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Government, academia, civil society and the media could play a role complemented by international efforts such as those of the United Nations Alliance of Civilization and Culture of Peace. Quality education should be universally accessible, particularly for vulnerable groups, and youth must be ensured of decent employment.

Governments must also focus on monitoring and countering terrorist and extremist propaganda and recruitment. He also stressed the need to rehabilitate and reintegrate youths returning home after joining terrorist and extremist groups. Finally, he said, regional and international organizations should harness the role of youth in countering terrorism and promoting peace.

Towards that end, he urged greater coordination among relevant United Nations bodies.

Italy investigates Milan station attacker for alleged terrorism

Military engagement, sanctions and criminal prosecution were part of the solution, but to stop recruitment and lead young people back to society, prevention measures and de-radicalization were even more important. Those institutions encouraged young people to stand up against extremist ideas and to assist affected peers.

Noting that cooperation was crucial at the international level, he said that Germany worked with partners to counter enabling conditions for extremism worldwide through initiatives in Africa and the Middle East. Luxembourg was working at the continental and national levels on ways to achieve that objective. To effectively address the rise of violent extremism, greater investment must be made in the young.

The link between violent extremism and socioeconomic woes was rooted in that between peace, security and rights. Youth, especially those searching for a sense of belonging, purpose and identity, were vulnerable to manipulation by those with violent agendas or ideologies. As party to the Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, his country opposed the recruitment of children and urged States to prevent it. The Government was committed to paving the way for youth involvement in building the nation and creating socioeconomic opportunities for them.

To bring young people back from the frontlines to classrooms, a long-term game plan was needed, which included investing in education and creating opportunities for young people to find meaning and purpose in other pursuits and to build strong, supportive communities.

The grievances of those vulnerable to radicalization and recruitment by terrorist groups must be addressed, he said, adding that young people must be provided with a choice, a sense of belonging and a purpose in life. This entrusted the world with the joint responsibility of finding effective solutions. A comprehensive framework for the eradication of extremism and terrorism needed to be pursued with greater commitment considering the multiple crises gripping the Middle East.

The youth had always been the prime movers of change and needed to be mobilized in this agenda. Education was the most important cross-cutting investment that could be made in youth. Ensuring that youth enjoyed genuine free and fair access to information and communications technology would help them become key drivers of and influential participants in a rapidly evolving platform. In that regard, fostering youth-created content would go a long way in articulating their hopes and aspirations into a vital counter-narrative. To counter it, he called for universal education for both boys and girls and programmes to prevent dropping out of school, which left young people particularly vulnerable.

The most serious challenge in the Arab world, he stressed, was providing 80 million jobs by To counter distorted ideologies, his country had created a training centre for religious leaders. Media must also be well utilized to combat radicalization. Reducing hopelessness and marginalization, with the engagement of youth, could help curb radicalization. Youths must be seen as agents for countering extremism, and for that purpose must be assisted with tools and resilience. In Kenya, adequate education was most important for that purpose, nurturing talents and encouraging tolerance.

Economic priorities included employment, attention to communications technologies and services delivery at the grassroots level. Youth services aimed to strengthen values of citizenship and targeted at-risk youth, and partnerships had been formed with religious and community leaders.

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They were targeted in their schools, universities and homes in Palestine, Libya, Yemen, Pakistan, Central Africa and Kenya, and were targeting journalists and tourists in France, Tunisia, Sweden and Belgium. That alarming phenomenon emphasized that terrorist attacks transcended borders and were not limited to one country, religion or ethnicity. Prevention started on school benches and continued throughout the social mobility chain. Education was pivotal in strengthening the resilience of future generations and should promote critical thinking that would help fight bigotry and stereotyping.

In addition, efforts were needed to challenge the attraction of extremists and intolerant religious figures. The United Nations should continue to work relentlessly to address the root causes of terrorism and to fully implement strategies highlighting the links between peace and development. MALEEHA LODHI Pakistan said the rise of violent extremism had a direct correlation with conflicts and disputes, foreign intervention and occupation, religious, racial and ethnic discrimination or persecution, and social and economic inclusion.

As it considered the social and economic dimensions of the phenomenon, the Council must intensify its own efforts to address those longstanding conflicts and disputes. When economic opportunity failed to keep pace with demographics, young people became particularly vulnerable to extremist narratives. Therefore, the economic empowerment of youth must be a major component of any strategy. Pakistan was pursuing a comprehensive approach that comprised law enforcement, education and social and economic development.

