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You[want][move][ fw ] fw? Are you moving soon? Could you call a taxi for me? Where would you like to go? Could you tell me the address? Can I get a ride from you? How did you get to Qijin yesterday? How did you get there? You[last time][how ][ go ][Penghu] How did you get to Penghu last time?

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You[last year][go][Orchid Island][beV][take a boat]fw? You[last year][take a boat][go][Orchid Island]fw? Did you take a boat to Orchid Island last year? But I took a plane there this year instead. Are there direct flights from Kaohsiung to Osaka? Have you ever taken a ferry to Green Island? Have you ever taken the light rail? Have you ever taken an international fight? You[fw ing ][ do what ]? You[want][go out][fw ][fw ]? Are you ready to go soon?

You[want][go[take a public transportation][fw][fw]? Are you going to take public transportation? You[tomorrow][will][take a bus][go][Kenting]fw? Are you taking a bus to Kenting tomorrow? Do you know how to drive? Can I take the English written test? Where do I have to sign up for the test? Please take a seat. When can I come get them? What size would you like it to be developed? Please take a number. How did you go to work yesterday? You[the day before yesterday][how] [go to ] [work] How did you go to work the day before yesterday? Have you been here in Taiwan for at least one year?

I have lived here for just over 8 years. Have you ever driven a car? Have you ever riden a scooter? Have you ever taken the driving test in Taiwan? Are you going to take the driving test soon? Are you going to hit the road now? Are you taking off now? Are you going to ride a bike soon? In five minutes. Are you going to ride a scooter soon? Will you drive to Kenting tomorrow?

Will you go to Qijin to ride a bike this weekend? Will they cycle to Xiziwang the day after tomorrow? Will you ride a horse this Saturday? Where do you work? What age do you teach? What grade do you teach? What level do you teach? You[teach][which subject] Which subject do you teach? You[study][which one][school]? What grade are you in? What time do you usually go to school? You[what time][before][need][arrive][school] When do you have to be at school? You[one week ][teach][how many][lesson] How many periods do you teach a week? What did you teach last period? You[just now][teach][which subject] What did you teach just now?

You[last night][what time][finish work] What time did you finish work last night? You[at ][where][have taught] Where have you taught? You[at][where][have studied][Chinese] Where have you studied Chinese? You[ at][Kaohsiugn American School][teach][how long]fw? You[ at][Kaohsiugn American School][teach][how many years]fw? How long have you been teaching at Kaohsiung American School? You[learn][Chinese ][how long]fw? How long have you been learning Chinese? You[take][English][how long]fw? How long have you been taking Engilsh? She [want][practice][Chinese ]fw ]fw?

Is she about to start Chinese practice? He[want][teach ][fw]fw? Is he teaching soon? You[want][get off work][fw]fw? Are you getting off work soon? In about 10 minutes. Where will you teach next year? You[usually][go][which store][convenient store][pay][tuition] Which convenience store do you usually go to pay tuition fees? Is there an ATM machine in the 7-Eleven? Do you go to 7-Eleven often? Because the 7-Eleven in Taiwan is very convenient. What services does 7-Eleven offer? You[can][speak][Chinese] fw? Can you speak Chinese? You [can ][write][Chinese characters]fw? Can you write Chinese characters?

Can you understand spoken Chinese? You[can][use ][Chinese ][with ][other people][have a conversation]fw Can you converse in Chinese? Where was this book bought? The book was bought at Eslite Online Bookstore. Where did you go to mail the package last time?

Where did you go to have the package mailed last time? Have you learned Chinese? Have you ever listened to Chinese songs? Have you ever called a taxi at 7-Eleven? I have. Have you ever bought bus or train tickets at 7-Eleven? Are you beginning to study soon? Are you watching the movie soon? In two minutes. Are you watching the TV series soon? I have papers to grade. What are your hobbies or interests? What hobbies do you have? What leisure activities do you participate in? Where do you rehearse practice?

When would you like to rent it?

