For decades, this was a lapidary insight for me, as I maintained my ideal weight regardless of the type and quantity of food and drinks I consumed. This sounds better than five kilos, but does not change the fact as such. Thanks for the extra kick to the shin…. But what to do? So I bought myself a digital scale and stood on it every morning in the hope that the kilos would disappear in the same miraculous way as they had appeared.
Unfortunately this was not the case, as I had to experience every morning with digital precision accurate to g. To be honest, the analogue scales were somehow more likeable to me, where one could see oneself relatively simply half a kilo more easily with a slight change of the point of view….
Well, maybe this would have been a bit too easy in fact. So I considered doing more sports. At the office I have a shining example in this respect, which thanks to three times sport per week had reduced weight recognizably. But when I had my first espresso on my terrace last Saturday morning, a few medieval gentlemen jogged by. They were dressed in fashionable sneakers, fitness trackers, Lycra trousers and functional shirts whose total value easily exceeded the monthly salary of an Aldi saleswoman. As they approached, however, I heard their wheeze, which reminded me of a defective leaf blower.
However, I had to admit to myself that with my ten-year-old gym pants I would certainly be cheaper but hardly more elegant on the road and rejected the idea of doing sports right away. Well, if the additional consumption of calories is not an option, then maybe at the other end of the process, i. Such literary motifs of Indian origin are numerous in Germany even in an age which did not have immediate access to the momerland of many of these stories. In all religions the pilgrim ranks among the characters eserving veneration.
That is the difference between Indian and European pilgrimage. Notwithstanding, fate has brought together the different types of this human quest, these pilgrimages, in a place in Germany, joined in European-Oriental fellowship — in the veneration accorded the Magi in Cologne. When in the relics were presented to the city on the Rhine as a religious donation, it was more an ecclesiastical-political affair. The Indian thesis of their origin is nowadays steadily gaining adherents: Helmut Mogge, among others, has upheld this view D 78 : hi the writings of the seventh and eighth centuries the Wise Men are still called Bithisarca, Melchior and Gathaspa; in the ninth century appeared the names of Caspar, Balthasar and Melchior.
But where did the Magi come from? What is East, seen from Jenisalem? Others thought that Chaldea in Mesopotamia was the home of the Magi. Others still, as for instance Tertullian, were inclined to accept Arabia as the Wise Meics homeland inasmuch as gold and incense would have been most easily found there. Tet Indian wisdom was proverbial. Persian historians praised that wisdom. India was the country where wisdom had been of a high order since earliest times.
India teas also a country where astronomy was being cultivated. The Indian epic, Mahabharata, announces the coming of a divine redeemer who was to absolve mankind from its misfortune and misery. He would enjoy great poioer and be a commanding rider; he would restore order and harmony in this world; he would destroy all evil and create a new era:.
The Indian prophesy also speaks of a phenomenon in the sky upon the birth of the reformer or redeemer. The modem Indian astronomer, Shri Swamikannu Pillai, has traced the studies of Kepler and Karl Adams and come to the conclusion that the star which guided the Wise Men from the East was Brhaspati in conjunction with the Sun and the Moon, when they entered the constellation Tisya.
Of too many kilos, to too few solutions, Goethe and sunsets (English / German)
Father Antonins, a priest from Ceylon, reconstructed the journey of the Alagi from that and innumerable other evidence in this way. Those were gifts usually offered according to Oriental etiquette; by presenting them, they honoured the new-born babe as king. Gold existed in India. It was perfectly natural for the risis from India to offer the traditional gifts of gold, incense and myrrh. Would this stoiy, if the Magi did come from India, not seem like a symbol? Moreover, the people of the Middle Ages had always thought tiiat one of the Magi came from India.
Davon der heiligcn drey Kunig cincr gewcscn isi. Cochin is a big kingdom. From there was one of the Magi. India lias also at all times been linked to the name of St. Thomas, the doubting disciple. There they remained until approximately 1H4, when dicy were ordered to be taken to the island of Chios to save them from the Turks. After that the chronicle of these relics briefly forms an exciting chapter of German imperial history. The veneration of relics was one of those means. Manfred had far-reaching designs. In , Manfred had himself crowned King because a rumour had spread of the death of Conradin, the legitimate Hohenstaufen heir.
That same year, Manfred — whose name is recalled by Manfre- donia which, like Alexandria, was designed to be the seat of a world empire — ordered the relics of St. Thomas transported to his Empire from Chios, On September 6th, the ship landed with the precious cargo. Thus the last great Hohenstaufen, a man of energy and imagination, tried to imitate the relic policy of Frederick I in his own way. He had the relics of St. Thomas taken to Ortona in the northern part of his Empire B , Here, at the border of the church state the prince, whom the Pope had rejected, wanted to prove his interest in ecclesiastical- spiritual matters by creating a great place of pilgrimage.
More- over, Ortona was the symbol of his former glorious return north, to the birth-country of the Hohenstaufens, From any other considerations, the choice of Ortona in the unsafe border region as a place of pilgrimage would not have made any sense at all. The Hohen- staufens came to a tragic end in their southern Empire and never returned to the north. Yet in the third canto of the Purgatorio in the Commedia Divina, Dante dedicates a few lines of appre- ciation to Manfred.
