In Alexander set sail for New York on the good ship Lafayette. There was an attempt to get him started in Hollywood as an actor, but his lack of knowledge and deep dislike of the English language were a barrier that could not be breached. Disillusioned with the States, Vertinsky set sail for China in October He set up base in Shanghai where he continued to perform, and, even, for a short while was the owner of a cabaret.
But life was getting more and more difficult, and when he unexpectedly received an invitation from the Soviet consulate in Shanghai to return home, he was intrigued. He even began writing for a Soviet newspaper. Still, the road home was not easy. His final papers from Moscow were delayed, in large part because of the beginning of World War II, and so, when he married his second wife Lidia Tsirgvava in , he was still in Shanghai. Vertinsky was then 53; Tsirgvava, the daughter of a Soviet official in China, was Their first daughter Marianna was born several months later.
When Japan invaded China Vertinsky made still another, now desperate, attempt to return home. You see that building here, as photographed in the fall of Vertinsky himself found an uncomfortable mix of success and alienation upon his return to a nation that had nothing to do with the country he left in He was allowed to act in films and to give concerts, and yet, he was kept on the outside of mainstream Soviet cultural life. His songwriting muse pretty much dried up in this period.
One source claims he wrote barely two dozen songs over the last 14 years of his life.
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How long? I got into the mood for this little excursion today by re-reading a Facebook post that many of my friends posted in recent days. You see, I will unleash a bit of bile myself before this is all over, so we might as well make this whole thing a journey down a ragged road. For that event this little park located at the meeting of Plekhanovskaya and Ordzhonikidze streets, right in front of the local Oblast court, was renamed Bunin Square.
Burganov is an ubiquitous sculptor in Moscow. Sort of. The dog is like bling. You can just hear people coming up to the monument: MAN: Aw! Here, let me give him a rub on his butt! MAN: I dunno. Who cares? This monument succeeds in being pompous and bland all at the same time. That, of course, is an accomplishment, although not one you look for in your public art.
But, enough of that. Nina Barkovskaya comments on the ambivalent nature of this project, saying:. Undoubtedly, the aim is to shame those in power. Poet and Citizen are just roles here; satire is theatricalised as a show. Make-up, sets, props the discrepancy with historical realities emphasises the absurdity of what is happening on the stage and created [ sic ] an effect of defamiliarisation are important.
Parody need not be seen as an attack on the work or author selected for imitation; satirical poets often make fun of poems that have genuine artistic merit and are popular among readers. Neither the past nor the present is immune from mockery, and so Bykov keeps nostalgia at arms length. As Karen McCauley notes, the authors of production literature saw themselves as engineers whose texts were constructed with the help of aesthetic devices which they used like mechanical tools.
It relies on the capacity of Russian and Soviet poetry as a mnemonic tool which can be used for re-organising individual and collective memories. The growth of the cultural underground in the s marked a revival of modernist aesthetic principles that asserted the autonomy of cultural activities from the state. Pre-revolutionary models of small-scale poetry performances, among people who were striving to create a collective identity as devotees to high art and aiming to transcend reality, proved attractive in an era of stagnation, when hopes for far-reaching change that had been kindled by the Thaw were largely extinguished.
The late-Soviet underground was able to use its peripheral position outside the official cultural hierarchy to create works of art and literature oriented towards pre-revolutionary modernist culture. The end of the Soviet Union presented new challenges: culture was released from its ideological shackles, but it was faced with the pressures of the marketplace, something that the early twentieth-century modernists had also confronted. Blok is presented as a tragic hero who feels excluded from the society he had hoped to transform. The works of Russian conceptualists, including Kibirov, have been associated with the use of heteroglossia plural language which is opposed to a unique poetic language.
In the poem the lyric hero uses the device of estrangement in order to voice his criticism of Moscow as the centre of economic reforms. The poet represents authors who, like Kibirov, once belonged to unofficial Soviet culture but are now are excluded from and ridiculed by the new social order; similarly marginalised are nineteenth-century ideals of freedom and artistic harmony. This was usually a friendly letter in verse written to a fellow poet, often seen as a hybrid form of the prose letter and the elegy. One of the most popular Golden Age genres, it promoted the cult of friendship and was associated with the development of dialogic devices and the incorporation of prosaic elements into poetic language.
His poem, cast as a private letter to a friend, becomes a marker of friendliness not only to the addressee but also to the world at large. Such alternative aesthetic trends developed in late Soviet culture almost simultaneously, coinciding with the emergence of conceptualism and the revival of lyric poetry which became increasingly oriented towards the use of intertextuality and palimpsest, as well as parodic and metaphysical overtones.
