Guide Rapha?l 1483-1520 (French Edition)

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Still, his principal teachers in Florence were Leonardo and Michelangelo. Many of the works that Raphael executed in the years between and , most notably a great series of Madonnas including The Madonna of the Goldfinch ; Uffizi Gallery, Florence , the Madonna del Prato c. Raphael was particularly influenced by Leonardo's Madonna and Child with St. Anne pictures, which are marked by an intimacy and simplicity of setting uncommon in 15th-century art. Raphael learned the Florentine method of building up his composition in depth with pyramidal figure masses; the figures are grouped as a single unit, but each retains its own individuality and shape.

A new unity of composition and suppression of inessentials distinguishes the works he painted in Florence. Raphael also owed much to Leonardo's lighting techniques; he made moderate use of Leonardo's chiaroscuro i. Raphael went beyond Leonardo, however, in creating new figure types whose round, gentle faces reveal uncomplicated and typically human sentiments but raised to a sublime perfection and serenity.

In this work, it is obvious that Raphael set himself deliberately to learn from Michelangelo the expressive possibilities of human anatomy. But Raphael differed from Leonardo and Michelangelo, who were both painters of dark intensity and excitement, in that he wished to develop a calmer and more extroverted style that would serve as a popular, universally accessible form of visual communication. Raphael Sanzio: Last years in Rome. At this time Raphael was little known in Rome, but the young man soon made a deep impression on the volatile Julius and the papal court, and his authority as a master grew day by day.

Raphael was endowed with a handsome appearance and great personal charm in addition to his prodigious artistic talents, and he eventually became so popular that he was called "the prince of painters. Raphael spent the last 12 years of his short life in Rome.

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They were years of feverish activity and successive masterpieces. His first task in the city was to paint a cycle of frescoes in a suite of medium-sized rooms in the Vatican papal apartments in which Julius himself lived and worked; these rooms are known simply as the Stanze. The Stanza della Segnatura and Stanza d'Eliodoro were decorated practically entirely by Raphael himself; the murals in the Stanza dell'Incendio , though designed by Raphael, were largely executed by his numerous assistants and pupils.

The decoration of the Stanza della Segnatura was perhaps Raphael's greatest work. Julius II was a highly cultured man who surrounded himself with the most illustrious personalities of the Renaissance. He entrusted Bramante with the construction of a new basilica of St. Peter to replace the original 4th-century church; he called upon Michelangelo to execute his tomb and compelled him against his will to decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; and, sensing the genius of Raphael, he committed into his hands the interpretation of the philosophical scheme of the frescoes in the Stanza della Segnatura.

This theme was the historical justification of the power of the Roman Catholic church through Neoplatonic philosophy. The four main fresco walls in the Stanza della Segnatura are occupied by the Disputa and the School of Athens on the larger walls and the Parnassus and Cardinal Virtues on the smaller walls.

The two most important of these frescoes are the Disputa and the School of Athens. The Disputa, showing a celestial vision of God and his prophets and apostles above a gathering of representatives, past and present, of the Roman Catholic church, equates through its iconography the triumph of the church and the triumph of truth. The School of Athens is a complex allegory of secular knowledge, or philosophy, showing Plato and Aristotle surrounded by philosophers, past and present, in a splendid architectural setting; it illustrates the historical continuity of Platonic thought.

The School of Athens is perhaps the most famous of all Raphael's frescoes, and one of the culminating artworks of the High Renaissance.

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Here Raphael fills an ordered and stable space with figures in a rich variety of poses and gestures, which he controls in order to make one group of figures lead to the next in an interweaving and interlocking pattern, bringing the eye to the central figures of Plato and Aristotle at the converging point of the perspectival space. The space in which the philosophers congregate is defined by the pilasters and barrel vaults of a great basilica that is based on Bramante's design for the new St Peter's in Rome.

The general effect of the fresco is one of majestic calm, clarity, and equilibrium. About the same time, probably in , Raphael painted a more secular subject, the Triumph of Galatea in the Villa Farnesina in Rome; this work was perhaps the High Renaissance's most successful evocation of the living spirit of classical antiquity.