Such references can be found dating from Carolingian days onward in the work of, for example, Wandalbert who was born in Prum in , in the Annolied, and in tire Austrian Rhymed Chronicle. The Annolied, that unique psean to St. Anno, Archbishop of Cologne, deals with the regions chosen by the apostles as vineyards of the Lord.
There we can read A 19, verses , p. Andrew died in Patras, in India the good Thomas. Where else but on the Papal throne? Thus, association with the magic word India, that glittering word conveying a vision of a country converted to Christianity by an apostle, and conjuring up the glory of a royal priest as ruler, came naturally to the author A 18, Vol. Thomas in India and that he there might be primate or patriarch.
Veneration for St. Thomas necessarily led to a state, where many believed that the apostle must also have been in Germany. For had he not been the most-travelled of the disciples of Christ? As late as , for example, the editor of a Dictionary of the Saints D , Vol. Thomas to an observation by St. Thomas enjoyed a certain measure of fame in Germany if only by virtue of all the legends about the royal priest, Johannes, traced back to him. Thomas on the way.
To be sure, St, Gregory of Tours already mentions a certain Theodor who described to him the place where St. Was that Theodor a Frankish traveller? Hence early-medieval pilgrims from Uie Germanic sphere must have gone there. Biographical data on him contain the important statement that he visited the blessed Thomas — i. At the turn of the 15th century, the knight Arnold von Harff, is reported to have visited India as a pilgrim.
Prior to his return he paid a visit to the holy places in Palestine. Apart from this instance, pilgrims disclose no journeys to India. But then, pilgrims in general do not rank among the keenest authors of travelogues. At the close of the late Middle Ages, German and European history is marked by the struggle of Emperor Sigismund for general refonn, both political-governmental and ecclesiastical-religious. Incidentally, in its report on the Council of Constance ein gemain coiicilinm gelegl gen Kostniz , the Sdchsische Wellchronik Saxon World Chronicle also mentions in its fourth sequel the piesence of Indian churchmen A 17, verses , p.
There were also four monks present who were from overseas, from distant India and had crosses burnt into their foreheads. He set himself the high aim, a Rex-Sacerdos synthesis, just as it was desciibed in the Indian legend. Emperor Sigismund had directed his attempts at an ecclesiastical-imperial union.
In the 18th century, these tendencies would surely have earned him censure as a Coesaropapist. However, Sigismund primarily wanted to mend the rift between ecclesiastical and secular power. Important in this connection is the relationship to the spiritual world of India — or what India was imagined to be — in the' aforesaid document A 20, : Item es sol ein keyser gelert sin; er salt zum minsten ein doctor legum und iuris sin; wer er och pnester, so wer er deste wwdiger und die weltlick recht stand in shier hand; er sol das evangelium lesen, das bezeichent, das er der kirchen und des glohen schirmer sol sin; er ist also wol ein vicary Christi als ein bobst, wann bede reht sin gef lessen usz Christo hertzen.
Melchisedech was priester und wart gesalbet einem kunig zu Jerusalem; ein priester ist keyser zu India do mag kein keyser werden, er mus ein priester sin. Item, an emperor should be learned; at least, he ought to be a doctor of law and jurisprudence; were he a priest as well, he would be the worthier and all worldly law would be in his hand; he should read the gospel, that means that he should be the patron of spiritual and secular power; he is indeed a vicar of Christ as well as a Pope, seeing both rights have flowed from the heart of Christ.
Melchisedech was priest and was anointed king in Jerusalem; a priest is Emperor in India, where none can become Emperor unless he is a priest. In this way a stream of magical inspiration kept flowing from India throughout the Middle Ages. Somehow it was a dream. And this dream was being dreamed by poets and pilgrims, princes and church leaders, emperors and kings, indeed by a whole people; and many never guessed that a part of it was only wishful thinking and illusion.
As yet the people did not realize that in spite of the geographical reality of India there was an Indian dreamland as well, veiled by the veil of Maya which often blurred reality and lent things the quality of the irrational and unreal. Yet from the irrational, some abstract reality was to blossom forth in the hot-house of the imagination, joining together all contradictions in an endless coincidentia oppositorum, in the microcosmic mirror of the universe, the human mind.
The Portuguese were edging forward along the shores of Africa, the Spaniards, with Genoese at the helm, pushed out into the uncertain Atlantic. Yet their goal was India throughout. And the West Indies and East India, despite their geographic distance, are the common symbol of this Iberian dream. At that time, the peoples of Central and Western Europe were moved by a restive quest for everything new and unknown. In Central Europe this search led to the invention of printing and eventually reached its climax amidst much intellectual polemic in the reformation.
A man from Central Europe, yearning for the seas, went westwards. This man was Martin Behaim of Niirnberg Via Flanders he made his way to Lisbon, where he became scientific adviser to the king. He also instructed the Portuguese in the use of modern navigation aids; and it is a point of interest that following his arrival, the Lisbon government increased its efforts at launching expeditions sailing around Africa in their search for the passage to India.
But the fact remains that King John of Portugal appreciated the work of the Niirnberg scholar, navigator and geographer sufficiently to raise him to the nobility after his return fiom his African voyage of discovery. The Duchess wanted to provide her brother with a pool of people wise in the ways of navigation and trade and with an eye on expanding horizons.
