All three branches gradually opened to women — the air force being the absolute pioneer and the navy the most cautious — including all military academies and schools. Except for some areas of the navy — manoeuvres, diving and the Marine Corps — women are theoretically accepted in every military specialty. However, in practice combat areas have never been opened to female personnel.
Presently, in the context of the transition to a voluntary system, the need to recruit women was included as a relevant goal in official discourse for the first time. The incorporation of women and their participation in units deployed abroad has been a success; this reveals great possibilities for the future. It is thus foreseeable that the existing female contingent, which represents around 5 percent of active duty personnel, will grow to 8—10 percent of the total force.
MDN, a: 14 Politicians apparently became aware of the importance of recruiting women to meet the needs of the future all-volunteer force. Concerns about citizenship are still absent from the political discourse. One recent decision illustrates this well. According to art. Attendance is com- pulsory with only two exceptions — the case of prolonged sickness or resi- dence abroad. Penalties are to be applied to those who do not comply. However, rather astonishingly, through somewhat obscure legal rhetoric, regulatory legislation in practice exempts women from this obligation.
Once more, instrumental considerations overcome political principles and the proverbial double standard is kept. The bottom line is that women seem to be seen, as in so many other similar situations, as a kind of labour force reserve that the armed forces had to mobilize to deal with a current or anticipated lack of qualified personnel available on the job market.
A series of questions thus remain to be answered: will the new socioeconomic incentive schemes — in the presumption that these will be effectively applied — be enough to attract young women as well as young men? If this is so, and admitting an eventual lack of male candidates, to what extent will policy-makers wish to raise female percentages in the total force? Above all, knowing that the number of female candidates has been high in the past, the crucial question is: will these incentives be enough to retain women in the military?
Given that no specific family policies have been elaborated, no monitoring or mentoring programmes instituted and no clear policy on sexual harassment drawn up, the answer is most likely a resound- ing NO. Such variation, ranging from an almost total numerical absence, rank limitations, segregated training and functional restrictions to relatively open career patterns, access to combat roles and higher ranks and existence of specific family and equity policies, is due to a complex set of factors that in each case have affected policies and practices differently.
However, despite this strong heterogeneity, at the beginning of the present decade all NATO countries had admitted and generally increased the number of women in their armed forces.
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In almost , women served as volunteers in the armed forces of 17 of the 19 NATO nations see Table 2. Portugal has not been an exception to the general trend, even if it is among the latecomers. After one decade of sustained numerical growth, in the year there were almost women serving in the Portuguese armed forces.
They represented 6. As mentioned before, the present period is also one of pre- dictable growth considering the forthcoming transition to an all-volunteer force. Remarkably though, the number of women has almost doubled over the decade, even if this increase has differed from service to service Figure 3.
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While, as mentioned, the navy has the smallest absolute number of women, showing an extremely moderate growth and a tendency towards sta- bilization, the army reveals a trend of accelerated growth, both in terms of absolute as well as relative numbers. Some 56 percent of Portuguese service- women are found in the army, When dimension of total force was not made available in the survey, data from the Military Balance was used.
If we look at the situ- ation of women in terms of the functions they perform, a fairly common pattern can be seen: they are concentrated in support functions, that is, administration, personnel, logistics and finance Figure 4.
Table 4 shows the proportion of women in each occupational area. Here again we find them overrepresented in the health and support functions, making up It should, however, be noted that women represent 5. Turning now to the position of women in the rank structure, we see that they are mostly employed in short-term contract service as complementary personnel Figure 5 and are concentrated in the lower ranks Table 5.
In the year women made up 4. It would seem, however, that their relative numbers are bound to increase, as they already represent Most remarkable is the situation in the Air Force Academy, where Source: Ministry of Defence Portugal. The limited — even if rapidly growing — representation in the total force; 2. There is overrepresentation in complementary personnel structures and in traditionally female areas; 3. And underrepresentation in higher hierarchical levels and operational functions. Motivations, Expectations and Professional Identities As mentioned before, a trend towards occupationalism seemed to emerge from organizational recruitment policies in the Portuguese armed forces when women joined the ranks.
What kind of values and expectations did they bring to the military? If these variables are effective at predicting female military participation patterns, they would certainly support the contention that women are attracted to the armed forces for occupational reasons. Shields, Empirical research carried out in Europe and the US during the s seemed, however, to highlight an opposite tendency.