Meanwhile, Raphael's decoration of the papal apartments continued after the death of Julius in and into the succeeding pontificate of Leo X until In contrast to the generalized allegories in the Stanza della Segnatura, the decorations in the second room, the Stanza d'Eliodoro, portray specific miraculous events in the history of the Christian church. These frescoes are deeper and richer in colour than are those in the earlier room, and they display a new boldness on Raphael's part in both their dramatic subjects and their unusual effects of light.

The Liberation of St Peter, for example, is a night scene and contains three separate lighting effects - moonlight, the torch carried by a soldier, and the supernatural light emanating from an angel. Raphael delegated his assistants to decorate the third room, the Stanze dell'Incendio, with the exception of one fresco, the Fire in the Borgo, in which his pursuit of more dramatic pictorial incidents and his continuing study of the male nude are plainly apparent. The Madonnas that Raphael painted in Rome show him turning away from the serenity and gentleness of his earlier works in order to emphasize qualities of energetic movement and grandeur.

His Alba Madonna ; National Gallery, Washington epitomizes the serene sweetness of the Florentine Madonnas but shows a new maturity of emotional expression and supreme technical sophistication in the poses of the figures. It was followed by the Madonna di Foligno ; Vatican Museum and the Sistine Madonna ; Gemaldegalerie, Dresden , which show both the richness of colour and new boldness in compositional invention typical of Raphael's Roman period. Some of his other late Madonnas, such as the Madonna of Francis I Louvre , are remarkable for their polished elegance. Besides his other accomplishments, Raphael became the most important portraitist in Rome during the first two decades of the 16th century.

He introduced new types of presentation and new psychological situations for his sitters, as seen in the portrait of Leo X with Two Cardinals ; Uffizi, Florence. Raphael's finest work in the genre is perhaps the Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione ; Louvre , a brilliant and arresting character study.

Leo X commissioned Raphael to design 10 large tapestries to hang on the walls of the Sistine Chapel. Seven of the ten cartoons full-size preparatory drawings were completed by , and the tapestries woven after them were hung in place in the chapel by The tapestries themselves are still in the Vatican, while seven of Raphael's original cartoons are in the British royal collection and are on view at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. In these pictures Raphael created prototypes that would influence the European tradition of narrative history painting for centuries to come. The cartoons display Raphael's keen sense of drama, his use of gestures and facial expressions to portray emotion, and his incorporation of credible physical settings from both the natural world and that of ancient Roman architecture.

While he was at work in the Stanza della Segnatura, Raphael also did his first architectural work, designing the church of Sant' Eligio degli Orefici. In the banker Agostino Chigi, whose Villa Farnesina Raphael had already decorated, commissioned him to design and decorate his funerary chapel in the church of Santa Maria del Popolo. In Leo X chose him to work on the basilica of St Peter's alongside Bramante; and when Bramante died later that year, Raphael assumed the direction of the work, transforming the plans of the church from a Greek, or radial, to a Latin, or longitudinal, design.


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Raphael was also a keen student of archaeology and of ancient Greco-Roman sculpture, echoes of which are apparent in his paintings of the human figure during the Roman period. It would therefore have become necessary to find another artist to finish the frescoes and Raphael, who had an established reputation and was known to be working on another fresco project in nearby Siena, would have been a natural choice. He might already have been known to the monks, as there is evidence that he had studied Signorelli's frescoes at the time he was preparing designs for the Piccolomini Library.

Contemporary copies of Raphael's early drawings, in the Libretto in Venice, include a Standing Man and a Study of Heads which show his awareness of Signorelli's Monteoliveto frescoes see Henry, , op. Similarly, a drawing of Four standing Soldiers at the Ashmolean inv. This supports the idea that the young artist visited the monastery on at least one occasion around , and it may have been while he was copying Signorelli's frescoes for his own studies that he was approached by the monks to complete the work that Signorelli had left unfinished.

The present drawing, whether or not it was adapted from an earlier composition, could have been presented by Raphael to the community as a test-piece: a modello for one of the scenes not yet painted by Signorelli. Even though Raphael did not take on the Monteoliveto commission, returning instead to Perugia and a commission for The Oddi Altarpiece , his drawing would presumably have remained in the possession of the monastery archives among other documents relating to the cloister frescoes.

