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Section 2 identifies factors influencing individual performance. Section 3 discusses applied sport psychology for athletes and coaches, and section 4 includes approaches from exercise psychology on motivation and well-being. The book includes a mix of award winning researchers from the European Sport Psychology Association, along with top researchers from the U. The main focus of the research programme in performance psychology is on judgement and decision making in sports, health and peak performance. He favours a simple heuristic approach and an embodied cognition approach to understanding the interaction of sensorimotor and cognitive behaviour from a psychological perspective.

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Search for books, journals or webpages All Pages Books Journals. Studies in education e. In the area of sport psychology, there is similar interest in the psychological processes that influence behavior, which extends from academia to the playing field. Motivation is a construct or latent variable , rather than an observable entity, which contributes to the difficulty in accurately measuring it Lavallee et al.

Many early assessments of motivation were behavioral in nature or relied on participants to provide verbal reports as to why they engaged in a particular activity. For example, Lepper and Greene inferred participants' intrinsic motivation by observing their time on task following an experimental intervention. A comparable though less scientific sport-related example is as follows: an athlete who performs extra repetitions in the gym is often perceived by observers as highly motivated, though no measure of motivation has actually taken place.

Clearly, methodologically rigorous measurement is needed to assess, understand, and predict the influence of any psychological construct on human behavior Clancy et al. Thus, critical appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of different measurement approaches is essential for our understanding of motivation, and would enhance researchers and practitioners' awareness of subsequent behavior.

Self-report questionnaires are the most commonly used measurement tools in motivation research, with Mayer et al. Specifically, in sport psychology, there is a plethora of motivation questionnaires Clancy et al. Although, previous publications have compared the psychometric properties of two instruments e. Bibliometric methods e. This review sought to address the aforementioned gap by providing a critical appraisal and bibliometric analysis of such measures, and subsequent guidance regarding their use based on the specific research question.

The search was conducted using the following terms:. Reference lists of the obtained articles were searched by hand. In order to critically appraise each instrument, further searches were conducted using the questionnaire name combined with test evaluation-related terms e. The total number of citations of each original publication was reported, as well as the subset with an impact factor.

Some sources e. The average weighted impact factor for the original publication of each questionnaire was calculated as follows: 1 the number of articles citations in each journal was multiplied by the journal's impact factor; 2 this value for all the journals was summed and then divided by the total number of articles citations.

Online directory of inventories, questionnaires, scales and tests in sport and exercise

This process resulted in a single number describing the impact of the use of each questionnaire. In the following sections, each measure will be discussed in order of highest to lowest number of citations per year since the original publication date. As such, the IMI could be interpreted as the questionnaire with the highest impact. Bibliometric data are provided in full in Supplementary Tables 1—6.

In the current review, each measure is evaluated along four domains: 1 the questionnaires are described in Development , which outlines background information, structure, updated versions, scoring, and so forth; 2 reliability is briefly summarized in Reliability.


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Cronbach's alpha values are reported as a measure of internal consistency, with 0. Where possible, indices of temporal stability and model fit are reported. The Echelle de Motivation dans le Sport is a multidimensional and contextual measure of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation toward sport Briere et al. Pelletier et al. The SMS contains seven subscales that measure three types of intrinsic motivation to know, to accomplish things, to experience stimulation , three types of regulation for extrinsic motivation identified, introjected, external , and amotivation.

Each subscale contains four items, amounting to 28 items in total. In response to criticisms of the SMS, Mallett et al. In this measure, the intrinsic motivation subscales were combined into a single subscale, and items were added for integrated regulation, the most self-determined form of extrinsic motivation that was absent from the SMS Mallett et al.

However, Pelletier et al. The item SMS-II, which contains a mix of SMS items and new items, includes a subscale for integrated regulation, and groups the different types of intrinsic motivation into a single subscale. Scores from the SMS can be provided in three formats. Firstly, a score can be calculated for each subscale, amounting to seven scores per questionnaire. Secondly, subscales can be grouped into broader motivational categories. For example, identified, introjected, and external regulation can be averaged to give one score for extrinsic motivation.

