shells in order if they are to be re used.
Push up the piston and connecting rod with the shaft of a 2 hammer or similar wooden tool. Remove the piston pin snap rings. Push out the pin. Press the new bush in its place. Ensure that the oil hole in the bush coincides with the respective hole in the connecting Note! If the piston pin does not move under thumb pressure rod.
Changing connecting rod bear- C. Checking connecting rod ings The connecting rod is checked in a special fixture, intended 1. Clean the connecting rod and bearing shells. Fit them to- for the purpose e. Carl Larsson. Did Lysias get the word from his fellow Thurian? Ramsay with Sarios Sari - kawak , American Journal, 4. Kiepert's map of , Asia Provincia Formae Orb.
Murray's Asia Minor, p. The existence of a Pauline Epistle addressed to the Colossian Church has given the name a vogue in Christendom. Hamilton and others had questioned the accuracy of Hdt. Weber, M. Ramsay's idea that Hdt. Radet Lydie, pp. If Kydrara was a frontier station in the time of Kroisos, it follows that 1 Lydia did not extend to the Halys, or at least to the Halys-meridian throughout; 2 there was a great trade - route already running E. It was this route which the younger Kyros took in why not Xerxes in B.
This terminus or boundary stone was standing in Hdt. There was probably a bridge, though Hdt. Rawlinson would place on the site of the subsequent Philadelphia Alashehr , no doubt an important position; but Radet l. Athenaeus 4. Plane-trees and tamarisk are still characteristic of the Kogamos-valley Hamilton. The anecdote of Xerxes gives a curious illustration of Baum-cultus. That seems to be Schweighaeuser's idea, which Baehr condemned as far-fetched: why? Cobet's emendation gives Abicht's interpretation.
Ramsay St. Paul the Traveller and the R. Citizen, p. The first mission, by Dareios, in B. The motivation for this second mission Xerxes wished to find out exactly how little resistance he had to expect is quaintly, not to say awkwardly put: a symptom of some unsoundness in the passage. Finally, the absence of any reason for the exceptions here is doubly remarkable, in view of cc.
As the king wished to punish Athens for Marathon c. Perhaps this text belongs to the earliest draft of the seventh book, and the chief problem is to explain the insertion of that story below rather than in this place; cp. One could hardly discover from this passage that Xerxes spent the whole winter B. Kiepert, , pp. Madytos now Maito is on the European side about due W.
Madytos appears on the Athenian Lists as paying Dr. The distance between Sestos and Madytos may be about 5 R. Verg Aen. The incident referred to took place in the winter B. But see below. Possibly this topographical note was introduced after his own visit to the Hellespont, and did not belong to the first draft of Bk.
The profanity of Artayktes recalls that of Eli's sons, 1 Sam. The first pair of bridges too were presumably bridges of boats, but are not described in view of the full description of the second pair which follows; only the one respect in which the first structures differed from the second is here specified: whether correctly or not is another question, cp.
The structure used to be called schema Pindaricum Pyth. There are four measures of revenge taken— 1 Flogging, 2 Fettering, 3 Branding, 4 Taunting; the first three sensibly weaken the effect of the fourth. The most effective measure on the Hellespont as on the Tay was the restoration of the structure in a more durable form. Stein et al. So too L. But why just lashes? Duncker, E. It would have been more logical to fetter the Pontos, or Propontis, out of which the Hellespont came. Persai ff. The bridge itself, the pair of bridges, would be fetters. Stein regards the Herodotean story as having possibly arisen from a misunderstanding of the Aischylean metaphor.
The flogging and the branding might be natural extensions of the fetters: the Hellespont was to be not merely a slave in fetters, but a whipped and branded runaway! The branding, indeed, is too much for Hdt. Duncker iv. Stein has indeed remarked upon the truly Iranian character of the address to the Hellespont; but such orientalisms are not beyond the resources of Hdt. To tattoo the sea would indeed be a feat.
