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Not necessarily, as it turns out. Yet, despite the fact that writing emerged during this time, the pot bellies lack any sort of description of historical context. Who built them and why? Download audio right-click to save. The authorship of the first five books of the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament—known as the Torah or the Pentateuch—has been traditionally attributed to Moses. In this episode, we discuss current thinking about the formation of the Pentateuch during the time of Ezra. Download audio mp3-right click to save.

The buildings themselves tell us a different story—one that tries to bring decades of conflict to an end by accommodating different beliefs. Download audio right click to save. What role did Texas play in the American revolution? Perhaps no individual in American history has achieved such meteoric heights as John D.

Rockefeller, who embodies the image of the self-made man who rose from humble origins to become one of the richest and most powerful men in the world. He has also become the archetype of the ruthless capitalist, singlehandedly crushing competition and ignoring attempts to restrict or regulate his activities.

Love him or hate him, his name casts a long shadow over the early 20th century. Guest Henry Wiencek explores the deep contradictions and equally varied representations of John D.

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In 7th century Arabia, the Islamic community was nearly torn apart by a civil war over the assassination of the third caliph, Uthman ibn Affan d. In picking up where Episode 57 left off, guest Shahrzad Ahmadi describes this tragic turn of events that sent shockwaves through the nascent Islamic community, and that continue to reverberate today. Nearly every world history textbook on the market explains the origins of sectarianism in the Islamic world as a dispute over the succession to Muhammad.

It seems simple—but is it really? In the late 17th century, Native American groups living under Spanish rule in what is now New Mexico rebelled against colonial authorities and pushed them out of their territory. In many ways, however, the events that led up to the revolt reveal a more complex relationship between Spanish and Native American than traditional histories tell. Stories of cruelty and domination are interspersed with adaptation and mutual respect, until a prolonged famine changed the balance of power.

During the early modern period of European history, stretching from roughly to about , about , people—most of them women—were tried for the crime of witchcraft. About half of these people were executed, in most cases by burning at the stake.

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But witchcraft is more than just a Halloween story—for the men and women involved it was a very real, very frightening aspect of daily life. Guest Brian Levack explains that, at its heart, accusations of witchcraft and sorcery are based in the all too human need to explain the ordinary cycles of birth, death, sickness, wellness, and the constant struggle between rich and poor. When most people think about slavery in the United States, they think of large agricultural plantations and picture slaves working in the fields harvesting crops.

Urban slavery, as it has come to be known, is often overlooked in the annals of slave experience.

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Throughout history, these animals have been viewed and represented as family members, hunters of prey, strays, and as figures and symbols in mythological, religious, political, and moral images. Guest Francesca Consagra helps us make connections across centuries and genres and underscores our complex relationships to these animals, revealing the many ways in which they say as much about us as we do about them. A number of these civilizations were clustered in the area known as Mesoamerica, which presented geographic difficulties for its inhabitants due to its harsh climate and environment, and yielding few natural resources.

So, how did Mesoamerican civilizations thrive? But what do we really know about Muhammad and the time in which he lived, based on historical evidence? How has this led some to reinterpret the origins of Islam? Our guest, Fred M. Donner from the University of Chicago, has spent much of his career studying the earliest history of Islam.

He offers his hypothesis on what the early Islamic community may have looked like, and describes an exciting new find that may shed new light on an old puzzle. During the explosion of African American cultural and political activity that came to be known as the Harlem Renaissance, a number of white women played significant roles. Their involvement with blacks as authors, patrons, supporters and participants challenged ideas about race and gender and proper behavior for both blacks and whites at the time. In the early 20th century, an unprecedented cultural and political movement brought African-American culture and history to the forefront of the US.

Named the Harlem Renaissance after the borough where it first gained traction, the movement spanned class, gender, and even race to become one of the most important cultural movements of the interwar era. Guest Frank Guridy joins us to discuss the multifaceted, multilayered movement that inspired a new generation of African-Americans—and other Americans—and demonstrated the importance of Black culture and its contributions to the West.

In the late 15th century, Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope and conquered the Indian Ocean, bringing the rich trade under the direct control of the crowned heads of Europe and their appointed Indian Ocean Trading Companies. Or did he? Did Europe ever really come to dominate the 90, year old trade, or did it become just another in a series of actors competing for attention in an antique system of exchanges and commodities?

