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I have been researching, practicing, teaching, and writing about remix for over a decade now. I pitched the idea to the Kauffman Foundation and was lucky enough to win an entrepreneurship scholar- ship to the US to explore the potential of turning Total Recut into a busi- ness. I was almost coopted by capitalism at that point; however, there was no money to be made, and it turned out that Total Recut aspired towards more social libertarian ideals.

I was so inspired by our conversations that I de- cided to host a video remix contest on Total Recut, and Lessig, Jenkins and McLeod agreed to be judges. The contest was a relative success and received entries from all around the world, producing three-minute re- mix videos on the topic: What is Remix Culture? Following the contest, Total Recut developed into an online community of video remixers, and a growing archive of remix videos, resources and copyright education.

In the intervening years, I continued to publish my own remix videos online and dedicated five and a half years of my life to researching remix for my Ph. In contrast to the majority of publications on remix to date, which tend to focus on music, art, and literature, this book considers examples of remix video, tracing the history of film sam- pling through the lens of the moving image arts, reframing aspects of the debate on remix in relation to existing sound, image, and text-focused studies.

Critical remix video CRV is arguably one of the most potent and powerful forms of remix, capable of educating, persuading, and en- abling social and political change, similar in many ways to persuasive advertising, documentary filmmaking, and political propaganda. In the present political landscape, CRVs are more important than ever.

In fact, there are now so many Trump remixes circulating online, I could write another book just about them! Each section provides a contextual introduction, analytical methods, case studies, and findings, as well as numerous il- lustrative examples. There are many possibilities for the future of remix. I strongly believe that CRVs can have an impact on the world—they can influence people, alter opinions, raise awareness, and expose wrong-doings among those we elect to represent us and make decisions about society on our behalf, ultimately controlling many aspects of our daily lives.

CRVs are a po- tentially powerful tool for political change. I would encourage everyone who reads this book to download some footage from YouTube, edit it into a remix video, and then publish it. If your video receives a take- down notice, file a counter notification and make sure it gets reinstated on grounds of fair use. The process of making remix videos is so much easier these days. The barrier to entry is lower than it has ever been.


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Thanks to standardized codecs and for- mats like H. There is rarely a need to convert footage and if you have to, video editing and conversion software is fast and easy to use. Most published video content can be downloaded from YouTube, Vimeo, Dailymotion, Kodi, or through a Google search, and used as source material in remix videos. It is my hope that reading about the CRVs in this book will in- spire you to make your own remixes—to express your unique point of view on whatever issues are most important to you.

The number of critical remix videos online has grown exponentially since I started working on this book, but the once-edgy veneer of remix has now been largely coopted by capitalist interests. In spite of the some- times dystopian tone in parts of this book, I remain hopeful. We live in very interesting times—a reality TV star real-estate tycoon is Pres- ident of the United States; regressive copyright proposals are working their way through the legal system; net neutrality and online privacy are threatened by big business; civil wars rage around the world; pov- erty and unemployment are rising; climate change disasters are on the increase—and many people are reacting by publishing, watching, and sharing more remix videos than ever before.

In closing, it would be remiss of me not to mention the irony of pub- lishing a book about remix under a relatively restrictive traditional copy- right arrangement. This apparent paradox has been acknowledged by myself and my co-editors in both The Routledge Companion to Remix Studies and Keywords in Remix Studies; however, the message in this book is certainly more openly critical of copyright than either of the previous publications.

Ultimately, as you will read in the final chapter of this book, I propose an alternative system to the existing copyright re- gime, but that is a long-term ambition that will take some time to come to fruition. For now, outdated copyright law is the system we currently have in place, and within which we must operate if we wish to publish credible books that will be widely publicized and hopefully read by our intended audiences.

There is also a certain irony in the problems associated with using copyrighted images in a book like this, which focuses on the analysis of sampled images from beginning to end. While it has become standard and acceptable to reproduce a single frame of a film or video in printed form especially for the purposes of research, analysis, or critique , when it comes to other types of images—photographs, illustrations, and com- pany logos, for example—it is more difficult to publish such images without permission from the copyright holder, who may often charge for the privilege. Luckily for this book, the vast majority of images used are stills from videos so it has been possible to include over fifty images to accompany the textual analysis and discussions of remix.