Xerxes had the necessary operators and instruments in his train, according to the anecdote c. Perhaps Aeschylos had been already plagiarized and exaggerated by another poet, from whom Hdt. Plutarch, Them. Monro, Homeric Grammar, , gives the meaning as fittingly, accordingly, consequently. Plutarch Mor. There were plainly in Hdt. He conceives them apparently as parallel to each other, but not as bound together so as to form a single structure.
Thirlwall, Grote, and others suggest that Greeks were employed this time. Why did not Hdt. Diels, Laterculi Alexandrini, Berlin, , pp. He appears to distinguish four main stages in the process:—I. The synthesis of ships. The discharge of the anchors. Each vessel might have been moored independently, in line with the rest, but the anchors to be next mentioned are not according to Hdt.
Or the vessels might have been attached to each other by ropes, or cables; but if so, Hdt. It is a further defect that Hdt. There is no difficulty in understanding why the two bridges had a different number of boats in them, for even if parallel to each other, they need not have been the same length. Grote remarks that taking the breadth to be one mile or ft. Nor does Hdt. Grote speaks iv. There is nothing in 1. But i. The change of reading makes no difference to the actual orientation of either bridge, or of the boats forming it, but delivers the text from an almost inexplicably remote reference.
Nor is the statement that the boats are at right angles to the passage across them quite inane, as is proved by the theory of some commentators that the boats were, and were by Hdt. But had Hdt. The subject, the sense, and even, perhaps, the reading, are in doubt.
The phrase, however, is capable of contrary interpretations. The method of mooring the boats could hardly affect the strain on these cables, or keep them taut; and indeed the stretching and tightening of these great cables is subsequently accounted for by windlasses on shore: this interpretation therefore must be dismissed. The same remark applies to interpretation i. Otherwise, we should have to suppose that the bridges were constructed on shore, floated out into midstream, and anchored, not necessarily complete, but it might be in lengths— a process which would ill accord with the rest of Hdt.
If the boats of the upper bridge had anchors let down from the bows, then the ships of the lower bridge must have had anchors from the bows; and if the lower bridge had anchors from the sterns of its vessels, then the vessels of the upper bridge likewise, no doubt, had anchors from the sterns. Even as so amended the text leaves Hdt. This implies, if it has any sense at all, that the boats were to be kept in their places by the great cables stretched across them: to which, however, Hdt.
These words are adverse to the view that Hdt. The last word is an emendation, but a fairly certain one; cp. It is not likely that three different openings were provided in each bridge for the passage of smaller crafts. The text will mean that where the pentekonters and the triremes joined, an opening was provided. The remark throws some light on the structure of the bridges, but the respective positions of pentekonters and triremes remain unfortunately undetermined. Were the pentekonters all together in one place in each bridge, or distributed? If together, were they in the middle, or at oue side?
If, as is possible, the pentekonters formed movable blocks in the bridges which could be slung out, in order to allow of the navigation continuing, powerful cables and capstans might have been employed for performing that operation. Whether the cables were fastened to the boats and the boats to the cables, or whether the cables simply rested upon the boats; whether the eables were each in one length, or whether there were in each several lengths, and so on, are questions which he neither resolves nor even raises.
The stage in the process of construction which he is now describing savours more of a suspension bridge than of a pontoon, of bridge of boats. Grote, who seems to think Hdt. As the cables were subsequently captured and taken to Athens 9. The anchors above mentioned also require cables. If any section, or sections, of the bridges were capable of being slipped back and forward into place, cables would be required for such an operation.
Finally, if the bridges were made in lengths and floated out into position, or even put in position, ship by ship, cables would be used to control the movement. There follows IV. It has the former meaning in c. This remark should apply to the bridge on the Aegean side for the commissariat cp. The one of these is virtually described by Arrian, in a well-known passage of the Anabasis Alexandri, 5. Ships are allowed to drift down the current, stern foremost, to the given spot, where they are stayed by a galley with oars, to which they are attached presumably each ship to a separate galley?
