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No Front Line Australian special forces at war in Afghanistan. Seven Pillars of Wisdom. The Places in Between. The Romance of the Three Kingdoms. The Embarrassed Colonialist Penguin Specials. Item Added: Japanese Mythology. View Wishlist. Our Awards Booktopia's Charities. Filipino laborers, called Sakadas , came mostly under three-year contracts negotiated in advance. After the expiration of their contracts, many stayed in Hawaii while others returned home or moved to the mainland.

Filipinos began migrating in large numbers to California after the Immigration Act of Many were displaced tenant farmers, so they were able to blend into the agricultural economy of the state. A number of Filipinos also went to Alaska to work in salmon canneries. Like the Asian immigrants before them, the vast majority of Filipinos were male laborers and worked for less than competing workers, including whites and Japanese.

Unlike the Chinese and Japanese, however, Filipinos did not tend to live in dense, segregated communities. This last difference became the source of much agitation. In the Philippines, Filipinos were taught that they were a part of a friendly father country. The most notable incident was the race riots in Watsonville, California on January 19, The riots began with a nonviolent anti-Filipino demonstration against a Filipino dance hall, but over the course of a few days, groups of demonstrators turned into mobs that targeted Filipinos, beating them, and destroying their property.


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The riots ended on January 22, when a Filipino man, Fermin Tobera, was shot through the heart. Fears of intermarriage and miscegenation were not only reflected in the violent actions of mobs, but also in state and federal laws. The popularity of books like The Rising Tide of Color reveals the trend of the time to justify racism with science. Although the classification and judgment of races was arbitrary and based on visible rather than actual genetic differences, it was held by many to be an indisputable, scientific fact.

This pseudo-scientific racism sometimes undermined the aim of exclusionist laws. Since Filipinos were considered as American nationals, the Cable Act did not apply to them. Filipino immigration was resisted in the s, but strong support to exclude Filipinos did not materialize until the s.

Just as the economic hardship of the s had fueled the Chinese Exclusion Movement, the Great Depression roused sentiment against Filipinos. Philippine independence was the avenue advocated by most exclusionists. If the Philippines were no longer under the ownership of the United States, then they could be included in the Asiatic Barred Zone. Under this Act, Filipinos were reclassified as aliens and an immigration quota of fifty Filipinos a year was established. For twelve years Philippine independence was delayed by World War II , Filipinos were in the odd position of owing allegiance to a country in which they were considered aliens.

This alien status was especially damaging during the Depression because it rendered them ineligible for government relief programs. Those arrested were leaders of Japanese American community organizations, ministers of churches, teachers at language and martial arts schools, and editors of Japanese American vernacular newspapers. Despite never having been accused of any crime or acts of treason, and without trial or representation , they were taken away to United States Department of Justice detention centers, many for the duration of the war.

Their families did not know where they were taken or if they would ever see them again. Executive Order gave broad authority to the military to secure the borders of the United States and to create military zones from which individuals — citizens and aliens alike — could be forced from their homes.

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Although the executive order was carefully crafted so that no specific groups of people were singled out, its implementation resulted in the wholesale removal and imprisonment of the entire Japanese American population residing on the West Coast of the United States. Under the authority of Executive Order , the western portions of California, Washington and Oregon were declared as military zones, and in April , the military imposed a curfew and travel restrictions on Japanese Americans.

Singled out by race alone, Japanese Americans became the target of racial policies that deprived them of their rights as American citizens. Soon after the curfew, the military posted notices in all Japanese American communities, ordering all citizens and resident aliens of Japanese ancestry to abruptly leave their homes, schools and businesses and report to assembly areas, bringing with them only what they could carry.

Under direction of armed police and the military, Japanese immigrants and Americans of Japanese ancestry were herded onto buses and trains for the forced journey to government detention camps. Without regard for due process or basic constitutional guarantees, over , persons of Japanese ancestry, two-thirds of whom were American citizens, the Issei — or first generation — were ineligible for citizenship due to discriminatory naturalization laws were imprisoned in ten concentration camps located in remote, desolate areas in California, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, Wyoming and Arkansas.

Approximately 10, people were imprisoned in each camp surrounded by barbed wire and armed military guards. Most of the volunteers came from Hawaii, but there were also those who volunteered from within the concentration camps on the mainland. The volunteers were assigned to a segregated Japanese American unit — the nd Regimental Combat Team.

For its size and length of service, the nd eventually became the most decorated American unit in United States military history. The treatment of Japanese Americans during World War II remains as one of the most serious violations of constitutional rights in the history of the United States.

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This all transpired, despite the fact that eight articles and amendments of the Bill of Rights had been denied them. The long struggle for regaining citizenship rights is a good example of the difficult and slow struggle that Japanese Americans faced when returning to normal life. Anti-Japanese sentiment on the West Coast still thrived in their absence and many people were opposed to the return of the Japanese Americans. In addition, much of the personal property that had been left behind had been stolen, vandalized or ruined by neglect.