The most common Chinese characters in order of frequency

How much is it all together? The rate is subject to change. Last week, we went to Venue to practice. Where did you record your album? Have you ever recorded any music at Venue? Have you ever recorded an album at Venue? Have you ever performed at Venue? Have you ever been to Venue to listen to live music? Have you ever been to Venue for live music? Is the band going to start playing soon? Are you performing soon? In 3 minutes. Are you going to record the music soon?

You[this weekend ][ have ][what plans]? What are your plans this week? You[this weekend][want][do what ] What do you want to do this weekend? Do you want to go to Venue for band practice this week? I want to go to Venue for band practice this Tuesday and Wednesday. What will you do this week? You[this weekend][will][do what ] What are you doing this weekend? Do you watch the weather forecast? Do you know what the weather will be like tomorrow at Ali Shan? Do you know the weather forecast for Ali Shan tomorrow? Do you know how to change degrees Celsius to degrees Fahreheit?

The sunlight is harsh. It looks cloudy and dark. The winds are strong and the rain is heavy. A typhoon is here. We have a typhoon day off. Do you like outdoor activities? I like to take a walk in the suburbs, camp and hike a mountain. Do you also like outdoor activities? I also like to go hiking. Do you want to go hiking together some time? What do you like to do in your free time in the summer? What kind of weather do you like, sunny, cloudy or rainy days? What do you like to do on a rainy day? Which season do you prefer?

Do you feel hot? Could we turn on the fan or AC? I [ go ][turn on][fan] Yes.

Tiered Circle Skirt... [Layered skirt]

Do you have a pet? I have fish and a dog. Where do you walk your dog? You[yesterday][have][watched][today][fw][weather forecast]fw? Did you watch the weather forecast yesterday? How many degrees Celsius did the weather forecast say it may be tomorrow? Did you bring an umbrella when you went out this morning? Did you have a typhoon day last week? We cancelled work and school here. Jade][time], [weather][how is it ]? What was the weather like when you hiked Mt. Jade last time? Did you climb to the top?

Last time you joined the Triathlon, which part did you do? I swam. It felt good to swim. It was very hot yesterday. Where did you go swimming? Have you ever been to Pier 2 Art Center? A term of high-ranking personnel who is skillful, professional and successful. Look like; noun 1. Statue; of digital camera 2. Pixel or amount of pixel. Sever; 2. Stop breathing ; of electricity 3.

Insulate adjective 1. Superb; 2. Unique; 3. Asia Asian second next to inferior sub- Taiwan pr. I or me we including both the speaker and the person spoken to. Chinese wolfberry shrub Lycium chinense willow. Chinese water chestnut Eleocharis dulcis or E. Han dynasty name for countries in far West may refer to Silk Road states or Alexandria or the Roman empire. Jiao Yao legendary dwarf legendary pygmy race archaic name of a southwestern non-Han tribe.

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Acorus calamus sweet sedge or sweet flag. Chinese broccoli Chinese kale cabbage mustard Brassica oleracea var. Mongol ethnic group abbr. Perilla frutescens Chinese basil or wild red basil place name to revive used as phonetic in transliteration. Russia Russian abbr. China fir Cunninghamia lanceolata also pr. France French abbr. Toggle navigation CC-Canto. Search About Download. Cancel Submit. Park; of boat 2. Conjecture; 2.

Play hand game e. Look after. Stimulated; 2. Irritated; noun Splinter. Agenda; 2. Chinese surname. Lay off; 2. Decide; 2. Innovate; 2. Establish; adjective of injury Traumatic. Unrefined; 2. Inattentive; 3. Irritable; 2. Pose as; 2. Fountain; 2. The Underworld. Ok, 2. OK, of tasks 1. CD; 2. Stingy; 2. Clique; 2. The short form of France; adjective legislative. Compare; 2. Town; 2. Chicken; 2. Soap; 2. Exchange; 2. Unite sexual intercourse ; 3. Engage in; 4. Proof; 2. Luggage; 2. Chinese surname; verb Hire. Westerner; 2. Caucasian; adverb 1. Section; 2. Yes, it is; verb 1.