The trend in recent discourse has been towards counting the entirety of culture, and more, under the heading of remix. It is now time for us to acknowledge that not everything is a remix. I would like to acknowledge my deep debt of gratitude to Dr. I would also like to thank Dr. Francis Halsall, who provided sage advice and direction in the early stages; helped me to connect with important contacts; and offered acute observations on my work through our many fruitful conversations and meetings. I am very grateful to Prof.

Jessica Hemmings, Prof.

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Des Bell, and Dr. Kevin Atherton, who supported my ideas through the final stages of my research, as well as Margaret Phelan and Pauline Delaney for their good-natured administrative assistance and efficiency. I would especially like to thank my editors at Routledge, Christina Kowalski, Felisa Salvago-Keyes, and Erica Wetter, as well as the edito- rial board, for seeing potential in my proposal. Thanks also to Assunta Petrone and her team at codeMantra for their diligence in copyediting the manuscript. I am deeply grateful to my long-time remix colleagues, Eduardo Navas and xtine burrough, who have been such a pleasure to work with on our Companion and Keywords publications for Routledge over the past few years.

I look forward to our future projects.

Adoption Journey

In this regard, I would also like to thank Aaron Delwiche and Jennifer Jacobs Henderson for inviting me to collaborate with them on the Participatory Cultures Handbook. I am also indebted to the hundreds of other critical remix video producers whose work eventually became the focus of this research. I am grateful to my oldest friends, Karl Quinn and Tom Reddy, for their support, affirmation, and patient indulgence of my outlandish the- ories and incessant talk of remix over the years.

I am very appreciative of my brother, Vincent, for his insights on the film industry and for foster- ing in me an early interest in remix. I would especially like to thank my parents, Brendan and Frances Gallagher, and my sisters, Leona, Emily, and Stephanie, who have provided unconditional support, guidance, and reassurance at every stage of my remix journey.

Anakin Solo

Thank you all. Remix is now considered by many to be a form of derivative work; however, it is a fundamentally transformative practice.


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Such gen- eralizations have resulted in numerous non-commercial remixes being wrongfully accused of copyright infringement. In attempting to address this widespread confusion, the following claims are advanced in this book: 1 The presence of sampled source material is the defining aesthetic char- acteristic of remix that distinguishes it from other forms of media. Thus, remix is often considered legally wrong. The assumption that cultural works should be considered a form of pri- vate property is no longer tenable in the digital age; thus, an alternative system is required to liberate online content and balance the economic interests of cultural producers with the ability of the public to access and use a growing intellectual commons of cultural works.

These new mes- sages are often highly critical of someone or something and attempt to expose hidden information about the object of criticism. From this sample, twenty-five representative cases were considered in relation to a set of contextual factors and subjected to close readings using methods of visual semiotic, rhetorical, and ideological analysis at the level of the individual shot.

The results of this analysis were synthesized with findings from the literature on medium specificity, 2 visual semiotics, 3 visual rhetoric,4 ideology critique, 5 and the emerging field of remix studies,6 which led to the development of the five propositions outlined above. This research advances knowledge in the field of remix studies and establishes a solid theoretical framework upon which future remix scholars may build. Reclaiming Critical Remix Video develops over five chapters, each of which introduces a specific theory and proceeds to provide evidence to support it, drawn from analysis of the relevant literature in each case, synthesized with findings from the selected sample of twenty-five CRVs.

All twenty-five videos, along with a brief exegesis can be viewed on the companion website, www. Most of the videos are less than five minutes in duration, so you can easily stop to watch them and then con- tinue reading. A list of acronyms and working definitions for specific terminology used throughout the book can be found in the glossary at the end. Each of the chapters seeks to clarify the issues identified in relation to the primary proposition, that there is evidence of increasing social and cultural confusion around the term remix in academic and popular discourses.