After his final return to Niirnberg, Martin Behaim constructed his globe of the world, making a lasting impact on German cartography. With his globes of earth and sky and maps of the world, this successor to Behaim ensured cartography its modern relevance. Martin Behaim himself linked up his work with that of Johannes Muller, a native of Konigsberg in Franconia, who called himself Regiomontanus and whose mathematical and astronomic witings made him an internationally recognized figure in the field of astronomy, calendar reform and navigation.
His Ephemerides served as the model for later nautical almanacs. Without the German manu- scripts, those bold trans-oceanic bi'eakthroughs from the Iberian area would scarcely have been realized as rapidly as they were. The dream of India harboured by the coast-hugging Portuguese was destined to come true. Beyond the Gape of Good Hope they left coastal waters, entrusting their fortunes to the high seas; and tlius, on May 20th, , they were standing on the landing place of Calicut on the Indian Malabar Coast.
The Germans followed these Portuguese maritime endeavours with close attention. Bartholomew as its patron. Besides St. So it probably was no coincidence that the brotherhood took his name. The medieval records of the Brotherhood of St. Bartholomew were destroyed in the great eartliquake of Lisbon on November 1st, Although this cannot be substantiated by documentary proof, its founding is in some way linked to the existence of a 13th-century chapel dedicated to St.
ISPO OPEN INNOVATION .
Bartholomew D This chapel goes back to an exchange of land between King Dom Diniz and the German merchant, Overstaedt whom the Portuguese called Sobrevilla. On this plot of land on the bank of the river Tejo, the royal Church of St. Julian was built near the site of the present town-hall.
The Germans were granted the right to establish and maintain a chapel of St. Bartholomew in that church for the pursuit of both religious matters and German traditions. The Brotherhood exists to this day. It is symbolic that a patron saint of many trades in Germany should be revered in Lisbon also as an apostle who had preached in India ; indeed, the German community, which frequently counted up to a thousand souls in the Middle Ages, felt protected in this brotherhood. It also was a meeting place of those who were drawn to far horizons, and India was one of the conceptions giving rise to visions.
The ties to Lisbon were so strong that the voyages to India undertaken by the Portuguese were closely studied especially in Upper Germany. The discovery of the passage to India was to revolutionize trade. That is why Italian merchant houses joined the Portuguese already during the second voyage. German traders, as well, tried to conclude treaties with Lisbon with a view to the future F He did so in commercially laconic style: Primo Augusta tat wir den vetras mit portusal.
Kins der armazion 3 schiff, per Indiam. The German side lost no time in outfitting the three ships. They were the Hieronymus, the Raphael and the Leonhard. The required capital was speedily raised by the big German merchant houses. The Welsers contributed 20, ducats, the Fuggers chipped in with 4, ducats ; and 36, -svere subscribed jointly by the Hochstetters, Imhofs, Hirschvogels and Gossembrots. Two days later the ships reached the open seas. Both left records of this first documented German voyage to India. E este quademo foy trelladado da nao Sa.
The voyage and experience of new navigation and passage to many recognized islands and kingdoms, explored, found, conquered and occupied by the mighty Portuguese King Emanuel. Printed in tlie year This was the first Central European eyewitness account from India, apart from an anonymous booklet Calcoen Calicut published in Antwerp in The author is both a keen observer and a man witli a heart, even if he does frequently draw on unsubstantiated sources.
He is eager to learn and brings an open mind to the countries touched by Iris ship. That is why his personal observations are very useful. He also regards the people of those distant regions as truly human; any conceit or superior tone are foreign to his nature. It is a happy thought that such a manu- script, even though unfortunately a rather austere one, should stand at the beginning of German travel literature on India. Balthasar Sprenger did particular justice to the Malabar Coast, its bountiful nature and many-faceted multitude of inhabitants: Kalkalon perhaps Kayankulam — this kingdom lies between Cochin and Quilon.
It is a land rich in precious stones and spices i Women and men of this region have black hair and walk about naked, except for cloths with ivhich they cover their privy parts. This was left behind in by Count Christoph Fernberger of Egenberg, whose home was on the Danube and who also spent a long time in India.
Shall we be able to see this in print some day? However, the name of Balthasar Sprenger deserves more and more detailed mention. He shares this significance with the authors of the other tiavel accounts published at that time in Germany. But Springer has one other, particular merit. It was Pock who first mcmionrd the name of Luther in the land of the Thomas Chustians and spoke about the reformation.
But it v. Later on, wlien ortugal was united witli Spain, German businessmen renevVed dieir interest in the India trade. Thus, in the Wclscrs and Fuggers concluded an agreement with the Habsburgs - a collateral Ime of the Imperial German dynasty — wliich scivcd these commercial-political objectives. The centre of German tiaclc aacn? Yet it took an interminable time before independent trade relations with India could be established.
In , Emperor Charles VI C 91 initiated the purchase of a small station near Madras with a view also to improving the economy of the Austrian Netherlands. The head of the Imperial expedition was a French officer in the Imperial service, whose name was Goblet de la Mcrveille. On the advice of his chancellor, Count Philip Ludwig Sinzendorff, a man who was concerned with the French idea of a national state ratlier than with the idea of the universal-minded Empire, the Emperor founded the Ostend Trading Company in 1 with a founding capital of six million guilders. A sharp accession speech by Gcrogc II two years later even led to the recall of tlie Imperial envoy in London and the British Ambassador being requested to leave Vienna.