Is; 2. Itchy; 2. Chinese surname; adverb When. Damage; 2. Look for something eagerly ; 2. Actress; slang Pull up. Be tired of something ; verb hate. Dialect; 2. Faculty; 2. Grumble; noun Resentment. Wish; adjective Voluntary. Grab; 2. Catch; 3. Say; 2. Prattle on;. Unsteady; 2. Through appreciating what the country produces you not only familiarize yourself with the language, but you also begin to know the story of its people and come closer to understanding its heart. I only hope to be able to share what I The final line of the song in- learn. I to be a combination of these events in picked pinecones off dense trees and terms of being an opportunity to grow walked through pouring rain on wear as an individual, to grow as a member resistant concrete streets.

This is relatively small network of Vietnama song my parents and grandmother ese friends, and I would like to speak are able to relate to on a level that I to more Vietnamese people, youth in simply cannot. This disconnect typi- particular, who are interested in learncally manifests itself in the children of ing more about their roots. One of my Vietnamese teachers said the best way to learn a language is to learn its songs. I would further his point by saying the best. Vietnam is in my blood, but it is also in everything else. Vietnam is not just a country.

It is an identity and a part of who I am. In a sense, it is home, even though I have not visited the country since I was one and a half years old….

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In school, her favorite classes are English, Choir, and Orchestra. She loves playing the violin, piano, singing, dance, and theater. Art and traveling are her other passions. This fall she will begin a new chapter in her life at the University of Minnesota Twin Cities, majoring in Architecture and Interior design! Who is this? Since then, Vietnamese has been the primary lan guage spoken in our home. In fact, it was not until fi rst grade that I truly spoke English.

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While the dream career morphs over time for many, mine remains unchanged. Since elementary school, I aspired to be an architect and interior designer. They are especially appealing since despite being creative fi elds, they are aesthetic and useful and beneficial art forms. I hope to be more than just someone wealthy people can afford to hire. Although I look forward to designing extravagant homes and buildings, I strive to focus on sustainability and raising environmental awareness.

In my opinion, eco-friendly should be the norm rather than a luxury. The Peace Corps and similar organizations promoting world peace and providing global aid and relief are inspirational. Traveling the world while working in the design industry would be unbelievable; absorbing ideas other cultures offer, innovating along the way, and optimizing resources to build affordably in other countries.

And what a better place to give back to than my homeland, considering Vietnam has given so much to me. Wanderlust, art, and passion may have sparked my imagination, but Vietnam has affected the way I live my life. As I near graduation I am becoming more aware of the ways in which I can change the world and how blessed I am to have these roots.

However, I have relatives that have been both camp staff and members of the VCSA for years, who have told me that this is an experience I should not pass up. I expect to have the opportunity to meet other Vietnamese young adults. Although my high school is considered more diverse, there is a lack of Vietnamese students and the few that exist I do not know personally. Outside of school, I only have one friend that I am particularly close to, thus my interactions with Vietnamese people any where close to my age has been mostly limited to family and friends of my parents.

While talking to middle aged adults and older Hopefully, camp will broaden my horizons and create lifelong friendships I would not stumble upon anywhere else. It is incredible that campers from not only all over the United States but even Canada can come together and all have at least one thing in common. Especially with college approaching in the fall, immersing myself in an environment with complete strangers is something I need to get used to.

I also hope to be inspired by camp to be a leader, and to become more in touch with my culture after Camp Len Duong. Above all, I hope that it is the most fun, memorable experience of my life! Catherine Nguyen Catherine Nguyen wants to live in a world where people are given the resources to maximize their potential, we worry less about tomorrow and live happily today, plane tickets are cheap, tourist visas do not exist and vacation days are unlimited.

As a recent graduate from the University of Texas at Austin, she was able to expand her horizons in college by moving away from her home in Houston, Texas and studying abroad in Vietnam her sophomore year. She aims to bePG I aspire part of my identity and heritage… to return to Vietnam to practice law My new understanding of myself after receiving a law degree and and appreciation for my life was look forward to allowing the Vietaccompanied by a nagging con- namese Culture and Science Asscience that developed into a deep sociation to shape me and to give sense of social responsibility.