Thirdly, a self-determination or relative autonomy index can be calculated by assigning weights to each subscale score according to the subscale's position on the self-determination continuum see Gillet et al. Although there is not a children's version of the SMS, it has been found to have adequate internal reliability with youth athletes Rottensteiner et al. Sample composition and subscale scores for a range of papers using the SMS.

Acceptable internal consistency has been found in most studies using the SMS. Cronbach's alpha values of 0. Mallett et al. Test-retest correlations for the SMS range from 0. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to evaluate the seven-factor structure of the SMS Pelletier et al. Multiple types of correlational data support interpreting scores from the SMS as measures of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation. In line with theoretical predictions, the SMS subscale scores correlate with numerous motivational determinants and consequences.

For example, amotivation is negatively associated with perceived competence determinant , and effort consequence; Pelletier et al. Intrinsic motivation is positively correlated with a coach who provides competence-based feedback, and negatively correlated with distraction Pelletier et al.

Autonomy-supportive coaching positively predicts intrinsic motivation Pelletier et al. Competitive athletes demonstrate less intrinsic motivation than recreational athletes, reinforcing earlier findings that competition undermines intrinsic motivation due to its emphasis on external rewards Fortier et al. Intrinsic motivation is significantly negatively associated with key characteristics of burnout, such as sport devaluation and exhaustion Cresswell and Eklund, Contextual self-determined motivation is significantly correlated with situational self-determined motivation Gillet et al.

Extrinsic regulation positively predicts social physique anxiety among dancers, and amotivation negatively predicts self-esteem Quested and Duda, Perceived competence is related to autonomous motivation, which positively influences persistence in team sport Rottensteiner et al. The available evidence supports using the SMS as a measure of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation in sport.


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Overall, the SMS is a well-supported, multidimensional questionnaire that is psychometrically sound, brief, and widely used in sport settings. The IMI is a multidimensional and situational measure of intrinsic motivation that was first developed for laboratory tasks Ryan, and then adapted to sport McAuley et al.


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Thus, it was originally a non-sport questionnaire that McAuley et al. A smaller number of IMI items can be selected and modified depending on the activity and research question, without adversely affecting the psychometric properties of the measure. The perceived choice subscale is a common addition to the item version e.

Due to the flexible nature of the IMI, any number of subscale scores can be reported depending on the variable of interest. There is not a children's version of the IMI but it has been found to have adequate internal reliability with youth samples Williams and Gill, Sample composition and subscale scores for a range of papers using the IMI. The alpha coefficient for the entire measure is 0. For each subscale, the main effect for time across a competitive season is non-significant, demonstrating temporal stability Amorose and Horn, The five-factor model of the item IMI was examined using confirmatory factor analysis, and the goodness of fit index 0.

Multiple types of correlational data support interpreting scores from the IMI as measures of different types of intrinsic motivation. Task oriented individuals feel more competent, which leads to greater intrinsic interest and higher effort Williams and Gill, Scholarship athletes exhibit greater intrinsic motivation than non-scholarship athletes Amorose and Horn, Specifically, scholarship athletes scored higher on perceived competence than non-scholarship athletes, suggesting that being awarded a scholarship enhances intrinsic motivation by reinforcing perceptions of competence Amorose and Horn, Similarly, Amorose and Horn found support for the relationship between perceived coaching behaviors and athlete intrinsic motivation.

The available evidence indicates that scores from the IMI can be interpreted as measures of situational intrinsic motivation in sport. Limitations of the IMI are that it predominantly assesses determinants and consequences of intrinsic motivation, rather than intrinsic motivation itself, and there are no subscales for extrinsic motivation or amotivation. Additionally, the internal consistency of the pressure-tension subscale 0.