If the Imperial Company in Ostend had been exposed to fierce attacks by the English and Dutch, tlie Emden Company — set up in as the Asiatic Trading Company and maintained after 1 — appeared to be more fortunate. The Prussian court advisers and councillors of commerce who served as company directors authorized Messrs Heinrich, Thomas, Stuart and Co.
The ship put to sea from Emden in February docked there again on July 6th, But although liquidation began in , it was not completed until Nor did the Bengal Trading Company, which the King of Prussia had licenced in , fare much better. This second Prussian company had been established with a founding capital of one million Prussian thaler, but the Prussians rather mismanaged it. In the course of seven years, six ships brought in a profit of only seven per cent on investment. There- fore, the company was shut down in , Renewed attempts to set up other trading companies between and failed, as well.
Yet that period was marked by another German initiative. In spite of the alliance with England, relations between Lisbon and London were far from harmonious with regard to the colonies. For this reason. It was the House Felix von Oldenburg, an international company with a major share in the Brazil trade, the international tobacco market and Latin American settlement.
In the year 1 , this company was granted the monopoly of the Portuguese India trade. Hence, the Coromandel Coast and Bengal were expressly mentioned in tlie contract which even encompassed the China trade. In that way, the merchant House Felix von Oldenburg obtained a measure of power never before accorded to a private firm in the annals of Portuguese commerce. But the singular privilege of this India monopoly was not to last.
It almost seemed as though Nature herself were jealous. And if her father had relinquished, among other things, the India trade in the very effort to secure her the throne by means of Pragmatic Sanction, she wanted to revive it. In she decreed the founding of a new company with its seat this time on the Mediterranean, in Trieste. He was Wilhelm Bolts, a native of Wcsel. This open-minded Rhinelander had held a leading position in the English East-India Company and was trying to escape the temptations of a life in those circles at that time.
Indeed, he was the first to think of founding a newspaper in India. Natarajan commented on this G , 4 : It is significant, in this context, that the first attempt to start a newspaper in Calcutta was made in by Mr. William Bolts who had resigned from the Company's service cailier that year after censure by the Court of Directors for piivate trade under the Company's authority. He was directed to quit Bengal and pioceed to Madras and fwm tlicie to take his passage to Europe.
Now, tlic ti'catment accorded to the challenger of corruption, Wilhelm Bolts, against whom false chaiges were brought, is unfortunately no unusual case.
Pressure sensors + Load sensors
But Maria Theresa, a ivoman ivho wanted to base even high pohtics on principles which are valid, or ought to be valid, in private life, lent the India traveller her car. She entrusted him with setting up agencies in India, liotvever, she added one typical condition: tliese stations were to be mere trading offices and must not include armed garrisons. The first Imperial trading station -was opened near hladras. In Bolts established trading stations without the usual garrisons in tlircc more places.
For this he had received special permission from Hydcr AU, the ruler of Mysore. Karwar, for one, was a big market for introducing German goods to Indian buyers. Ever since, the Andaman and Nicobar group have been a specially favoured region for research by the German- speaking nations. In his footsteps, the curator of tlie Calcutta herbarium, Sulpiz Kurz of Munich, made further obsciwations of the plant life on tlie islands in General scientific researcli ivas conducted there in and by Ferdinand Stoliezka w'ho rvas also interested in prehistoric dwellings in tlie Andamans and Nicobars.
Modern ethnography was represented by Count Egon of Eickstedt who spent the winter of in the Andaman Islands with his wife, engaging in field work for his thesis on Indian-Southeast- Asian migration. Finally, mention should be made of Hugo A. Bernatzik, one of the last great explorers, who sought out associates for his ethnological studies among people of the rank of Theo Korner D 61 as a specialist reporting on the islands.
These were also described by W. Svoboda and R. An account by Johann Gottfried Haensel, one of tlie last missionaries to leave the Nicobars in , tells of the last years of this experiment. This account was published in book-form in in London under the title. Letters on the Xicobar Islands. Especially the zoologist Behn of Kiel and the business expert Nopitsch of Altona made major contributions to the success of the expedition in the scientific and technical fields.
Similarly the trip to the Nicobars of the Austrian frigate, Komra, gave the German geologist, Ferdinand von Hochstetter, the opportunity to carry out research in the islands. Just before the close of the century, in , the German deep-sea expedition under Carl Chun paid a visit to the islands. Wilhelm Bolts had returned home in , leaving the Resident of the Nicobars in charge. Bolts retired from the service with the rank of colonel. He died in Paris. He had revised and expanded it in As long ago as the late 18th century, Carsten Niebuhr confirmed how much the Arab merchants, whose trade empire stretched from Bombay and Calcutta to Zanzibar and Mombasa, preferred the Maria Theresa Thaler to any other currency.
Both the British and the Italians tried to dislodge it from their East-African colonies, but the traders of the Indian Ocean stubbornly clung to the currency of a non- colonial power, Bombay, which was the only mint in Asia, also struck the Maria Theresa Thaler which remained in circulation along with the products of a half dozen other minting places which also issued the com. Even nowadays, the thaler can still be found side by side with the national notes and coins in parts of Africa and Asia.
It is a strange, yet gratifying thought that in Africa and Asia one should so spontaneously have accepted the money of the woman who had approached the peoples of those continents in a human fashion and without ulterior motives. In the past, the trading stations of the Germans in India did not fare particularly well.