Every American schoolchild knows that Columbus sailed west to reach Asia with the hope of finding precious metals, expensive fabrics, and exotic spices: all goods that were being traded in the Indian Ocean, and had been for millennia. Ancient Greek texts describe an active Indian Ocean economy. Some scholars have even linked the peopling of Australia to a slow, methodic collecting of resources along the coastal route from east Africa. In the first of a two part episode guest Susan Douglass, author of the Indian Ocean in World History web site , describes the murky beginnings of trade and travel in the Indian Ocean basin, and the cultural exchanges and influences that the trade had in the days before the Europeans arrived.

What led to such deep and widespread discontent? What are the historical connections between Russia and Ukraine? What role did economics and global geopolitics play? Guest Charles E. Anyone following the news today could be forgiven for thinking that Iran and Israel were natural enemies and had been since the latter was established in In , Jalal Al-e Ahmad, arguably the most influential Iranian writer of the twentieth century, visited Israel on an officially sponsored visit and published a travelogue of his experience.

What do a failed war by the Ottomans against the Hapsburg Empire, a rural rebellion in eastern Anatolia, the disappearance of the Roanoke colony, and near starvation at Jamestown, Santa Fe, and Quebec City have in common? Guest Sam White from Ohio State University makes the convincing argument that environmental and climactic factors are as influential in human history as economic, social, political, and cultural factors, and suggests a cautionary tale for human history as it enters another period of climate change. Guest Karl Hagstrom Miller has spent a career using popular music to explore the economic, social, legal, and political history of the United States.

Slavery marks an important era in the history of the United States, one that is often discussed in terms of numbers and dates, human rights abuses, and its lasting impact on society. To be sure, these are all important aspects to understand, but one thing that is often given relatively short shrift is what it was like to actually be a slave. What were the sensory experiences of slaves on a daily basis? How can we dig deeper into understanding the lives of slaves and understand the institution as a whole?

Guest Daina Ramey Berry has given this question serious thought. There is no question that the idea of race has been a powerful driving force in American history since colonial times, but what exactly is race? How has the idea of what constitutes race changed over time, and how have whites, blacks and others adapted and reacted to such fluid definitions?

During World War II, the governments of Brazil and the United States made an unprecedented level of joint investment in the economy and infrastructure of the Amazon region. Between and , Great Britain, France, and a collection of French-allied Native American tribes fought a brutal war over trading rights in colonial North America.

So, faced with the task of how colonists would settle all of this land, King George III issued a Royal Proclamation in which attempted to reorganize the boundaries of colonial America, as well as the lives of its inhabitants. Guest Robert Olwell describes the proclamation, its effects on the history of colonial North America, and ponders whether the Royal Proclamation is really the smoking gun that caused the American Revolution as some have claimed.

Guest Chris Dietrich explains the origins of the energy crisis and the ways it shifted international relations in its wake. Southeastern Europe, or the Balkans, grabbed headlines in the s after the collapse of communism with the disintegration of Yugoslavia and the bloody conflicts that followed. But, was this really the cause of the conflict in the 20th century? What was life in southeastern Europe like under the Ottomans? Guest Mary Neuburger walks us through current historical thinking about the five hundred year legacy of Ottoman rule in southeastern Europe, and gives us an alternate explanation for the turbulence of the 19th and 20th centuries.

With the death of Nelson Mandela in December , attention turned once again to the conditions that brought him international acclaim as the first black president of South Africa, and overseer of a process of national reconciliation that kept the country from falling into bloodshed. But what was the system of apartheid that he and millions of other South Africans had rallied against for so long? Where did it come from? How was it enforced? And what brought it to an end? Guest Sahar F. Because this episode discusses an event that is current and ongoing, we decided to leave it as a single, longer episode rather than divide it into a two part sequence.

Host: Henry A. Vaughn , Assistant Professor, Department of History. What were the greater principles behind it? In this second of a two-part episode, guest James M. Vaughn, Assistant Professor, Department of History. Every year, Americans celebrate the Fourth of July, which commemorates our successful revolution against British colonial rule.

At the time, the Empire was considered the most tolerant and liberal entity in the world—why and how did the American settlers come to the conclusion that they would be best served by breaking free and setting off to their own? Guest James M. Vaughn helps us understand the little known international context of a well-known national moment, pondering questions of politics, economics, and ideas that transcend national boundaries.

But … who are the Turks? Do they even form a coherent social category? Where did they come from? Guest Carter Vaughn Findley has spent a career working on the Turkic peoples and their history, and helps us trace their long migration from the Gobi to the Bosphorus, adapting, absorbing, and transforming themselves and the societies they interact with along the way. Spellberg , Professor, Department of History. What was his opinion of it? And how did it influence his ideas about concepts of religious liberty that would eventually be enshrined in the Constitution?