Drawing on the results of various studies on enlistment motivations, Shields shows that, paradoxically, women do not see the armed forces as simply another employer but rather are attracted by such unique characteristics of the military as discipline and adven- ture. In a study of the first thousand women to join the Portuguese armed forces including officers, non-commissioned officers and enlisted personnel carried out in , these results were confirmed to a certain extent Carreiras, The results are shown in Table 6.
This seems to be the main conclusion here, even if occupational dimensions are not unimportant. It should, of course, be noted that such tendencies may vary depending on the positions individuals occupy within the organizational structure. Tra- ditionally, officers trained in military academies and schools or those employed in combat-oriented functions tend to score much higher on insti- tutional features than the remaining personnel.
Even though women are underrepresented in top hierarchical positions, they may be expected to develop institutional orientations as they move into higher ranks. Hence, as long as women are excluded from this inner circle, their institutional orientation on average will not reach its full potential. The military is giving women a message that undermines female institutional values and, by implication, promotes an occupational orientation. Even if the data collected do not allow for longitudinal analysis, it has been possible to identify an increase in critical evaluations over time.
The longer the stay in the military, the higher the percentage of those who declared themselves to be discontented, wishing to leave or anticipating problems in the near future Carreiras, Especially for those women who remain in the military and proceed with their military careers, the main- tenance of high levels of institutional affiliation may thus to a large extent depend on the existence of guarantees in the fields of material security and economic reward. This supposition does not apply exclusively to the case of military women. Insofar as such an objective is diluted, or material conditions are considered to be particularly deficient, their commitment will suffer and they will tend to adopt the occupational orientation characteristic of a specialist.
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In the case of military women, however, the conditions under which a specific orientation may develop — and potentially influence role perform- ance, career paths, attrition or re-enlistment decisions — are related to other variables that seem to affect women in ways not experienced by men. It is thus important to ask: Which factors influence change in professional orien- tations?
How do they vary in the different institutional locations e. Some of these variables are crucial in explaining the military roles of women and deserve adequate attention. This was especially the case of political figures, with success- ive governments and opposition parties showing a clear lack of willingness to introduce the issue into the political agenda.
Yet it was also true for the military, where the lack of interest may well account for the aforementioned ex-post pragmatist approach to policy definition. The main political and civic sectors of Portuguese society adopted an attitude of relative openness towards the issue of gender integration in the military, even though one born out of a mixture of ignorance and indif- ference. None of the political parties represented in parliament expressed a formal position. During parliamentary discussions of the new Military Service Law in , where female voluntary service was mentioned for the first time, only casual references were made to the question.
The positions of individual members of parliament were hesitant, unclear and cautious. It mobilized debate on the issue, organized some meetings and one seminar and went so far as to fund the publication of a prospective study. Some of them supported the measure and stressed the need to ensure equal opportunities for women, others opposed it on the basis of anti-militarist or pacifist prin- ciples. This situation mirrors to a certain extent the ambivalent attitude that has frequently been identified on the part of feminist movements vis- a-vis the question of female involvement in military activities Boene, A first striking observation concerns the small number of articles — — which have been written.
The period marked the peak of public curiosity and, accordingly, the moment of highest visibility. Media interest waned sharply in the following years. As shown in Figure 6, despite some oscillations, reference to women in the military has become residual. Content analysis of these articles has confirmed the aforementioned absence of conflict as well as a dominantly favourable attitude concerning the presence of women in the military. Results have also shown that the issue is treated in a rather superficial way.
The very few articles that provide a deeper analysis refer to total or partial reproduction of research results from other countries or concern the very few that have been conducted in Portugal. Table 8 shows the results of a thematic classification of all articles. All these events are described and presented together with quantitative information and occasional comments made by military women. Despite the fact that the tone of these reports is generally positive and sympathetic towards women, stereotypes of gender roles also emerge. As time went by, such events lost journalistic interest.
On the contrary, among the dramatically reduced number of articles published after , more emphasis was given to the concrete biographies of women who overcame institutional barriers for the first time or obtained a special status e. In the 10 years after the very first experiences relatively few articles focused on integration problems. The majority included in this category were published in the crucial years of and , when a number of problem- atic situations came to public attention.
It likely has more to do with the absence of insti- tutionalized solutions and channels that would make them more visible exter- nally, as happens in many other countries. As mentioned in one of the most recent articles, the absence of complaints regarding sexual harassment, for example, derives from the fact that some have not been processed in written form.