But that these efforts in no instance bore the stamp of military policy in an age of such widespread colonial expansion lends them a happy note. Well, Heinrich Heine once said that the trading stations of the mind had been tlie richer for that. The poets speak up only after the heroes are dead C , Then their works have the effect of tomb-stones of fame. There has been no German Camoes to give his people an equivalent of the Liisiads. That is due to the fact that die Germans in the wake of the Conquistadors were followed by new generations dedicated to conquests of the mind.
It is to be hoped that with respect to India this age of intellectual confrontation will continue for a long time to come. Mot that we Christians do not have sujpcient rules of morality in the Holy Scriptures for us to learn them from mere heathens, but merely and solely to see to what extent a heathen, devoid of the Scriptures, and only by vhtue of natural enlightenment, can attain cognition of the law of moialiiy, and how those Malabarian heathens equal those former Latin and Greek heathens in this, nay even surpass them absolutely.
He who would be instructed in this in detail, might read the Biblothecam Malabaricam, com- posed by myself and now sent to Europe, likewise the other two little books of morals which I have translated from the Malabarian into the German and sent along at the same time. Bartholomaus Ziegenbalg was one of those missionaries whose names command i-espect also in die field of linguistics. He is the first of a number of Protestant missionaries and scholars in India who particularly chose the South as their sphere of action.
In , the Danish King, Christian IV, had founded a trading company for the purpose of establishing economic relations with India and the neighbouring Asian states. The newly founded company established links of friendship with Ceylon, maintaining friendly relations with the various princes on the island. This alarmed the Portuguese who quickly managed to shut Ceylon off from Danish influence, after the ruler of Ceylon had suffered painful defeat at the hands of the Conquistadors. He leased them the hamlet of Tranquebar G on the Coromandel Coast. A royal decree signed by Ragunatha on November 19th, , entided the Danish company to hoist the Danebrog over Tranquebar.
Ninety years later, the first Protestant missionaries from Denmark came to this very place witli its small harbour. In those days that meant they stood in the sign of missionary work. Indeed, the work of these envoys of the Christian faith from the Germanic countries was, above all, founded on the loving study of the spiritual treasures of those to whom they wanted to bring religious truth.
In this respect, the Ladns adopted a more intolerant atdtude, as seen, for example, in the Portuguese approach to the ancient Thomas Chrisdans in South India. In fact, one of the first Portuguese prelates in Goa was moved by intolerance to burn as heretical die church literature of these old-estabHshed Chrisdans — one of the Syrian communides on the Malabar Coast, which went back to the apostoHc period — thereby depriving them of the chief constituent of their spiritual tradition. To this day his work is acclaimed by specialists all over the world.
Later Ziegenbalg transcribed a number of church hymns as well as the Bible up to the Book of Ruth. Being a missionary, he strove for the right to ordain ministers for the purpose of founding an indigenous caste of Protestant clei'gy. Also, he laid the foundations of a Tamil dictionary and authored a Tamil grammar, a study on Malabax'ian deities and many translations of Tamil texts. In addition, this pupil of A. Francke of Halle not surprisingly laid the groundwork for a successful educational system.
In he founded the first school for girls in India. Nowadays, how- ever, the term refers solely to the Western regions of South India. With what zeal Ziegenbalg plunged into the study and cultivation of the Tamil tongue is apparent from the letters he sent to Europe. In one of these he stated C , : I have begun compiling a dictionary, and that in such a way as to write first of all each word in Malabarian chaiacters to which I immediately add Latin letters to show how it is to be pi onounced correctly, and after that its meaning.
One might wish that this language were taught and learned in Europe with as much diligence as other Oriental languages, inasmuch as the Malabaiians are a great and innumerable people who might thus be helped out of their heathenish blindness by the Grace of God, if all Protestant kings and potentates would assist in this and allocate sufficient funds.
I myself must confess that my year-old schoolmaster often asks me such questions as tell me clearly that in their philosophy things may not be quite so illogical as people at home are wont to imagine in the case of such heathens. They are so intelligent that, were they to hear the scholars in Europe discourse from the lectern on logics, rhetoric and metaphysics, they would laugh with derision and regard suck art as the greatest folly about the general misery that could ever have been invented in the world. It bears the long-winded Latin title: Grammatica damulica quae per varia paradigmata, regulas et necessarium vocabulorum apparatum, viam brevissimam monslrat, qua Damulica sett Malabarica, quae inter Indos Orientales in usu cst, et hucusque in Europa incognita fuit, facile disci possit.
Tamil Gi'ammar which shows on various examples, rules and the necessary vocabulary the shortest way of learning the Tamil or Malabarian language as it is spoken among the East Indians and which is as yet unknown in Europe. In his grammar of the Tamil language B 20 , Hermann Bey than regrets tliat Ziegenbalg has received so little recognition for his penetration of the Indian spiritual sphere.
Indology in Germany might have been a science older by one century; and a Tamil- German and German-Tamil dictionary might have been in existence for trv'o hundred years. Further, Bey than B 20, and B , points out an important passage in the reports fiom Tranquebar: Tranqiwbar on the Coromandel Coast. Anno A Malabarian dictionaiy has been completed. The same thing was begun as long as two years ago, of which the letter A completed was sent to Europe: but because such practice consumed too much time and paper, one had to write it subsequently only on Malabarian palm-leaves. Although one does not wish to advise anyone that such a language can be learned merely fiom dictionaries, but on the contrary from reading the books written in it, from which one must each time note down all used and unknown words and commit them to memory.