While this galley is rowing or paddling against the stream, large baskets of picked stones are dropped from the stem of each ship, forming the pontoon, and serve as anchors. With this kind of bridge and bridgebuilding Arrian contrasts the method here reported by Hdt. But Arrian has apparently a little forgotten his Herodotus!
One great difference he does indeed rightly signalise between the Roman method and that here described. For the rest, the floating of the ships stern foremost down stream, and their mooring, just on the Roman system, seems to be involved in Hdt. The substantial alternative to the Roman method of throwing a bridge across a stream, and to the method described by Hdt.
Such a method would give a less stable result than the method described by Arrian; but some hints of such a process seem to shimmer through the description of the bridge-building in Hdt. Possihly the two pairs of bridges, successively thrown across the Hellespont, were not made on the same methods. The fact that he describes the bridges of Xerxes but not the bridges of Dareios supports the theory of the prior composition of Bks.
The object of these moles or dams was evidently to protect the entrance to the canal from being choked, or even storm-lashed. Alterthums vii. The eclipse which follows, and ought to throw a flood of light upon the chronology, unfortunately fails us. There was no eclipse of the sun visible in Sardes in the spring of B. It is therefore a fiction, not merely generslly discreditable to the traditions of the war, but specifically ominous to the anecdote of Pythios, his fright, and its consequences.
There was, indeed, a total eclipse of the sun on April 18, visible in the Indian Ocean, but not apparently on the mainland, or we might with Rawlinson associate with an eclipse the departure of Xerxes from Susa which would not help us out here. An annular eclipse on Feb. That there had been any development of such feeling since the celebrated eclipse of Thales and its notorious results. As the eclipse is a fiction the interpretation can hardly be quoted for a fact. According to c. The fstal accident to Pharnouches, the Hipparch, might also be added, c. Index for reff.
If Pythios was grandson of Kroisos, cp. All his five sons were of age for military service: he asks for the eldest—who would be no chicken. Stein compares the request of Chryses Il. A 18 Baehr records this as Larcher's suggestion. The Homeric reminiscence affects the form of the request, not the substance of the story: the parallel with 4. Ironical in effect, and probably in Hdt. The mid. Veitch sub v. The words look almost like a comic gloss. Stein ; middle in passive sense L. Behind the physical difficulty lies the obviously fabulous moral of the story, as an exhibition of the unbounded cruelty and caprice of the oriental despot, from whose rule Hellas had been saved at Salamis.
Beyond that comes the dramatic or literary interest of the contrast between the beginning and the end of Pythios' dealings with Xerxes. The form and expression of the whole story are essentially Greek, and the parallel in 4. Yet we may reasonably hesitate to dismiss the story of Pythios as a pure fabrication. The possession of autocratic or almost autocratic powers over fellowmen is more than any human being can stand without disaster; and when those powers have been acquired, not by ability and service as in the case of Dareios , but by way of inheritance and traditional right as by Xerxes, or Kambyses , the prospects of disaster are increased.
The description which follows is far from being adequate to cover the tribes and nations enumerated in the Army-list afterwards cc. That the column is described in marching order as it left Sardes merely shows that Hdt. This observation does not preclude some of the Anatolian levies having mustered at Sardes; but the bulk probably made their way direct to Abydos; cp. That the baggage-train marches first shows that the column is still in thoroughly friendly country.
Moreover it was to cross by the Upper Bridge, and had therefore to arrive first at Abydos. The first four words recur c. The exact force of the pluperfect is not apparent, but it may be taken to emphasize the moment of the interval. The normal way of carrying the spear was point upwards; cp.
Greek horses were of course small. But that was a pacific, this a warlike occasion. Rawlinson suspects in that a corruption of the Persian religion between the days of Hdt. This sacred chariot was left in Thrace and not recovered, 8. The verb is here used in a less technical sense, as in Il. Who the mother of Patiramphes was does not seem to matter.