This confusion manifests in a number of ways, such as mis- understandings about what remix is, what it means, how it works, what it is capable of rhetorically, what it stands for ideologically, and how it is treated as a legitimate artistic pursuit in contemporary society. This book calls for the term remix to be reclaimed, redefined, and clarified, hinging on the critical role of transformative sampling as the defining characteristic of remix.

Chapter 1 focuses on medium specificity, arguing for the specificity of remix in relation to other forms of intertextual media. Chapter 3 deals with the potential of remix to function as a form of visual argumentation, situating the analysis within the discourse of visual rhetoric. Chapter 4 focuses on the use of CRVs as ideology critique, promoting a social libertarian worldview, while considering the limitations of cultural artifacts that succumb to ideological contradictions.

Chapter 5 expands upon ar- guments related to the concepts of intellectual property and cultural ownership and the changing role of remix in contemporary digital culture. The majority of CRVs in the sample were produced by US citizens and, unless otherwise stated, the discussion focuses primarily on remix culture and copyright law in the USA, as this is where the majority of remix-related activity and innovation has historically occurred and con- tinues to emerge today.

Chapter 1: The Specificity of Intertextual Media: Distinctive Characteristics of Remix Video Argument: The presence of sampled source material is the defin- ing aesthetic characteristic of remix that distinguishes it from other forms of media. There is an increasing lack of consensus among scholars and practi- tioners in terms of what constitutes remix, as exemplified in the work of Lev Manovich,7 Kirby Ferguson,8 Eduardo Navas,9 and David Gun- kel,10 among others, who broaden the boundaries of remix to include non-sampled content.

This chapter explores the shifting borders of remix and argues that remixes and remakes are related but inherently different forms. Remix materially samples from previously published sources, whereas remakes and other similar forms contain primarily newly produced content and merely emulate or refer to previous works, without directly sampling from them. It ultimately concludes that the boundaries of remix need to be retracted and more tightly defined to provide a more useful theoretical framework upon which future remix scholarship may build. In this chapter, a case is made for the claim that the presence of sampled content in a remix video affects the process of visual semiosis to the ex- tent that previously understood meanings of particular visual signs are altered and updated through recontextualisation.

The ability to recall the meaning of a specific visual sign and immediately understand it points to the fact that its meaning is stored in memory as a result of having been perceived in the past. It is not necessary to undergo the process of inter- preting the sign again, as the brain has already done so on a previous occa- sion. However, in the case of remix, previously perceived and understood signs are presented in a very different context, which causes a moment of realization in the viewer, during which comparisons are made between the old and new meanings and a reinterpretation of the previously under- stood signs occurs.

logos and adoption remis journey Manual

Thus, in remix, echoes of visual signs in their original context are ever-present and the process of visual semiosis occurs quite differently than it does in the case where cognition is achieved upon first perception of a given set of signs in a non-remixed text. It is argued in this chapter that when a viewer watches a CRV without having previously seen the source material, comprehension of the text is incomplete. Through the analysis of a sample of CRVs, the process of visual semiosis in remix is demonstrated, concluding that comprehension requires prior familiarity with the source material and a lack thereof can result in aberrant decoding of the visual signs in the text.

Chapter 3: Seeing Is Believing: The Multimodal Rhetorical Potential of Remix Video Argument: Remix video has the potential to communicate convinc- ing propositions in comparison to content that does not use sam- pled source material as evidence. Navas16 and others have explored the potential of remix to communicate as a visual language in its own right. This chapter argues that critical remix videos do possess the potential to communicate propositions vi- sually. Sequences of images presented in succession generate narratives, which may take the form of propositions, communicated visually, supported by compelling evidence in the form of sampled source material.

The more manipulated a remix is, for example, by juxtaposing footage out of context to produce false associations and meanings, the less trusted its validity and the less persuasive it becomes. Chapter 4: Critical Remix as Ideology Critique: A Social Libertarian Alternative World View Argument: The dominant socio-economic and political ideologies of neoliberal capitalism and liberal democracy in the United States have led to increasing instances of human rights violations and social injustices against American citizens by the ruling class, in the name of profit.