Tranquebar owes its special fame to the work of Ziegenbalg. The present name of the place is a corruption of the Tamil Tarangambadi — i. Place of the Singing of the Waves. The place where the singing of the waves had been heard for milleniums. This is the work on Malabar heathenism D edited by W. Caland and published in by the Netherlands Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen. In this work, Ziegenbalg reveals all aspects of South Indian Hinduism. Proceeding from the multitude of gods, he deals with questions of prayer, sin, pilgrimages, food and eating habits, cosmology and finally of art.
In the eleventh of the eighteen chapters in the book, the scholar and missionary treats the subjects of poetry and poets. The introduction to this chapter shows how closely involved Ziegenbalg was with the literary production of the Tamilian intellectual world; Among these heathens, no art is more common than poetry, because all their books on religion are written in verse, and everything that is sung in their community to this day must be poetic. Hence, the older boys learn poetry in all their schools, and each learns as much of it as he can comprehend. Tet those who have a bent for it, take up poetry afterwards professionally and seek to earn their living by it.
For this purpose they have various books in which the foundations of this art are expounded, such as 1. Tolkabiam in which all precepts of this art are treated in detail; 2. Diwagaram and Negendu, which are something like dictio- naries of poetry, in which copious words can be found; 3. Nannul, which embodies instruction on how to handle letters, syllables and words and on how to deal with a brief theme by expanding it according to this art; 4.
KArigei, in which the genders of the verses are explained, etc. However, their poetry is much more difficult than the poetry of other languages; for it consists almost entirely of foreign words and makes up quite a different language of which no Malabari can understand anything unless he has been somewhat trained and made himself familiar with the poetic words in schools.
In verse these words deviate from the common construction and are inflected quite differently; this, too, causes much difficulty. In their verses they distinguish 4. Pagum or kinds, the flrst is called Ashu and is the easiest kind which can be learned and understood flrst. The next kind is called Maduram, and of this kind of verse one can understand only half The third kind is called Chiddirum, which means such verses as, owing to their learned and unknown words and phrases, are understood by no one, not even properly by the present-day poets.
The fourth kind is called Wistarum and comprises such verses as expand brief themes; these, too, can be understood only little. In addition to these, they have 32 genders according to which they make up all their verses. To tliis day, some Protestant Tamils cultivate the German language too, such as the well-known Lutheran Tamil scholar, B.
The Fabricius dictionary was re-edited several times, being expanded in each edition. This Dictionary which contained about 9, words with a large collection of idiomatic phraseology, formed the basis of subsequent works by Drs. The revision of the present edition was commenced by the late Rev.
Pakyam Pillay, Headmaster of the same institution. While in Tranquebar the names of tlie German scholars are spoken with propiietary pride, they are known throughout South India. Johann Peter Rottler, a native of Strassburg, came to Tranquebar in He immediately immersed himself in the systematic study of Tamil and also proved to be a gifted botanist. He had applied for the Indian missionary service together with his friend, Gerlach. He was able to preach in tlie Tamil tongue already after being only twelve months in the country.
He wrote and corresponded widely on philological- philosophical themes. In 1 tlie University of Erlangen granted him an honorary Ph. Yet in the meantime he had made an almost bigger name for himself as a botanist. He sent specimens of South Indian plant-life to European institutes and universities; and several of the collections in Central and Western Europe were begun on his initiative.
When Lord Nortli was appointed as the first British Governor of Ceylon in , he wanted a scholar well versed in botany to accompany him on a trip of the island. Rottler was approached and went along. In , tliis collection was transferred to Kew. Such travel accounts, which betrayed the born botanist, earned Rottler a reputation all over Europe. When the German missionary Paezold left Vepery, his missionary base, to become professor of Tamil in Calcutta, Rottler temporarily took over his work.
In the Church of St. Mattliew in Madras, a plaque commemorates the versatile scholar who yet was, first and foremost, a dedicated minister of the church. Five years later he founded a Protestant community in the so-called Black Town district of Madras. Later he was active in Palamcotta and Tinnevelly. His work. The Essence, or the True Veda, is proof of his effort to interpret religious points of view with tolerance.
He translated parts of the Bible into Tamil. Kahl in Tranquebar in Like Johann Peter Rottler, Dr. Bernhard Sclimid combined the work of a missionary with a devotion to botany and philology. Schmid primarily observed cryptogamous non-flowering plants. After his health had deteriorated in the plains of Tamilnad, he moved to the Nilgiris mountains, setting up his home in Ootacamund. There he translated Tamil writings into German, and German works into Tamil. Those studies gave a powerful impulse to Indian botany; and when Schmid died in Calicut at the age of 70, his death was mourned as a loss to Indian and German science alike.
Another who by far transcended the sphere of missionary work was Christian Friedrich Schwartz , who also worked in the region of Tranquebar. With his fellow missionaries from Halle, Polzenhagen and Hiittemann, he had arrived in and remained for over a decade until he felt drawn farther into the mainland. The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge ofiered Schwartz work in Tiruchirapalli-Trichinopoly, where he founded a school and a church in When Schwartz left Trichinopoly to visit Tanjore, the ruler of the country, Raja Tulagee, wished to meet him.