The father Otanes could hardly be the son of Pharnaspes, cp. This chiliad has its spears point upwards. There are three curious chiliads in this passage: i. A chiliad, likewise with golden pomegranates, which they held upwards turning the spear points to the ground as they marched in the procession in front of the king. But it is difficult to avoid a suspicion a that there is one chiliad too many, b that the two chiliads, the one before and the one after the king, were really divisions of the ten thousand Immortals.
Out of Lydia into Mysia, or from Sardes to the Kaikos. The route is but vaguely indicated: did the forces go from Sardes to Smyrna? Whatever the route, this stage would have occupied not less than five to six days. The route is here clearly given; the distance would only be some twenty R.
From Karene into the Troad, and Ilion, a march of several days. The route is indicated, but is not free from obscurity; there is difficulty, for example, in understanding how the column could leave Ida on the left hand if it marched via Antandros. Or is the point of view not that of the column en route but of a reporter farther north, e. Or did a part of the foree really cut across inland, while the main part took the coast route as Blakesley suggested?
Anyway, from Karene to Adramyttion would be a long day's march; from Adramyttion to Antandros another; from Antandros to Ilion would take at least three days more. Xenophon and his remnant made this very march in the opposite direction: Anab. Also Thuc. This route, however, from Edremit Adramyttion would leave the bulk of Ida on the right, not on the left. It seems that Hdt. Atarneus is expressly described by Hdt. Hill's Sources, sub nom. Thraemer, Pergamos, p. The construction is unusual. Forbiger, ii. It seems hypercritical to object to Hdt.
Virchow, Sitzb. The plain extends from Adramyttion to Antandros; the former is now its principal place. There was considerable variety in spelling the name cp. The position of the ancient Adramytteion is no longer identified with the modern Adramyti, the name having been transferred about A. Xenophon touched the place Anab. The city had a harbour Paul sailed in a ship of Adramyttion, Acts According to the foundation-legend, ap.
Dikaiarchos Fr. Radet La Lydie, p. Hicks' Manual 2 , p. It was seized by the Lesbian exiles in B. Lost apparently by the Athenians to the Persians after the Sicilian disaster, it was liberated by a body of Lakedaimonian hoplites in B. The control of the woods of Ida was a considerable source of profit to the Antandrians; Thuc. Abicht takes the failure of the Skamandros as the intended complement; but the panic afterwards makes a better parallel to the storm.
So too Stein. Not to be confounded locally with Pergamon Xen. Doerpfeld, Troja und Ilion, 2 Bde, Athens, Stein observes that Hdt. Xerxes, son of Dareios, may have had a special reason for his interest in Troy; cp. The fame of the Trojan war was not unknown at the Persian court. Iliad, 6. Rawlinson's notion so too Duncker's: E. Persian indignation for the destruction of Kybele's temple, 5.
How far such acts may have been the expression of policy, how far of personal piety, need hardly be discussed; the two are not mutually exclusive. On the Magi cp. Could this one have been due to the neglected majesty of Apollon? It is observable that Hdt. Elsewhere Thuc. In the sea. Dardanos was 70 stades from Rhoeteum sic Pliny, 5.
In later times it was celebrated as the spot where Sulla met Mithradates in 84 B. Strabo l. By Hdt. The Anatolian levies may have been given Abydos as the rendezvous. The fleet appears just below; but is it very likely that the whole fleet of vessels more or less was conveyed into and out of the Hellespont, and apparently for nothing but this review?
If so, the fleet will have been numbered by tens, not by hundreds, and those who desire to diminish the scale of the expedition as much as possible should take note of this review. Index sub v. This white marble seat, or platform as Rawlinson suggests , had been commandeered some time before, and was probably a substantial structure.