The United Nations, with its expertise, on-ground experience and unique convening power, could play a leading role in developing a comprehensive strategy. On the one hand, there was the expansion of extremism and terrorism, which many western capitals saw as being waged in villages in some Islamic countries.

On the other, Islamophobia was spreading across the West and implanting hatred and fear in its fabric. The Supreme Leader of Iran had called upon youth to free themselves from this imposed and destructive quandary. Neither terrorists nor the fear-mongering media that propagated their ideology represented Islam.

Iranians, especially youths, had been most immune when it came to the propaganda and recruitment of violent extremists. Therefore, Governments needed to continue to support efforts aimed at addressing the underlying factors that led to the radicalization of youth. Furthermore, young people needed to know that they had the right to participate in decision-making processes within society and must be encouraged to do so.

Innovative mechanisms should be used to reach young people to counter messages of hate with those of hope. Civil society organizations must be supported to create the space for learning opportunities for youth and partnerships must be strengthened with the private sector. The ultimate goal must be to prevent the emergence of a new generation of terrorists. OH JOON Republic of Korea said that preventing young people from falling into the grip of violent extremism was one of the most pressing security challenges facing the world today.

The motivation behind youth radicalization varied by society, and diverse factors were involved; preventing radicalization would therefore require an equally diverse and multidimensional approach. A clear understanding was needed about why Internet and social media messages had such an appeal to young people. Simply shutting down websites and suspending Facebook accounts would not bring about the desired results. Effective, persuasive messages must be developed and disseminated that would convince young people that the ideologies promoted by extremist propagandists were false and empty promises.

Providing youth with the right educational tools for crisis prevention and peacebuilding had a positive impact on their development and helped to bring about more sustainable peace. Only by approaching the issue of violent extremism and promoting peace in that way could there be lasting global peace.

Peaceful and inclusive societies could not be sustainably built without the participation and engagement of the young people.

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For youth, however, the international community still lacked a comprehensive position, holistic policy, commitments, priorities or responsibilities. The Alliance of Civilizations complemented the efforts of other United Nations bodies and Member States through practical projects and activities, he said. Research suggested that a higher risk of violent conflict existed in countries where youth bulge coincided with periods of long-term economic decline, limited educational and employment opportunities, exclusion and deprivation.

Most young people did not engage in violence unless they were taught to do so by older ones, even in conflict settings. The world must look beyond stereotypes and general assumptions and examine the underlying factors through human-centred approaches. He stressed the need to partner with young people to assert positive group identities and sweep the rug from underneath extremists who tried to provide them with one.

Turkey had enhanced border controls, established a no-entry list and taken other steps for that purpose, but the struggle could not be carried on by that country alone. International cooperation and information sharing was crucial.

The multiple trips to Syria of a United States citizen before he participated in a suicide bombing presented a grim reminder of the need for close cooperation. The first step in addressing youth radicalization was understanding and eradicating conditions conducive to its spread, from under-development to feelings of discrimination. Marginalization, protracted conflicts, violations of human rights and lack of good governance were other possible factors that must be addressed in a holistic approach.

Empowerment of youth and their protection against abuse of modern communication were essential, as was curbing intolerance through such initiatives as the Alliance of Civilizations, which Turkey co-sponsored. Utter disrespect for international law and human rights in domestic affairs had significantly contributed to the erosion of trust between peoples and had played a pivotal role in the rise of violent extremism and the radicalization of youth.

He cited Russian aggression against its neighbours, Georgia and Ukraine, as an example of that phenomenon, stating that State-run media had been encouraging extreme forms of nationalism in both cases. Reporting amendments to domestic legal policy to counter extremism in his country, he added that more was needed at the national and international level to address root causes conducive to the spread of extremism. Islamophobia and anti-Semitism got special attention.

Cooperation between schools, municipalities, police, civil society and political and religious groups was encouraged. At the international level, the country supported European, United Nations and civil society efforts to counter violent extremism. Fostering public debate encouraged young people to air their frustrations before they succumbed to extremist ideologies and could assist States to articulate policies accordingly.

Balanced public policy also played a key role in integrating immigrants into society, he said, noting the need for policies discouraging xenophobia and racism. They also contributed to the observance of healthy religious and sociocultural values.