A casual visit developed into a deep friendship, and the Raja even offered the German missionary to build a church in Tanjore. After his arrival in Madras he was requested to exchange his cassock temporarily for the gown of a British envoy to the most powerful ruler in Southern India, Hyder Ali of Mysore. Since peace in the Dravidian area was at stake, the surprised missionary agreed.
For three months he remained at the court of Hyder Ali, being treated as a friend and honoured guest. When he left, the ruler, who was generally known as a stickler for etiquette, gave him the sum of three hundred Rupees for travelling expenses, a highly unusual move indeed. Nor were the officers of the troops escorting Schwartz back willing to take the money back. Finally Schwartz made use of it to build an orphanage in Tanjore.
His mission of peace had brought a breathing spell to the tense atmosphere prevailing in the South. After the death of Hyder Ali towards the end of , his successor became Tipoo Sultan. Not long after, the British once more dispatched their missionary envoy to the new ruler. Yet Schwartz was such an eloquent advocate of peace as to pave tlie way for a new treaty between the belligerents. The Treaty of Mangalore of confirmed the end of hostilities.
Schwartz returned to Tanjore, where he constructed a new church. In , Schwartz introduced a new educational scheme which provided European education in addition to the native languages, especially in the English Imgua franca. After all, his modern education scheme for Tamilnad was planned and implemented half a century heforeT. Macaulay published his Minnie on Education in The enlightenment prevailing in Tamilnad, tliat ancient cultural land of India with its tradition going back to a mytliical prehistory, may in no small measure be due to the work of Christian Friedrich Sclnvartz.
Schwartz went to court on behalf of Serfojee and, after protracted litigation, won his case. By now his name had become a myth. When Schwartz died, he was buried beside his church. Yet the greatest monument, both literary and human, arc the verses later composed in English by Serfojee and dedicated to the gi'cat deceased.
These are cut into tlie stone of the tomb and mark the first attempt of an Indian at composing poetry in English. They deserve to be repeated here along with the introduction to the epitaph: Sacred to the memory of The Reverend Christian Frederic Schwartz, Missionary to the Honourable Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge tn London; who departed this life on the 13th of February aged seventy-one years and four months.
Comfort in sorrow of every sort. Wisheth and prayeth thy Serfojee. In the series of German Tamil grammars, that of Hermann Beythan B 20 should in conelusion be mentioned here. This excellent, scientifically systematic Avork, as well, is pervaded by the air of Tranquebar. Filled by missionary ideals as it was, his life was equally marked by scholarly zest. That was the last his friends ever heard of him. Of the listed languages, Tamil is the one whose wiitten lecords take us back faithest into the Dravidian past.
The treasure of presemed Tamil ivriiings is many centuries older than that of their neighbours. It was preceded by more centuries of liteiary activity, whose fruits aie unhappily lost. However, the earliest pieseived works set in at an astonishing level of perfection.
Therefore, anyone wishing to know the essence of the Dravidian type of language can only begin with Tamil. Dravidian languages are spoken by at least 80 million people who have so far largely been regarded as a uniform race and listed as such in the atlasses.
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Nonetheless, there is no such uniform racial type as canier of the Dravidian family of languages. Those who speak them belong to vaiious distinct races. The language boundaries are hardly anywhere identical with the boundaries of race. Those who speak Tamil are mostly members of this race. Let us once more quote Beythan B 20, who emphasizes — after shedding some light in passing on the Tamils living abroad, in Burma, Malaya, South and East Africa — that despite its wide distribution, Tamil scarcely suffers any disparity of dialect even in the motherland. At the same time, he regards Malayalam as a dialect form of Tamil; Malayalam may be described as an old dialect of Tamil.
Madura, the capital of the ancient Pandya kingdom, is considered to be the centre of classic Tamil. In almost mythical days, Madura was the seat of the legendary Sangha, an academy of poets or royal chamber of literature, whose most highborn membei was none less than Siva himself. This academy applied stringent rules in deciding who might bear the title of poet and who might not.
As the historical nucleus of the legend, a definite surviving factor is the particular cultivation of literature under the benevolent aegis of the Pandya kings. Commentaries , without much consideration for the speech of the people. This has led to the necessity of always accompanying the texts by a commentary — and frequently a complete transcript — since the non-specialist, the non-Pundit, would otherwise have made little or nothing of these archaic and partly artificial forms.
The effect of the poetry on the people was thus diminished. This has helped to bring about a state wheie at any rate some knowledge of the forms and words of High Tamil is widespread among the people. Whenever a village schoolmaster, peasant or barber composes an occasional verse in poetic form, he never fails to aim for the closest possible approach to centamil.
From such sources, quotations, manners of speech and forms pass into the modern vernacular so that it has appeared necessary to acquaint the student of this grammar at least with the most customary forms of High Tamil. The country, or rather the literature, of the Tamils inspired yet another German, Friedrich Ruckert.
In , he began to compile a German-Tamil Dictionary of his own. This work was not completed until Unfortunately though, the manuscript has never been printed. Once more, mention should be made of the name of Karl Graul, the first German to begin a broadly conceived Bibliotheca Tamulica.