Perhaps it was due to their peripheral position in relation to Soviet mainstream literature that unofficial Soviet poets felt a need to find their ideal interlocutors not in contemporary society but in the past. Paradoxically, perhaps, nostalgia was evoked both by the poetry of modernism which had been suppressed by the Soviet state, and by the poetry which the same state had then enlisted for its own purposes. The coexistence of these strands of twentieth-century Russian poetry in the emerging canon demonstrates the profound ambivalence with which the changes of the s were greeted.
She recognizes the valuable work the journal had done in making available to Russian readers many previously unknown texts and memoir accounts by Russian and Western authors, as well as the writings of Western critics whose works had been ignored in Soviet times, including Jacques Derrida, Roland Barthes and Gilles Deleuze.
RUSSIA'S LAST ICONOCLAST - The New York Times
Starting in the s the works of the Russian formalists were no longer systematically studied and were not widely available even to specialist readers. When, in the post-Stalin period, scholars interested in formalism or structuralism began to publish, their work appeared in highly specialised journals or collections of articles published in Estonia, Latvia, or Moscow, rather than in journals or collections aimed at a broader readership.
In the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union, it became clear that many insights of the Russian formalists had outlived totalitarian cultural policies and found their way into Russian poetic practices and theoretical approaches during the late-Soviet and post-Soviet periods. William Mills Todd III points out that many important tenets of Russian formalist theory were largely suppressed due to the severe censorship of, and ideological pressures on, Soviet critics in the s to the s.
Yet the circle of scholars from Latvia, Estonia and Russia who contributed to these conferences did not occupy a position at the centre of the Soviet establishment; the conferences took place in Latvia, a peripheral location. The formalists are well known for their significant contribution to the study of structural features and aesthetic functions of devices used in Russian verse. The range of issues explored in their works include rhythmical impulse and rhythmicalsyntactic word combination explored by Osip Brik ; the role of intonation in the lyric studied by Boris Eikhenbaum ; rhythmically organised speech and changes in the metrical system analysed by Boris Tomashevskii , and the peculiarities of poetic speech and poetic genres examined by Iurii Tynianov.
The belated re-acquaintance with formalist thinking marked a complete departure from the socialist realist aesthetic which had produced no adequate theoretical tools for the analysis of texts that deviated from its norms. Such criteria as mass accessibility, an ideologically driven belief in a radiant future, and simplicity, were at the core of socialist realist dogma. Steiger writes:. The new Soviet poetry roots in the life of the people.
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A dynamic exchange of harmonic poetic verse is heard. Primitive illiterate bards come from remote regions to recite unwritten songs in the enlightened capital. Cultured modern poets send their voices pulsating on radio waves to the farthest corners of the land. Poetry is written to be heard and is heard even before it is read and the reading public of the Soviet poet is like an ocean compared to the inland sea of the revolutionary days.
The high calling of Soviet writers is to unfold truthfully and imaginatively the beauty of the heroic toil of the people, the grandeur and majesty of the struggle for Communism, to be impassionate propagandists of the Seven Year Plan, to uproot the survivals of capitalism in the consciousness of the people, to assist in removing all that still hinders our movement forward. At the same time, underground and alternative groups of poets emerged in Moscow and in Leningrad too.
Their performances may be seen as an attempt to create a kind of mass culture that offered an alternative to mainstream Soviet culture. Their recitals of poetry formed an intense emotional and intimate bond between the reader and the poet. It was very different from the rigid and highly controlled relationship between the mass reader and the Soviet poet that existed before the Thaw. It took him more than ten years to do so because many established poets, censors and officials were opposed to such a publication.
Many liberally minded writers and poets were unwilling to consider a departure from socialist realism. Literary critic Andrei Siniavskii, on the other hand, advocated a turn to the grotesque as an appropriate mode for new art in the post-Stalin period in his seminal study Chto takoe sotsialisticheskii realizm What Is Socialist Realism available only in samizdat and tamizdat forms under the pseudonym Abram Terts until the late s.
Siniavskii proclaimed Soviet literature of the s to be a peculiar hybrid of different styles: neither classical, nor realistic. As Epstein noted, Siniavskii. He regrets that the eclectic mixture of realism and classicism that was officially promoted from the s through the s lacks the genuinely phantasmagoric proportions capable of transforming dull, didactic imitations of life into inspirational imitations of didacticism and teleology itself.
Like the formalists, Siniavskii was interested in the Russian futurists, including Maiakovskii and early Pasternak, because they, like the Acmeists, were preoccupied with the concept of poetry as a craft. As Richard Gustafson rightly notes, it would be wrong to see Ginzburg as a living embodiment of Russian formalist theory. She writes:.