I immersed myself Len Duong but have recently been in the culture, which I knew little enchanted by my Vietnamese about and improved my Vietnam- heritage and would like to meet ese language skills from a begin- like-minded Vietnamese-American ner to a working proficiency level. I exI also built closer relationships with pect to make long-lasting friendmy uncles, aunts and cousins from ships, exchange my knowledge and whom I had previously felt dis- experiences with my peers at the tanced due to our language barrier. From them, I learned about lived, studied and interned in Vietcontemporary Vietnamese culture, nam for two years of the past four language and society.

In these few years and I hope to in fl uence othmonths, I gained a deeper connec- ers to follow in my footsteps to extion to and understanding of the plore their Vietnamese heritage in people and culture of Vietnam. I also hope to meet others who I hope will share their unique Inspired by my study abroad experiences with me and help me experience, I jumped at the oppor- become a better leader, student tunity to take on a summer intern- and person. As such, I have always wanted to give back to Vietnam.

My goals are to raise the living standard of orphanages in Vietnam and to promote the moral and mindful living. Camp Len Duong Expectations:. She strongly believes in the importance of preserving and promoting the history and culture of Vietnam in our community oversea, particularly amongst the youths. I would like to see how Len Duong camp is conducted so that we, the Vancouver Chapter, can best serve the future campers and represent VCSA, when we have honor of hosting Len Duong in Particularly, I would like to learn from the logistics and transportation team, as I will be heading this group in the coming year.

I am excited to meet and connect with the VCSA members. Serving VCSA has been educational and great fun to her. She looks forward to make more friends at Len Duong in Dallas, where she also hopes to learn how camp is conducted so that she can better serve Len Duong camp when it is hosted in Vancouver, Canada. This will be his fi rst time in Texas! Vietnam is the land where all of my ancestors once PG Vietnam has taught me to become a fi ghter for whom and what I believe in, it has made me have a thicker skin and not let the little things over Vietnam never ceases to come me.

Just last week, I was in New powering, uplifting, and inspiring York to attend a conference, I met by example. In the progress, the exsome new Vietnamese friends who perience of bouncing ideas off one also happened to be from Missis- of another in a similar cultural supsauga, we instantly clicked. As they port system ; I know that the CLD showed me around the city and we will remind myself and others the went to their favourite food spots, greater legancy of growing VietI realized that it reminded me of namese leaders.

I am looking forfamily, home and Vietnamese cul- ward to being part of a team where ture. They welcomed me into their effortless recreation of moments of city with open arms and expected laughter is a birthright. As a group, nothing in return. As a group, we will My parents and family are be in a state of heigten curiousity passionate and spirited people that as we seek to learn of new experiwill never give up until they are sa- ences and form new bond with one tis fi ed with the end result, and can another.

Finally as a group, we will bounce back from any set back. My discover the essence of what it feels parents have gone through many like to be surrounded by motivated diffi cult times to provide me with young vietnamese leaders ready to great opportunities to be success- take the world by storm. Every story I heard will continue to support and learn about the old days reminds me from each other inside and outside that there was a time where they of CLD.

Connecting with the largfed me before they fed themselves, er Vietnamese community will alwhere they bought me toys instead ways be a continual lifelong goal of of going out ,and where they chose mine. This is going to be one of the my happiness over their own.

Now, many experiences I have with the in my everyday life, when I face larger Vietnamese community as I diffi cult choices or start to com- embark on a journey to be a brightplain about unfair circumstances I er, stronger and more experienced automatically fi ght through it and leader for the future. Her ballet and modern dancing in the contemporary world alongside her cultural dancing in VSA opened the way for her to combine her passions into one.

She is excited to attend her fi rst Len Duong Camp to expand her capabilities as a young Vietnamese leader. She hopes to make wonderful, long lasting connections with fellow young leaders around the continent so that they can stay united as a community! Essay Excerpt:. She is an aspiring physical therapist with a strong love for her communities. She aims to develop these collegiate and post-collegiate organizations to connect the youth directly to the Vietnamese community at large. I want to show the cultural audience that beauty in dance can be more than symmetry and lines; it can be contemporary and powerful.