Unhappily, his early death prevented this Tamil library from exceeding three volumes. However, they furnish characteristic evidence of German interest in the Tamil tongue and the culture of Tamilnad, Karl Graul was the head of the Protestant-Lutheran Mission Institute in Leipzig which had taken over the old Danish-Halle Mission stations after tlie abolition of the Danish trading stations.
How seriously Graul took his vocation is evidenced by his intense study. In Volume 1 of his Bibliotheca Tamulica, he refeired to D 37, XIII-XIV the scope and importance of his first exciting presentation from Dravidian India: Just because Sanskrit and Tamul literature complement each other most closely and significantly in the sphere of philosophy, I wanted to fill this first volume of my Tamul library with such writings, namely from the orthodox Vedanta school. This, too, was published by natives several years ago and printed on the Dindigal press. Ui fortunately, the edition is replete with mistakes.
I possess an additional manuscript which does not come off much better in that respect. By careful comparison of the two I have succeeded, I hope, in most cases in arriving at the true meaning. As the translation of this text is mainly to serve the further clarification of the first manuscript, I have felt entitled to make single omissions and abridgements, especially in the first chapter, occasionally luilh affixation of the dialogue form. The case of the third little manuscript will best be understood by the reader f tom what is written on page I have included it in this volume primarily out of consideration for those who wish to orientate themselves above all by a biief outline of the Vedanta philosophy.
As the Sanskrit text is probably accessible to only few in Europe, I have tianscribcd it from the Telugu characters in which I obtained it to Roman letters, and have had it printed, as well. I have added the most important variants of the Hdberlin text, which, obviously, is generally not as excellent, to each verse. The work, ICural, to which the first scholars dealing with Tamil culture had drawn attention in Germany, was presented by Karl Graul as the third and last volume of his Bibliotheca Tamulica.
The Kural found an enthusiastic reader also in Albert Schweitzer. He regarded it Schweitzer called it KuiTal as a paean to a natural life pervaded by love and born from the idea of ethical deeds. Repeatedly he placed it even above the usually lavishly celebrated Gita B , : That in Indian folk ethics the idea of active love emerged in fairly early times is knoion to ns from a number of narratives which we come across in literature, and above all from the ethical apothegms to be found in the hurral, a work probably dating from the second century cf our era.
The Ktirral is a collection of apothegms, or adages, in distich form, attributed to the weaver Tiruvalluvar. Kurral means brief stanza. Tiruvalluvar is not a name in the proper sense but a title borne by religious teachers working among the lower castes in Southern India.
The work is composed in the Tamil tongue. What a difference between the Kurral and the Dharma Shastra of Alanu which originated some four centuries earlier! Governed by the Brahmin spirit, the Dharma Shastra of Manu just about tolerates the affirmation of world and life side by side with the negation of world and life.
In the Kurral, the negation of world and life is no more than a distant cloud in the sky. In maxims forming the close of the book, temporal love is praised. Later ages interpreted them — because they found them offensive — allegorically as the sotds' love of God. The path of virtue is recommended because it leads to better reincarnation or to liberation from reincarnation. Side by side with this, one also finds the naive view — so accentuated in Chinese ethics — that ethical behaviour results in earthly prosperity, unethical in misfortune.
Nonetheless, ethics in the Kurral is not so completely governed by the idea of reward as in Brahminism, in Buddhism and in the Bhagavad-Gita. Already one finds here the perception that good is to be done for its own sake. This perception is manifest in some of the maxims. Whereas the Bhagavad-Gita motivates perseverance in active life in a forced and cold manner by intimating that it is in keeping with the order of the world, the Kurral — what progress!
Work and livelihood enable man to do good. The force of the affirmation of world and life in the Kurral is evidenced by maxims on joy in work which one would scarcely expect to hear from an Indian mouth. Like Buddha and the Bhagavad-Gita, the Kurral demands inner freedom from the world and a philosophy of non-hatred. Like them, it adopts the commandment not to kill and not to harm. It has adopted all valuable ethical results of the negation of world and life. And to this spiritual ethic it moreover adds the living ethic of love.
It speaks on the most varied questions relating to mans conduct towards himsC-lf and towards the world in a manner both sensitive and sensible. Scarcely can so much lofty wisdom be found in any collection of aphorisms in the world's literature. The first scientific activity had begun in the Franconian region half a century before.
This legend-wreathed time has been described at length by W. Code, Commemoration Volume. Graefe placed the climax of the Sangam age in the sbeth to tenth centuries. In , Graefe completed anodier manuscript embodying a literary document of Tamil literature in the German tongue; Ifannul.
Thus, Tamil research has long had a home in Germany. Again and again, Avoi'ks transcending the ordinary indicate hoNV fniitful this research has been. In tins analytical study tlie work of Ziegcnbalg and Graul found a worthy continuation. Yet in addition to Tamil, German research into South Indian themes focused also on the other Dravidian languages. Heyer who arrived in Guntur in what is now Andhra Pradesh m In a lifetime he never neglected linguistics despite his religious tasks.
He penetrated the spirit and essence of this Dravidian idiom to the point where he wrote and composed poetry with a facility equalling that of a native writer. The first German scholar to have demonstrably engaged himself with Malayalam, was Johann Ernst Hanxleden Thus it was Protestant and Catholic missionaries who concerned themselves with the spiritual treasures of the land between the Himalayas and Cape Comorin. Hanxleden was a Catholic missionary whose name is remembered in India, notably in Kerala, to this day.