The ships apparently were drawn up on the shore: another indication that there were not so many of them at Abydos. The next chapter, however, has them all afloat. It was, perhaps, the vessel victorious on this occasion that he afterwards employed as his yacht, c. Xerxes at the Hellespont affords an interesting contrast to Dareios on the Bosporos, 4.
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He too does his sight-seeing, and has his pleasure, but dry-eyed. One may easily reconcile this observation with the hypothesis of the prior composition of Bks. It is difficult to discover a rule for Hdt. There follows here an elaborate Dialogue, with five speeches assigned to each interlocutor cc. Little or no degree of authenticity can be claimed for the passage as a record of an actual conversation between the king and his uncle.
A modern historian, dealing with a similar problem, must speak in propria persona, and dare not invoke Hdt. George, Napoleon's Invasion of Russia, , passim. But Hermogenes went too far in his commendation of Hdt. Artabanos of course could not cite the story of Kleobis and Biton as proof of his contention. But the sentiment here is Hellenic rather than Persian Omar Khayyam notwithstanding. On the doctrine cp. The perf. Artabanos does, however, delicately hint that the army is too large and the ships too numerous.
Perhaps Artabanos says as much as he could say, being a stranger to Greece; but his bare remarks would have applied equally well to Skythia. If they are not introduced in the story of the Skythian campaign it is perhaps because they had already done duty here, that story being of later composition than this; cp. In the present case klept. For the last two words cp. Hamlet I. The objective of the expedition fluctuates passim ; cp. In Homer only of fodder, but in Hdt. The construction, rare in Attic prose, is very common in Hdt.
Sitzler in l. Stein, 1. Artabanos betrays a degree of research into Hellenic ethnology perhaps remarkable and undramatic for a Persian: cp. The remainder of his speech certainly smells pure Attic. The Kyreian conquest of Ionia effected by deputy is described 1. With k.
Artabanos anticipates the appeals of Themistocles, 8. Artabanos concludes his appeal with the notorious Solonian bonmot, in a variant. Aristotle, Eth. This is not the first instance in which Artabanos derives his philosophy from Solonian wells: cp. It may be doubted whether Hdt. But granted that Book 1 was of later composition, it was natural that the historian should render to Solon what belonged to Solon, when he got the chance. The question is whether the word indicates the material act or the mental antecedent. The active used intransitively certainly refers to a material act, as in 1.
The word is twice repeated, as a relative, just below, rather inelegantly. Is that passage part of the additions to the first draft of this Book? Artabanos no doubt was Major-domo and Viceroy during the king's absence; cp. This fact may help to account for his person being used by Hdt.
The whole interview suggests a theatrical scene, and may be taken as illustrating the influence of the stage upon Hdt. There is an anecdote of Xerxes at Abydos related, c. Xerxes here shows himself brave, courteous, pious, not immodest, not insolent, not egotistic. Xerxes is made to pay the Greeks a high compliment incidentally; but he does not affect to despise his enemy. Max Muller's term, Hibbert Lectures, , The verb no doubt implies a whilome partition; and the idea is undoubtedly Greek; so Homeric Poseidon describes the triple division of the universe between Zeus, Hades, and himself: Il.
The tribal and the national gods are thoroughly Hellenic institutions cp. It is hardly reasonable to deny similar institutions and ideas to the other peoples and nations of antiquity; rather may it be said that the appropriation of gods to the nations, and of the nations to gods, is charaeteristic of antiqnity 4. In the time of Hdt. These phenomena were parts of the development of monotheism, a process the consummation of which was then still in a remote future; while, conversely, the essence of polytheism is involved in the local and tribal appropriation of deities deity.
The Persians were apparently qnite ready to recognize the gods of the nations Kyros in Babylon, Kambyses in Egypt, Dareios and Xerxes; cp. The supposed iconoclastic monotheism of the Behistun Inscription is refuted, not merely by other Achaimenid inscriptions, bnt by the very context of Behistun. Much more than a day mnst have passed since the arrival at Abydos, c. The importance of the snn and the sunrise for the Persians cp.