This theory helps to explain how Sodoma could have been familiar with the composition without necessarily knowing Raphael in person. When he was contracted to paint the remaining frescoes in , he would have been shown any pre-existing designs for the cycle and he may either have been required to follow Raphael's design for the Saint Benedict or have chosen to do so.

More importantly, this would explain how, twenty years later, Bartolommeo Neroni circa could use Raphael's composition, far more extensively than had Sodoma, for his fresco in the same cloister of Saint Benedict sending Maurus to France and Placidus to Sicily fig. In this fresco Neroni borrows the central three figures used by Sodoma, transforming the kneeling boys into their adult selves in the process, and also copies the monks who are glimpsed directly behind Saint Benedict in the present drawing -- who do not appear in Sodoma's fresco.

This must indicate that Neroni had independent access to Raphael's drawing of the composition, which in turn suggests that the sheet had remained at Monteoliveto. Style and Attribution The sheet shows Raphael's draftsmanship at a moment of transition, between the legacy he inherited from his Umbrian forebears and the increasing fluidity and confidence of his artistic maturity.

As already noted, the formal arrangement of figures and the plasticity of forms can be linked stylistically to the Piccolomini Library modelli and to Raphael's earlier works.

Florentine period (1504-08)

However, the use of the brown wash is already freer and more impressionistic than in the modello for The Presentation , foreshadowing drawings of the Florentine period such as the Studies for a Virgin and Child with Saint John Oxford, Ashmolean Museum, inv. Since its sale in , the leading scholars of Raphael's drawings have unanimously accepted this sheet as an important addition to the young artist's oeuvre.

John Shearman is recorded as having endorsed the attribution on 11 January , while Konrad Oberhuber wrote to the present owner on 10 September that he was convinced it was from the hand of Raphael, later adding that he would include the drawing in the next edition of his book on the artist's drawings. Paul Joannides also confirmed his belief in the attribution in a letter to the present owner dated 24 August letters in the Fogg Museum Archives; Andersen, op. Tom Henry, in his recent papers, has also concurred with the attribution to Raphael and, in reassessing the evidence, explored how the drawing can be connected to the artist's activity at this date.

The Roman youths Maurus and Placidus were given into Benedict's protection by their respective fathers, Equitius and Tertullus, who thereby showed their veneration and respect for the saint. Maurus and Placidus usually appear together in Benedictine legend and they share a feast day, 5 October. Entering Benedict's community at Subiaco as children, they feature in one of the earliest miracles of the order. Having been sent to draw water from the lake near the monastery, the young Placidus lost his footing and fell in.

From within the monastery, Benedict became aware of the danger and sent Maurus to find him. Maurus saved his friend from drowning, but only afterwards realized that he had walked on the water in order to do so; this was explained as a miracle of Saint Benedict working through Maurus. Placidus' father, Tertullus, later gave Saint Benedict the lands on which the monastery of Monte Cassino was built and the two young monks accompanied their founder to the new mother-house. As grown men, they were significant for their role in spreading the Benedictine rule to other dominions.


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As shown in Neroni's fresco, Maurus was sent to France, while Placidus went to Sicily, where he is traditionally thought to have been martyred by corsairs. He is now co-patron of the city of Messina, while Saint Maurus is invoked for fever, rheumatism, epilepsy and gout. Despite the significance of the scene represented in the present drawing, it is very rare in artistic representations and Raphael's work was instrumental in establishing a new iconography for these Benedictine saints, which later artists could follow.

Raphael [WorldCat Identities]

However, the drawing is important for far more than its subject. More information about this seller Contact this seller 1. Published by H. Ullmann About this Item: H. Ullmann, Condition: Very Good. Ships from the UK. Former Library book. Great condition for a used book! Minimal wear. Seller Inventory GRP More information about this seller Contact this seller 2. Shows some signs of wear, and may have some markings on the inside. More information about this seller Contact this seller 3. Published by HF Ullmann Editions From: medimops Berlin, Germany. Seller Inventory MG.

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