Once the initial highly visible phase of the early s was overcome, the issue of women soldiers vanished from the attention of the print media and public opinion. This same observation could probably be made regarding the characteristics of debate in various other countries. In the Portuguese case, the same lack of coherent policies is an observable output.
Two differences, however, must be pointed out: in the first place, it is less an absence of coherence than it is of policies as such; second, this has resulted from somewhat less extreme situations than those depicted by Sebesta. We could well say that the early s were characterized by public visibility, political indif- ference and military caution. Ten years on, we may instead talk of a public eclipse, growing political awareness opportunism? As for the women involved, it is certainly time to conduct new research. The advent of the all-volunteer force will give a new impetus to female recruit- ment and probably give military women higher visibility in the public arena.
Notes 1 The percentage of women compared with the total armed force. These are sometimes considered to depend more on other types of variables such as cultural values or gender equality Segal, Since some of these sources also keep general archives, including themati- cally indexed articles from other newspapers, it was possible to compare infor- mation. Later on, a case of suspected violation would also attract the attention of the media. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Increase the participation of the protagonists to strengthen and develop the community. Adequacy of the institutions and services to the characteristics of the community and its needs.
Portuguese Colonial War
Promote the prevention and regulation of obvious and latent conflicts of the local community. The "One-Stop Shops" were then created, within the scope of the provision of services to immigrants in the EU countries, involving different ministries and institutions of public administration in partnership with non-governmental organizations and with the support of cultural mediators. The Common Agenda for Integration - COM final - defined as priorities: strengthening the capacity of public and private service providers to interact with third-country nationals via intercultural interpretation and translation, guidance, mediation services by immigrant communities, "One-Stop Shop" information points; and creating sustainable organizational structures for integration and diversity management.
Consult the handbook on how to implement the One-Stop-Shop project. It is an e-learning platform developed with the Moodle software to support the teaching of the Portuguese language to foreigners in the training room. This new tool gathers a set of pedagogic resources that increase the interactivity between students and teachers, namely, texts, audios, videos and animations.
Created by the recommendations from the Common Agenda for the Integration of NPT more information , with respects to:. The RMAD integrats around a hundred of munipals from the north to the south of the coutrry and the autonomous regions, most of which have already applied the IMAD and some are envolved in Municipals Plans. See the list here. Local Policies to hosting and integrating migrants.
Portugal has registered, over the last years, a positive evolution in the scope of polices both practices of hosting and integration of migrants, to which the State interventions have contribute, the organizations of the civil society and the migrant communities themselves Because it is at a local level that the integration is made!
However, assuming that the search of superior levels of integration must be permanent and that a qualitative and efficient jump on the policies of hosting and integrating the migrants it is only possible through a joint work and duly articulated between the different actors, it is crucial to create strategies that grant an join performance of the different entities that act in this area not only at a national level for example, the National Plans for the Integration of Immigrants and and, more recently, the Strategic Plan for Migration , as well as at a local level.
Because the integration is a bidirectional process and the diversity is a factor of local development in that sense some set of plans and tools have been made available to the local policies of integration:. Tools of support to the characterization and monitoring of the local policies of hosting and integration of migrants. A pioneer network regarding the conception, implementation and evaluation of structural and sustainable local policies, bases on municipals plans transversal to the process of hosting and integration the immigrants at a local level, based upon a real diagnose of their needs.
The Project of Intercultural Mediation in Public Services MISP consists in an intercultural mediation of a communitarian focus, based on three principles that are crosses among them and fed continuously: the principle of mediation, the principle of interculturality and the principle of communitarian intervention. It is a project developed by City Councils in partnership with entities of the Civil Society, namely, immigrant associations.
In this model of intervention to highlight the role of the autarchies as privileged structures to promote, locally, the social cohesion and the intercultural conviviality, taking on also the role of a close management of social cultural diversity, namely, with the mobilization and participation of all local protagonists, public and private, organizations and individuals.
Support to professionals and Institutions — Clarification about several matters: relevant cultural codes; linguistic translation; immigration legislation; nationality and access of the nationals to third countries to several services and institutions; awareness and capability of the public services; institutional adequacy between the different actors. Note: This support to professionals is not only focused in their individual support, also aims to implement significant changes in the institutions and services both in their efficiency and effectiveness; Citizen Social Participation — Help to promote the citizen and social participation of all citizens with special relevant to nationals for the third countries.