Terrorism in Context

Indeed, religion was a potent part of those value systems. Policies and education that minimized or eliminated the faith component of individual and collective identities could leave the young disoriented, alienated, marginalized or excluded and prone to the message of extremist groups. Extremist recruiters could be countered through young people themselves as trusted voices, respected among their peers, on the very platforms used to recruit new members. In order for them to play that role, however, they must be able to develop their full potential, for which purposeful education was paramount.

They must also feel safe and be allowed to be heard and acquire intercultural competencies. In addition, they must have jobs. Only with a holistic, multidisciplinary approach that includes adequate development policies and legislative frameworks and the engagement of all stakeholders could terrorism be fought and peace built in a sustainable manner. The best way to achieve that was through education, including in tolerance and non-discrimination. Among an array of programmes aimed to empower youth and support the social inclusion of minorities were those promoting integration and awareness and tolerance between different sectors of Maltese society, including refugees and migrants.

Malta also hosted the International Institute on Justice and the Rule of Law, established last June, which aimed to counter violent extremism through rule of law and criminal justice. It offered training to a wide range of justice sector stakeholders. The stark statistics of unemployment called for a coordinated regional and global effort to generate job-creating economies by the United Nations system and its country teams together with regional groups.

Those measures must be translated at the national level. There were also provisions for health care, including mental health, social facilities and housing for young people to ensure social stability. The Government had also developed a counter-narrative approach in its numerous activities to dissuade youth from using violence to serve extremist causes. Addressing violent extremism demanded comprehensive action on many fronts and across Government departments. On the legislative front, Canada had introduced an anti-terrorism act that criminalized promotion of terrorism and provided for the ability to remove terrorist propaganda from domestic web servers.

At all levels, in addition, there were concerted and sustained efforts to build resilient communities and engage young people in meaningful ways, through outreach, research and the use of Government-wide intervention capabilities. Intra-State conflicts fuelled by ethnic, religious or other differences or grievances had increased, with often violent and disastrous consequences. Terrorist groups such as Al-Qaida, ISIL, Al-Shabaab and Boko Haram had taken full advantage of the overall security situation in different parts of the world and were successfully managing to indoctrinate children with extremist ideology.

Economic hardship, delusion, exclusion, discrimination and marginalization, especially among the vulnerable and disadvantaged, would inevitably lead individuals, in particular youths, to become easy targets for violent extremists.

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Countering that problem must bring together good governance, rule of law, respect for human rights across the board, sustainable economic growth with opportunities for all, accountable institutions and the involvement of youth and women, as well as education. Indonesia followed a two-track approach in that regard: a hard approach entailing law enforcement measures, and a soft approach seeking to influence the hearts and minds of people.

Sharing a number of lessons learned, he said that it was necessary to prioritize the building of a resilient community, one which was outward-looking, receptive to new ideas, and sought the good of all. It was also critical to foster dialogue which contributed to reducing suspicion and intolerance and enhancing understanding. Next, it was important to strengthen the network of dialogue to spread the culture of peace and tolerance at all levels — regionally as well as globally.

In that context, existing frameworks within the United Nations Alliance of Civilizations should be strengthened, in particular by intensifying the activities under the youth pillar. Prolonged and unresolved conflicts could create situations that were conducive to the spread of extreme and radical views. History showed that terrorist groups had exploited such situations to recruit and groom new converts; such was the situation today in the Middle East and Africa.

This book considers not the beginning or origins of terrorism but how groups that use terrorism end. Terrorism as a tactic is unlikely to disappear, however virtually all the groups that employed terrorist violence during the s and s have passed from the scene in one way or another. This book considers not the beginning or origins of terrorism but how groups that use terrorism end Since the s, there has been a growing concern about the resurgence of extremist and radical movements in the Western world.

Although a variety of challenges to the liberal democratic order have emerged, the main focus of concern among academics, policy-makers and practitioners within Europe and beyond has been on the growth and activities of Since the s, there has been a growing concern about the resurgence of extremist and radical One of the most significant events in European politics the past two decades is the emergence of radical right-wing parties, mobilizing against immigration and multiethnic societies.

Such parties have established themselves in a large number of countries, often with voter shares exceeding ten and sometimes even twenty percent.

Many of these parties One of the most significant events in European politics the past two decades is the emergence of This book explores the idea that revolutionaries do not necessarily need to come from the left, nor use arms in order to overturn liberal democracy. In the Beginning with an analysis of the complex relationship between fascism and the post-war extreme right, the book discusses both contemporary parties and the cultural and intellectual influences of the European New Right as well as patterns of socialization and mobilization.