Those holding power reinforce such ideologies through the circulation of hegemonic messages embedded in cul- tural texts, delivered primarily through the media and permeated throughout society via business, politics, social institutions, and the practices of everyday life. However, many CRVs suffer from inherent ideological contradictions, which negatively impact their potential to persuade users. Highlighting and examining such ideological contradictions will enable future CRV producers to benefit from the errors of their predecessors, by minimizing these issues and becoming increasingly effective in pursuing libertarian socio-economic and political goals.

Most CRVs are predominantly counter-hegemonic, adopting oppositional or alternative perspectives in relation to the status quo. Although there exist disparities and contradictions in the coherence of the individual ide- ologies within specific CRVs, collectively they tend towards similar over- arching goals. When considered together, the CRVs in the sample advocate an alternative worldview, calling for the introduction of radically different social, economic, and political systems.

To make a remix is a political act—an anti-establishment statement that defies the law and challenges the exclu- sive rights of copyright holders. As such, many remixers choose to remain anonymous online and hide their true identities. CRVs have the potential to enable people to become conscious of how society functions through critical education and provide means to resist dominant ideologies by ex- posing, critiquing, and remixing them. Remixers have a certain ethical responsibility to consider, as their work has the ability to reach large au- diences through digital platforms.

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Collectively, CRVs can be highly effec- tive tools, promoting messages of social change; however, many are not as effective as they potentially could be, due to inherent ideological contra- dictions in their approach. This chapter extends the concept of the ideo- graph to sampled moving images and uses ideological analysis to examine the specific arguments and propositions made by the CRVs, the ideologies with which they align and those of the subjects of their critique.

Chapter 5: Rethinking Intellectual Property: In Defense of the Right to Remix Argument: Remixing is not morally wrong; however, the current legal system treats sampling as a form of theft, thus remixing is often considered legally wrong. The assumption that cultural works can be considered a form of private property is no longer tenable in the digital age.

An alternative system is required to liberate online content and to balance the economic interests of cultural producers with the ability of the public to access and use a growing intellectual commons of cultural works. Remixers are not free to appropriate and repurpose copyrighted con- tent without permission, due to the threat of legal action in cases of alleged copyright infringement. The misuse of copyright law as a form of censorship by large copyright holding companies to ensure the re- moval of infringing content from the Internet has become a significant problem.

Today, remixers have access to more content than ever before, but the majority of this content is copyrighted. Copyrighted works are protected by law in the US, which means that it is illegal to appropriate and repurpose them without permission. One may potentially be sued for damages, imprisoned, or sent cease and desist letters and takedown notices, all of which are effective ways to infringe on freedom of expres- sion through indirect censorship. Critical remix videos serve important societal and political functions as a form of cultural commentary and criticism.

It is argued that the fundamental problem with copyright law is that it is based on the incorrect assumption that cultural works are a form of private property. USA: Manovich. London: Harper-Collins, De Cambridge English Corpus.


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Adaptation in the input 0output relation of the synapse made by the barnacle's photoreceptor. Westerkamp's journey into the inner world of the barnacles validates the exploration of her own inner world, and ultimately that of the listener. Interference competition for attachment space on the rocky substrate is usually intense among species of algae as well as between sessile filter-feeding invertebrates such as mussels and barnacles. There are increasing stocks of barnacle and whitefront geese, but we never seem to find long-term answers to the problems.

Del Hansard archive. Shipbuilding is still bumping along with the barnacles scraping the bottom. In the busy time their vessels have barely time to turn round in port, and have to be sent to sea often covered barnacles. Fourthly, a yearly review would reassure people that, as time elapsed, no barnacles would gather on the bottom of the boat. It can only benefit the pirates and the barnacles who contribute no design or technical input of their own.

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I find that in running a business successfully it is essential to cut the barnacles off the bottom. A yearly review would make sure that the bottom of the old boat got scraped and that there were no barnacles. Exactly the same procedure ought to be adopted with barnacle and white-fronted geese. Barnacle and white-fronted geese are listed in annex 1 of the directive on the conservation of wild birds.

One morning, a flock of barnacle geese flew over me.