Unlike their forced removal, there was no large government effort to reintroduce Japanese Americans back into society after the war. They were forced to pick up the pieces of their lives after their incarceration. Japan had been defeated and all other Asian nations were not equipped to pose a military threat to the United States. Furthermore, knowledge of the horrors of Nazi brutality toward Jews and others caused many to abhor parallel racism in American society.

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One factor contributing to the changing opinion of Asian Americans was their heroic participation in the war effort. The heroic exploits of the Japanese American nd Regimental Combat Team became widely known and heralded. Tens of thousands of Asian Americans of all ancestries enlisted to serve their country, enough to support military units for Chinese, Filipino and Korean Americans as well as the Filipinos who were recruited to fight against the Japanese in the Philippines with the promise of United States citizenship.

The goodwill generated by this contribution was reflected in the legislation of the time. In , three years after Chinese could become naturalized as citizens, the Luce-Cellar Bill extended the same right to Filipinos and Asian Indians. In , the California Supreme Court declared in Perez v. On the Korean Peninsula, the country was divided at the 38 th parallel. On the north was Soviet-liberated Korea with guerilla leader Kim Il Sung as chairman, and on the south was American-liberated Korea that became its own country in with the election of Korean exile Syngman Rhee.

At the time, most American forces had left Korea, but they soon returned to help the South Korean government. Communist China countered by backing North Korea in November of that year. The war stalemated after three years with the 38 th parallel once again designated as the border dividing north and south. The Korean War again showed that the United States was no longer an isolationist country. Now it was involved in the reconstruction of a war-torn world, including Japan and Germany. America was deeply involved in world politics and interested in modeling itself as the leading nation to promote democratic values.


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In the landmark anti-segregation case Brown v. These somewhat conflicting desires worked to reshape racially-biased American immigration policy. Most of this immigration consisted of Korean women and orphans covered under the War Brides Act. In , Congress passed the Walter-McCarran Act, over a veto by President Harry Truman, a compromise between the desire for equality and a hesitation to open national borders.

On the one hand, the act nullified both the Naturalization Act of and all federal anti-Asian exclusion laws, allowing for the first time all legal immigrants in America to become naturalized citizens. On the other hand, the Act did not abolish the biased quota system, allowing only a total of 2, visas annually for all nineteen of the countries in the Eastern hemisphere.


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One other important difference in the Act was the establishment of a preference system. The United States no longer looked at race as the only factor for immigration but gave preference to those with professional and technical skills. Anti-Asian laws also were repealed in state and local governments during the s, including the infamous alien land laws of California in The development of the Civil Rights Movement continued to change things for Asian Americans, most notably with the Immigration Act of Since the mids, Martin Luther King, Jr.

In , the government acknowledged this movement on a federal level with the passage of the Civil Rights Act. With discrimination within United States borders, the discriminatory policies used to control those borders came into sharp relief, and Congress soon turned their attention to immigration reform.

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The Immigration Act of , also known as the Hart-Cellar Reform Act, abolished the national origins quota system established in and adopted a hemisphere quota system. Quotas for Asian nations jumped from approximately to 20, immigrants per year, making the quotas representative of world population distribution rather than by racial preference. At the time, these minorities were drawing attention to the discrimination and racism that existed in the United States with boycotts, protests and civil disobedience. The riots in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles occurred six months before publication of the article.

By comparison, Asian Americans were cast in the stereotype of being quiet, successful, and self-reliant. Legislators of the time could not have predicted the effect that the Immigration Act of would have on immigration from Asia. When it passed, the bill was not expected to have that great an impact. Since the bill favored spouses and children of American citizens, allowing them to enter as non-quota immigrants, it was reasoned that not many Asians would enter the United States.

Since , Asians have been coming to America in numbers that far exceed pre statistics. Between and alone, about 1. One immediate diversifying effect that the act produced was the surge in immigration of Koreans and Asian Indians. In the s, other new groups of Asians, those affected by the Vietnam War, would be motivated to come to the United States. The United States became involved in Vietnam in the s after France released colonial control of the country following an eight-year war.

At the time, Vietnam was divided at the 17 th parallel between the communist north and anti-Communist south. After years of unsuccessful warfare against North Vietnam, the United States began seeking a way to end its involvement in this unpopular war. As a result, the United States signed a ceasefire with North Vietnam in January of , evacuating the last American troops from Saigon on April 30, South Vietnamese soldiers, trained to defend their country, were expected to hold off North Vietnamese forces until at least , but suffered a quick defeat as soon as American troops were gone.

In the final hours of the Saigon evacuation, American troops along with South Vietnamese desperate to leave their country were airlifted from the tops of buildings. This hurried departure led to the first wave of , Vietnamese refugees, most of whom had strong ties to the United States government and would certainly be singled out for severe retribution by the North Vietnamese had they stayed in Vietnam. Subsequent waves lasting into the s would also include ethnic Vietnamese minorities like the Cham, Montagnards, Khmer and ethnic Chinese, as well as refugees from Laos and Cambodia fleeing communist regimes in those countries.

Refugees from Southeast Asia numbered in the hundreds of thousands, many seeking refuge in surrounding Asian countries, but the majority looking for asylum in the United States.