Intercultural Conviviality — Help to promote the constructive interaction between different groups of citizens, especially in groups of different cultural matrices. Intervention in different areas taking into account the needs detected in the diagnosis example: education area, housing, etc. The project envisage the constitution of municipals teams of intercultural mediation EMMI , based in the municipals that promote the intervention. Each team has 3 to 6 Agents of Intercultural Mediation AMI nominated by the partner entities, municipal and associations.
The AMI are indicated and recruited by partner entities of the civil society, preferably association of immigrants represented in the council. By the nature of this model of intervention, the mediation agents accompany the citizen in situation of a more social disadvantage to the services and established links to other institutions, always working with these services and never replacing the their professionals. The agents of intercultural mediation have the following competences:. Do you know that in Portugal there are more than nationalities and over languages are spoken?
Certainly in the streets of your city or region there are many people from different backgrounds. Have you ever wondered what brought them to your country, what are their impressions and experiences from living here? Or perhaps you are an immigrant yourself and you would like to have the opportunity to learn more about the Portuguese culture and make new friends, strengthening your integration process in Portugal! The project "Next Door Family" was created in in the Czech Republic, and is currently used here since then, with significantly positive outcomes.
It results from the "inclusive neighborhoods concept" and relies on the interaction between immigrants and the host society and the importance of strengthening social relationships as a way to contribute to a more effective integration, removing barriers and promoting cultural diversity. To do so, a family agrees to welcome and host a family they do not know in their home, becoming pairs of families one migrant family and one autochthonous family for holding a typical Sunday lunch of their culture as a way of welcoming the "Other".
All meetings will take place on Sunday, November 26th , at the same time across the country and in countries that are associated with the implementation of this initiative, such as the Czech Republic and Spain. In Portugal, this initiative is promoted by the High Commission for Migration, in partnership with public and private entities throughout the country. If you are a local entity and wish to boost this initiative in you county, send us the application form to gaplim acm.
Registration form for entities PT version. To that end, a support methodology was defined that integrates 10 steps for its successful implementation. The methodology is part of a brochure that includes all the tools:. Migrant families and autochthonous families who wish to contribute to the integration process of migrants resident in Portugal may participate in this activity.
To participate, families should contact the organizer closest to their area of residence local authorities, civil society organizations or other , where they can obtain more information and register as a Host Family or Visiting Family. Consult the list of partner entities PT temporary version. In order to register you can use the Digital Registration Form or download the registration form and send it by e-mail to the entity closest to your place of residence. If you cannot register as a family, particularly because you already are working in the area of immigration and you are already aware of these issues, you can register as an Assistant — a crucial element in the monitoring of each pair of families, from enrollment to the date of the meeting, taking part at the lunch.
To do this, simply register with the organizer of the initiative in your municipality, in person or by sending the registration form by mail. Guide for Assistants PT version. Here below are some examples:. In the previous editions meetings were held, where they were present:.
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This is a transnational initiative that takes place every year in other European countries and Portugal has been one of the countries with the largest number of participants. The photographs on this gallery were taken by the numerous Assistants volunteers who join the initiative every year.
How to access a Portuguese language course for foreigners? If you wish to undertake a Portuguese language course for foreigner you may contact the Migrant Support Line to know which school or job center and professional training are closer to your area of residence or work. Where may I find Portuguese language courses for foreigners? The courses are developed by schools from the public network and by the jog centres and professional training from the Institute of Employment and Professional Training IEFP. Which is the added value of learning the Portuguese language? The mastery of the Portuguese language not only allows the communication with others and a better interaction with the hosting society but is also crucial to integrate fully the Portuguese society, including the work market.
It is even essential to submit a request of nationality, permanent residence permit and the status of long term resident. Which is the length of the Portuguese language course that certifies the level A2 — Elementary User? The length of the course is hours. The time to conclude each course of Portuguese language depends from the organization of each school or job centre and training, and may run for up to 9 months, according to the number of hours of training taught per week.
Which is the length of the Portuguese language course that certifies the level B2 — Independent User? The time to conclude each course of Portuguese language for foreigners depends from the organization of each school or job center and training, and may run for up to 9 months, according to the number of hours of training taught per week. Technical Portuguese. Specializes courses in areas such as Retail, Hospitality, Beauty Care, Civil Construction and Civil Engineering aiming to ease up the integrate the immigrant in the work market.
The length of the course is 25 hours. The time to conclude each course of portuguese language depend from the organization of each school or job centre and training, and may run for up to 9 months, according to the number of hours of training taught per week.