At the end of the s a fresh wave of political terrorism, consisting in severe yet sporadic episodes, struck Italy again until the early s. In addition to political terrorism, which was widespread during the Cold War in order to contribute to the " strategy of tension ", Mafia -linked terrorism should not be forgotten. The length of the Italian terrorism period grabbed the attention grabbed the eye of several academics who tried to analyze and understand its causes. Italy seems to be the only European country where terrorism had such a long duration, with the exception of Northern Ireland and the Basque Country.

Recently political scientist Ernesto Galli della Loggia analyzed the issue of the Italian peculiarity, coming to the conclusion that Italian society is characterized by a trace of violence. This interpretation gave rise to agreements and disapprovals. The issue was treated by Giovanni Fassanella and Giovanni Pellegrino in a book titled "La Guerra civile" which focuses its attention on the fact that Italy has been threatened by the burst of a civil war for more than fifty years.

This precarious situation prevented the normal development of Italy. Moreover, there was the widespread suspect that part of the Italian s history was influenced by the activity of members of Secret Services and extra Parliamentary political groups, which aimed to the destabilization of the Italian political system and to influence political choices. The various kind of terrorisms all failed in reaching their objectives, the Marxist-Leninist far-left groups were defeated and the possibility to subvert the Italian system through armed struggle faded away.

Investing in education and young people to counter violent extremism

At the same time, far-right groups, the same who wanted to change the political formula of the previous twenty five years , [5] the same who terrorized the public opinion in order to underline the incapacity of the democratic system to guarantee the public order and in order to underline the need of an authoritarian regime, were defeated too. The analysis and the debate of this complex historical period are still open, part of the community associate those years with "left terrorism", others with "right terrorism", others with "state terrorism"; part of the community believe instead that "there is only a partial, confused and often contradictory legal truth".

Actually, in , the tenth anniversary of the kidnapping of Aldo Moro, there was the assassination of the Christian Democrat senator Roberto Ruffini, who is considered by the Brigate Rosse the successor of Aldo Moro. Over the decade, the number of violent episodes waned, partially due to the loss of support of the Brigate Rosse as a result of the assassination of the communist worker Guido Rossa in The idea that the armed struggle could lead to the changing of the constitutional order progressively became weak, and, according to some scientists, at the same time, there was the growth of the capitalist wave which transformed productivity and economic competition into values, considering them as the only progress indexes.

The following political terrorism, in particular the "red" one, restricted its objectives, trying to condition social and political processes and to maintain a certain pressure on the democratic freedom of decision. This third wave of political terrorism, despite being extremely irregular and uneven, reaped victims until the beginning of the 21st century. One of these episodes was the Naples bombing , when American servicemen were targeted by Japanese far-left terrorists. During the Years of Lead, a Palestinian terrorist commando attacked Fiumicino airport killing 30 people.

Investing in education and young people to counter violent extremism

The attackers were thought to be members of the group Black September. The terrorism period in South Tyrol begins in the second half of the s. Aim of the terrorists was the independence from Italy or the annexation to Austria. Its first remarkable action was the so called " Night of the Fires ", in , when terrorists blew up several trellis using explosive devices, with the intention of drawing international attention on the South Tyrol question. The bloodiest attack was the Cima Vallona massacre in Among the most wanted member of South Tyrol terrorism there are Sepp Kerschbaumer , Georg Klotz, whose daughter Eva Klots is considered the current leader of the South Tyrol independence movement.

Although the s were relatively a "soft" period, the s were characterized by the reappearance of the South Tyrol terrorism as a Neo-nazi criminal organization, Ein Tirol , which was responsible for several dynamite attacks. As regard the analysis of the South Tyrol terrorism from the 20 September to the 30 October , there were attacks, 21 dead, 15 police officers, two civilians and four terrorists, killed by their own explosive devices, 57 wounded, 24 police officers and 33 civilians. The season of political terrorism, initiated in Italy at the beginning of the post-war period, spread across Sardinia in the second half of the s and it came to an end in the s, as it happened in Italy.

Contacts between local outlaws and militants belonging to extreme Left subversive organizations, such as Brigate Rosse and Nuclei Armati Proletari , were partially facilitated by the detention of extreme Left supporters in the maximum security prisons of the island, as it happened with the southern Mafioso who were kept in prison in the North of Italy, conditioning the birth of " Mala del Brenta ".