The SIMS is a multidimensional and situational measure of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation Guay et al. It is a state measure meaning it captures ongoing motivational regulations , focuses on the reasons why people engage in an activity rather than consequences , and is worded such that it can be used in most settings. It is, however, not specifically a sport questionnaire, meaning it is cited across diverse domains see Supplementary Table 3. Guay et al. The item scale assesses extrinsic motivation multidimensionally external and identified regulations , and intrinsic motivation and amotivation as unidimensional constructs.

There is also a item version, which may more soundly measure state motivational regulations Standage et al. Although there is not a children's version of the SIMS, it is commonly and successfully used with youth samples e. Sample composition and subscale scores for a range of papers using the SIMS. Internal consistency is largely acceptable for the SIMS. The SIMS has acceptable test-retest reliability, though changes in subscale scores are expected because it is a state measure Guay et al.

Confirmatory factor analysis of the four-factor structure was performed Guay et al. However, the comparative fit index 0. Multiple types of correlational data support interpreting scores from the SIMS as measures of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation at the situational level. In terms of motivational determinants and consequences, intrinsic motivation and identified regulation are positively associated with perceived competence and autonomy determinants , and concentration, emotions, task interest and behavioral intentions of future persistence consequences; Guay et al.

The opposite patterns hold true for external regulation and amotivation. Coach achievement goals affect athletes' achievement goals, which in turn influence their situational motivation Conroy et al. Contextual self-determined motivation also impacts situational self-determined motivation and subsequent competitive performance Gillet et al. Self-determined situational motivation serves as a mediator between basic psychological needs and athlete engagement Podlog et al.

The available evidence supports using the SIMS as a measure of situational intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation in sport. A limitation of the SIMS is that intrinsic motivation is assessed unidimensionally, and two types of extrinsic regulation are absent.

Overall, the SIMS is a brief, non-sport-specific measure of multidimensional and situational motivation, which can be applied to sport settings due to its open wording. The POSQ is a measure of achievement goals in sport that was first formulated using a sample of sport-playing university students Roberts et al.

In its development, an initial pool of 48 items was reduced to 26, and this version was found to have strong psychometric properties Roberts et al. In seeking a more parsimonious scale, Roberts et al.

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The correlations between the short form and the long form are 0. Though the POSQ has demonstrated adequate reliability among youth samples e. The original publication found both the adult and children's versions to be reliable and valid instruments Roberts et al. Sample composition and subscale scores for a range of papers using the POSQ. Internal consistency of the POSQ is acceptable. For task and ego orientations, respectively, Cronbach's alpha was reported as 0. Test-retest reliability is moderate 0.

The two-factor structure was tested using confirmatory factor analysis Roberts et al. Despite a significant chi-square statistic, the root mean square residual 0. Multiple types of correlational data support interpreting scores from the POSQ as measures of task and ego orientations in sport. Dispositional achievement goals are influenced by the motivational climate, and are related to a host of other variables, such as the perceived purposes of sport, perceived ability, perfectionism, and burnout Ommundsen et al.

Situational factors e. Achievement goal orientations affect athletes' sportspersonship attitudes, with a task orientation having a positive effect on moral functioning and an ego orientation decreasing some aspects of sportspersonship Lemyre et al. Perceived ability moderates the relationship between goal orientation and sportspersonship, particularly for ego-oriented athletes Lemyre et al. Task orientation is important for acquiring and using psychological skills e. Maladaptive motivational profiles, of which an ego orientation is a component, are associated with higher levels of burnout Lemyre et al.

Goal orientations influence autonomous motivation both directly and indirectly through their effects on perceived competence , and autonomous motivation then affects persistence in sport Rottensteiner et al. The available evidence indicates that scores from the POSQ can be interpreted as measures of achievement goals in sport. Advanced Search Find a Library. Your list has reached the maximum number of items.

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