I hope to one day open the fi rst professional Vietnamese dance studio in Houston to be the space for training Vietnamese dance repertoire and to also provide technical dance training available to the Viet namese community. I believe that dance can be the conduit to preserve and progress our culture. It is my home and my future. This will be my fi rst leadership camp though so I do expect to experience activities that I am unfamiliar with and to be in a natural camp environment which will be new to me. As young students, we are more than just children of war victims.

Our story as Vietnamese people is unfinished so we have to realize that we, especially the youth, have the voice and can write our untold story. Being in VSA and embracing being Vietnamese is what allows In addition to her work in me to feel the love of home while the Vietnamese community, she creating the possibility of the fuis passionate about developing ture.

She was accepted to perform with the University of I am here today. I am many things, Houston Dance Ensemble Com- but being Vietnamese contributes pany for the season significantly to my way of being and plans to complete her second and will continue to do so. There is our community that provides parks and recreational areas to spend time with our friends and loved ones.

There is a lot we do not think of or appreciate on a daily basis. Volunteering allows one to give back graciously, selflessly and with no cost. He looks forward to working harder towards the goal of raising Vietnamese awareness on campus. He personally believes that community is very important. The Vietnamese community has made a big difference in his life, and hence he would like to give back the same welcoming he received. He would like to thank the Vietnamese Culture and Science Association for the opportunity and scholarship which allows him to attend Len Duong and more.

I serve to give thanks. I serve to give back to the small churches that hold events for the community. I remember being 8 years old in a new town, alone with no friends. While wondering about the local park, I heard music and saw kids running around with snacks. The gifts were given the children by the local church.

I expect Camp Len Duong to be full of sprit and bonding. I was fortunate enough last year to go to camp Len Duong and I learned so much. Even as a non-Vietnamese speaker, I caught on to some of the words; emerging yourself in the culture really does help. I expected to forge more Essay Excerpt: friendships from all around the country. Volunteering is a way work and being a leader. Volunteering allows kindness to shine through a community.

What does volunteering service mean to me? Volunteering means working for a cause or a person without expecting something in return. It allows me to return the kindness which I received from someone else. Through experiences like these, I was able to fi nd out why my parents valued volunteer service so much, and why it is so important to me. Volunteer service is a vital part in my life because I feel that giving back to the community and helping others is necessary for everyone to be happy.

He moved to Houston, Texas when he was 3 years old and have lived there ever since. In his free time, he enjoys watching and playing basketball, running, listening to music and eating cereal. He does not use the Oxford Comma and has aspirations to work for the company Frito-Lay because he enjoys eating Cheetos. This is because I was raised as a Roman Catholic and my parents really valued community service.

Every year I would go the extra step and volunteer at numerous events. For example, I recall going with my family every year to the Houston Marathon and handed out water to the runners in the race. Triet Pham Triet Pham is from Indiana. He moved to the United States in when he was eighteen years old. His honors thesis is an attempt to explain the correlation between the power dynamics of permanent UNSC members on the U. In addition, he worked on an educational project, led by a Professor and Documentary Maker Ronald Osgood, which is designed to recount the Vietnam-American War experience of veterans from all perspectives.

After fi nishing with his B. Following is an extract a portion of his essay, in which he sketched out the plan for the future Vietnam in the public realm. The key to sustainable cooperation between states is mutual trust and reciprocity. To gain trust with international partners, it is important to focus on social well-being of Vietnamese citizens, ranging from education to poverty reduction, so that multinational corporations will have faith in investing capital in our economy. With my knowledge in politics and increased connections with energetic young Vietnamese leaders, we will initiate social projects designed to improve public services for the population.

Last but not least, my goal is to contribute to the liberal arts education of next generations who are living in Vietnam. In particular, I will try to translate in fl uential political documents by great thinkers, such as John Locke, Machiavelli, Tocqueville, etc into Vietnamese language and incorporate those into the teachings in high school and college nationwide The exposure to a variety of thoughts from the past to the present will enable young Vietnamese to critically choose the path that will work best for our country.

My name is Triet Pham. I moved to the United States with my entire family in when I was eighteen years old. Due to unfortunate but predictable separation between my parents, together with financial hardships, my mother, who had established a career in Diet and Nutrition in Vietnam, de cided to work in Vietnam to support our living abroad.