Wasps ff. Schrader, Reallexikon d. Pollux, 1. The Persian word akinakes is here explained, and then naturally taken as understood in 8. What Hdt. The very similar offerings of Alexander at the mouth of the Indus were distinctly to propitiate Poseidon: Arrian Anab. Alexander had, however, apparently offered similar sacrifice on crossing the Hellespont; Arrian, Anab. There is an implicit reference back to c. The duality of the bridges as conceived by Hdt. The items of the marching column which succeed ought to be identifiable with the items in the column as it left Sardes in cc.
On the second day Xerxes crosses, with his immediate guard and suite, exactly as described in cc. Xerxes, on the European shore, watches his forces crossing under the lash. But what was left to cross after the king, according to the immediately preceding context? This passage is of value as showing how little Hdt. The Hellespontine bon-mot is adopted seriously by the Delphic oracle, c. It is not clear how far Hdt. Stein : from the root gav or gau- ; cp. Hesiod, Theog.
But ought not the portent to have occurred, like the next reported, at Sardes? This portent, too, looks like an ex eventu. The Chersonese being a long peninsula, and Sestos a considerable distance from the isthmus or base cp. The sunrise would, of conrse, be more or less SE. In fact the local indication qualifies both verb and participle. But can we recognize more than one Sarpedon? The tomb must have been a cenotaph. Was the place older than this expedition? Leuke Akte c. Lysimacheia afterwards took the place of Agora.
Melas was a not uncommon name for rivers, naturally enough cp. This one appears also 6. It is mentioned apparently in Iliad 4. The Thracian name is given as Poltyobria, i. At this time it was probably occupied by a Persian garrison Blakesley , and afterwards was a not unimportant stronghold in the Athenian Empire, paying a high tribute, 12 T. In B. Stentor, Iliad 5. Livy Seeing that Dareios entered Thrace by the Bosporos, Stein infers that Dareios garrisoned Doriskos on the return march when he recrossed at the Hellespont.
But had Dareios in person anything to say to it? Doriskos may have been occupied by Megabazos, in connexion with the first conquest of Thrace; though even this modification is hardly consistent with the notice of Doriskos, 5. Doriskos is not altogether a suitable landing-place for the Paionians on that occasion cp.
Only at that date, perhaps, was the spot definitely garrisoned by the Persians. Mardonios would know it well. The bearing of this passage upon the problem of composition is important. It is prima facie older than 5. The Hebros Maritza was and is the principal river of Thrace. The numbering, review and reorganization of the forces at Doriskos, involving, as it does, a desperate delay contradicted, however, by the traditional chronology of the king's march, cp. It is impossible to take the whole fleet of Xerxes into the Hellespont: it is unnecessary to take the whole army across the bridge: were the missing ten thousand Persian cavalry shipped direct to Doriskos?
If, however, Doriskos was the first place at which the entire forces for the invasion of Hellas were concentrated, then a review, an organization, becomes both natural and necessary. The Samothracians had several such places on the mainland.
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But is the promontory here the sea-limit, or is it the western frontier? The latter gives a better sense: the two coincide in the other case. Serrheion coupled with Doriskos by Demosth. The method of numbering as deseribed wonld have taken a very long time; weeks or months would have elapsed before 1,, men could have been marched up, passed through the enclosnre, and marched away again. The numbers of the eavalry 80, are afterwards given c.
How were these nnmbers aseertained, for they are not included by Hdt.
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The numbers of the Persian forces are already known, and have been stated twice. The process deseribed is not merely on the faee of it childish but was donbtless superfluous: the numbers of each eontingent were no donbt nominally and approximately known to the captains, divisional offieers, and commanders: reports furnished by them wonld have supplied data for a computation. He returned to Telia in with just one thing in mind. These services will enable customer companies to raise their degree of automation and redeploy maintenance resources to development.
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