RUSSIA'S LAST ICONOCLAST
Outside of a dictionary a word lives in a context; it is defined by the context. The fate of the poetic word, furthermore, depends especially strongly on the context. The context narrows the word, displaces it, dynamizing some of its meanings to the detriment of others. At the same time, however, the context expands the word, grafting onto it various layers of associations.
Poetic context is a loose concept. It goes from the sentence to the immediately given rhythmic and syntactical unit, to the poem itself, to the cycle of poems, to the oeuvre of the writer and finally to the literary movements and styles of the time. One or other of these contexts dominates in different periods or in different individual systems. Together with Zara Mints, whose contribution is discussed below, Lotman, Siniavskii and Dymshits, Ginzburg should be remembered today as one of the critics who aspired to broaden the Russian poetic canon by breaking the mould of socialist realist dogma.
Articles in these volumes explored semiotic, formalist and intertextual approaches to literature. In contrast to the Tartu scholars who worked on Blok and his contemporaries in a contextualised manner, many established Soviet scholars had created their own image of Blok, moulding him into a precursor of socialist realism. As Aleksandr Lavrov puts it, in the s Soviet scholars saw Blok not as a real person but as a hero who spent his life fighting the decadents and symbolists.
For example, in the Blok volume she published an article by B. As Maxim Koupovykh points out, Soviet structuralists and semioticians went against the grain of Soviet Marxist humanities:. The understanding of canon that dominated in Russia during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries was informed by Romantic notions of the unique artistic genius and of literature as an expression of the spirit of a given nation.
Keywords: home theatre, troupe, stage directing art, drama, psychological detail, acting cast. Keywords: sound space of performance, music drama, music leittheme, monothematic. Direction modern lines in professional theatrical art of Kuzbass are reviewed in this article. Latynnikova, reveals the mechanisms of the dialogue scenic text structure.
Keywords: dialogue, dialogism, spiritual moral nature of the word, literary theatre, unintended dialogism, image of the author, scenic character, plot, artistic principle, epic text. In this paper is shown monumental art as one of the facets of the creative heritage of outstanding Kuzbass sculptor A. Subjects, topics of works are a great variety: anniversaries of the Russian state, monuments of prominent figures of science, culture, art, the theme of relations between man and woman.
Sculptor developed the tradition of realism and managed to have his say in the national monumental art. The article describes the process of style formation in Omsk architecture in the s, elicits regional peculiarities of constructivism and neoclassicism, and gives stylistic analysis of a few architectural monuments of that period. Regional identity was determined for the ethnic Russian, rather than national and territorial affiliation, imparts in his own eyes and the eyes of others specific socially, psychologically and culturally significant features.
Ethnic self-consciousness, on the one hand, it reflects objectively existing features of culture, on the other, can actively influence the evolution of an ethnic community, reinforcing the interest in national history and culture, contributing to the formation of specific national interests. Keywords: Interethnic communication, Linguaculturology, Language Culture.
The article presents the main problems in the methodology of teaching Russian to the Chinese audience with the knowledge of the Russian culture, reviews the goals of the Chinese Russist methodologists in the aspect of applied Linguistic Culturology. Keywords: language and culture, Linguistic Culturology, intercultural communication, technique. The researches of E. Rosh, K. Goldstein, M. Scheerer, G. Lakoff allow us to distinguish between two types of categories: abstract and concrete.
Concrete categories can be called concepts from the point of view of modern Linguistics. Categories and concepts are interconnected, and this connection is reflected on the level of language units. Keywords: categorization, conceptualization, abstract and concrete categories. This article deals with the problems of formation of cross-cultural communicative competence of Chinese Russist students with phraseology at the beginning.
The paper reviews efficient methods of teaching the Russian phraseology in the initial stage of studying the Russian language. Keywords: intercultural communicative competence, phraseology, linguistics. Keywords: colloquial speech, obscure literary colloquial speech structures, typical conversational construction, word order, actual division. The suggested article reflects the results of a study of the concept WEALTH on the material of German and English proverbs and sayings, and reveals similarities and differences between two languacultures. Keywords: cognitive linguistics, cultural linguistics, concept, core of the concept, structure of the concept, method of studying the concept, proverb.
The author of investigation studies the plot and picturesque in the work and draws a parallel between the novel and folk poetry and universal mythological elements. The transformations of folk and mythological elements in novel were investigated. This article covers one of aspects of the personal myth which appeared in early works of Alexander Pushkin.