Indeed, my intrinsic desire to develop the community makes me seriously consider participating in Camp Len Duong First, community development skills that can be acquired through various activities at the Campare essential for future Vietnamese-American youths, including myself. To build a strong and stable community, individual talents are inadequate. The well-organized collaboration between individual members who possess distinct characteristics is the key to success, because they can support and supplement each other harmoniously.

Camp Len Duong is a perfect setting to facilitate this kind of collaboration by bringing energetic Vietnamese-American youths together. Therefore, I expect to sharpen my community building and leadership skills here. Networking with Vietnamese-Americans is my second objective to join this Camp. Vietnamese-American communities are scattered through the United States.

I have read articles about successful Vietnamese-American professionals and scholars who had built their career from zero with resilience and ambition. Having lived in Indiana for fi ve years where the number of Vietnamese is incomparable to major states, the need to connect with other fellow nationals boils in my heart and soul. Creating a network of Vietnamese-Americans who can support each other in future endeavors will benefit not only individuals, but the entire Vietnamese identity in America.

The Mekong river, with its source in the Xizang plateau, flows through the Xizang and Yunnan regions of China, forms the boundaries between Laos and Burma and between Laos and Thailand. In defense, the ruling Tran dynasty organized a planned withdrawal, and established a guerrilla warfare to wear down the enemy by taking advantage of the humid climate and staging constant attacks.

As a result, the invading forces dwindled, and were forced to withdraw. The , Mongols were killed or taken prisoner, and enemy warships were destroyed by the steel-tipped wooden stakes. Annam country is where the Annam King reigns As written in the Book of Gods Foreign invaders if you dare to come Total defeat is what you are to face. In the 13th century, Champa and Vietnam formed an alliance to cope with Mongol agressors. The Vietnam war was the outcome of US involvement. Millions of casuaties from both sides were counted during the Vietnam war, which finally ended in Vietnam was then unified and became a communist country.

Also according to the Geneva accord, during the interim period lasting days between July and May , people from both sides were free to choose and migrate to the region of their choice either North Vietnam or South Vietnam. As a result, millions people left North and moved South in search of democracy and freedom. In comparison, less than , soldiers from South moved North during the same period of time. In , North Vietnam broke the Geneva accord, and engaged in an aggressive plan to conquer the South by force.

Civil war broke out and lasted 20 years. One of the advantage of Capital Hue is the Huong river Perfume river running through the city proper and to the sea. When France began its colonization in the South, it faced constant resistance from people from all walks of life. Taking advantage of its muddy and wild topography in the South East of the South, many revolts were based and headquartered in the region. In addition, many heroic figures who led numerous revolts against the French colonists lived in Long An. Other high peaks are Yam Ping meters , and Pu luong meters. At an elevation of meters, mild weather, and with all-year-around temperatures in the range of 60F, Sapa is considered an ideal vacation destination.

The offensive ended in victory only after 5 days on Jan 5th, the lunar year of the rooster in Only a few peaks in North Kontum province are higher than meters. From Tri Ton, one can see the whole side of the mountain has been leveled and dug deep into the mountain. Even worse, the top of the mountain has been flatten, and dug up hapharzdly. Although this area has been cordonned off from exploitation, but the work camps of many companies still remained and continued to defile and destroy the mountains. The situation is getting worse when the monsoon comes and the jungle rain erodes the land and mountains.

All mountains will be flatten not before long, if the government continues to overlook illegal deforestation. Deforestation becomes very eniment especially when viewed paranomically from the top of the mountain. This is the highest mountain in South Vietnam meters. The first version is about her husband, who disappeard in the battle field. Devasted by the loss of her husband, she went up to the top of the mountain and committed suicide.

Forced by her family into an arranged mariage while secretly meeting her lover, who was far away in the battle field. Not wanting to marry someone she did not love, she deciced to kill herself at the mountain.

Chinese characters to English -

The third legend revealed that she was a very philosophical and well-respected woman. However, she led a very simple life. She often visited the mountain for prayer and mediation. Native animals, such as lizards and mussels, are almost exPG This culture attained a degree of development higher than that of others in the region at that time. It had its own characteristics but still bore the features of Southeast Asian culture because of the common South Asian racial root Southern Mongoloid and the water rice culture.

The period that was considered the first apogee in the history of the Vietnamese culture known as Van Lang — Au Lac culture began around 3 millennia B. The beginning of the first millennium A. The post-Chinese domination period was characterized by the two parallel trends, Han assimilation and anti-Han assimilation. This was a second apogee of the Vietnamese culture represented by Ly, Tran and Le Dynasties during which the Vietnamese culture underwent a comprehensive restoration heavily influenced by Buddhism and Taoism.

A century of French domination was marked by a cultural mix which consisted of two opposite trends — Europeanization and anti-Europeanization — which represented the underlying colonialist and patriotic sentiments respectively. It can be said that there were three layers of culture overlapping each other during the history of Vietnam: local culture, the culture that was mixed with those of China and other countries in the region, and the culture that interacted with Western cultures.

The most prominent feature of the Vietnamese culture is that it has been able to resist wholesale assimilation of foreign cultures thanks to the strong local cultural foundations. On the contrary, Vietnamese have selectively utilized those foreign cultures to enrich theirs, while maintaining their national cultural identity. Vietnamese culture emerges from a concrete living environment: a tropical country with many rivers and a confluence of great cultures. The natural environment temperature, humidity, monsoon, water flows, water-rice agriculture etc. Social and historical conditions may have also played a significant role in the shaping of national psychology.

Though sharing the same Southeast Asian cultural origin, the Vietnamese culture distinguishes itself because of the long exposure to those of China and France. This may explain the distinct cultural differences between Vietnam and other water-rice cultures like Thailand, Laos, Indonesia, and India etc. At the start, with primitive and rudimentary cognition of materialism and dialectics, Vietnamese thinking and beliefs appeared inseparable. More dependent on natural phenomena, the Vietnamese philosophy paid special attention to relations that was typified by doctrine of Yin and Yang and the five basic elements not exactly the same as the Chinese doctrine and manifested in the moderate lifestyle tending towards harmony.

Later, Vietnamese society and culture were enriched by the influence of Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism, all of which were conciliated and Vietnamized. Particularly, the Zen-Buddhists during the Ly and Tran Dynasties earned historical acclaim for their own original and distinguished interpretation of Buddhist philosophies i.

Heart-Buddha, being-not being, lifedeath. Although Confucianism flourished afterward, many famous Vietnamese Confucianists did not strictly follow Confucianism and Mencianism, but rather adopted the spirit of Buddhism and Taoism to make their ideology more open, closer to the people and more harmonious with nature. Nguyen Trai, a foremost scholar in the 15th century, once described the Vietnamese concept of Benevolence and Righteousness as the opposition to fierce violence, which became an integral part of the foundation for the policy of fighting foreign invaders as well as ruling the country.

Vietnamese understood that loyalty meant being loyal to the nation as opposed to loyalty to a ruler, and respected piety without being so bound with the framework of family. Happiness was also among the top social values; people often make compliments on the happiness of a family rather than wealth and social position. In the past, Vietnamese generally ranked agriculture and education as their first and second priorities of occupations, while having a low opinion of the business class. Other trades including cultural activities were regarded with rather low priorities.

The agricultural society was characterized by a village community with many primitive vestiges that formed the specific characteristics of the Vietnamese. Those were the thoughts of dualism, a concrete way of thinking that was tilted to emotional experiences rather than rationalism, and images rather than concepts. However, it was also a flexible, adaptable, and conciliatory way of thinking. This was also a way of behaving toward conciliatory, equilibrium and relations-based settlement of conflicts and disputes. In the old days, the Vietnamese eating habit tends In time of grievances, the family of the deceased is oftowards vegetarianism; rice and vegetables are the ten provided help by its neighbors rather than having center of the meal that may be diversified by aquatic to manage it by themselves.

They preferred boiling as a cooking method and synthetic food processing style that involves Vietnam is a country of festivities which take place many materials and ingredients. Today, although all year round, especially in spring when there is little meat and fish have become a larger part of typical farm work.