Guest Denise A. And, more importantly, what can we learn about medieval Eastern Europe by talking about vampire myths and mythology? Guest Thomas Garza takes us on the trail of vampires from their eleventh century origins to the days of Stoker, Harris, and Meyer, and helps us learn a thing or two about how society copes with its deepest fears along the way.

But, in fact, medieval church records from the 16th and 17th century recount hundreds of cases like these, in which the afflicted was reported to be possessed by a demon or the Devil himself. In this supernatural-themed episode just in time for Halloween! In this second of a two part series , we look at life in the Ottoman Empire for an average person, and the factors that led the Empire to the gates of Vienna … and why Vienna remained an elusive goal.

Was the Empire truly the Sick Man of Europe, or is there another version of this story? The Ottoman Empire has long captured the public imagination in a way that few other royal houses and empires have managed to do. But who were the Ottomans? Why were they so successful? In the first of a two part series , guest Barbara Petzen helps to shed some light on the origins and rise of the empire that rivaled Europe for centuries.

Turkish in origin, the Ottoman state at its best reveled in its diversity and played up the strengths of its multi-confessional multi-ethnic population. Yet, the history of Mexican migration to the U. At the same time, Mexicans crossing the border every day were subjected to invasive delousing procedures, and on at least two occasions were subjected to incentivized repatriation.

Guest Miguel A. With the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, European powers carved the region into mandates, protectorates, colonies, and spheres of influence. Just a few decades later, however, World War II, however, left the colonial powers bankrupt and looking to get out of the empire business as quickly as possible, regardless of the consequences. The relationship between European, North African, and Southwest Asian nations that border the Mediterranean stretches back to antiquity and reflects a long tradition of trade, colonialism, and acculturation.

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When did this long-symbiotic relationship transform into one of imperialism and colonization? The district's 36 blocks are in a irregular grid of largely tree-lined streets. Preserving a nostalgic, small-town character, the district is centered around a park-like court square containing the classical courthouse and a porticoed Greek Revival academy building, now used for county offices.

Lending distinction is a collection of regional vernacular architecture, including shops, compact town houses, and three early taverns. A scattering of Victorian structures contrasts with these plainer buildings. Many buildings in the historic district date from Leesburg's 18th-century development.

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One type, a one-story, side-gable cottage constructed in either brick or stone or occasionally wood can be found on Loudoun, Wirt and Liberty Streets. There are also log structures such as the Stephen Donaldson Silversmithy, which is now part of the Loudoun Museum. Federal buildings, often two-story brick structures, reflect more delicate detailing and proportions characteristic of the Adam style.

General George Marshall retired to Leesburg, to one of the town's Federal brick country houses. Interspersed among the Georgian and Federal structures in the historic district are many buildings from the second half of the 19th century, including the Italian Villa residence built in at West Market Street and the three-story Italianate style home at North King Street, built in Also noteworthy are the late19th-century commercial structures along King and Market Streets. The Leesburg Historic District is located in the original area of town, at the intersection of Rte. The Visitor Center is open Monday-Sunday am - pm, and can be reached at and General George C.

Marshall House. Marshall made his home at this gracious Federal house from until his death in During these years, Marshall rose from a respected army officer to one of the 20th century's most influential figures. The achievement of the Marshall Plan made him the first career soldier awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Located in the Leesburg Historic District, the brick country house was built in the s, and additions were made several times over the years. It served as a school in the s before passing through various private hands. General Marshall's favorite pastime was being an in-town gentleman farmer, tending to a large vegetable plot and flower garden. Other than establishing this extensive garden, Marshall made few changes here.

All the furnishings belonged to the Marshalls, but "it's nothing to write home about," according to William Seale, the architectural historian and historic-interiors specialist in charge of the early phases of an ongoing year renovation project. The George C. Marshall International Center is restoring the house and its surrounding acreage to their late ss appearance.

Indeed, one of the best reasons for visiting Dodona Manor currently is to inspect the architectural restoration work underway. The General George C. Marshall House is located at Edwards Ferry Rd. A National Historic Landmark, the property is open to the public for tours on Saturdays from am to pm and Sundays from to pm and during the months of June, July, and August also on Mondays from to pm. Our last tour begins at pm.

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There is a fee for admission.. For further information call or visit the website. Built c. Hempstone, a Baltimore businessman, Waverly displays the personal prosperity of its original owner. At a time when the economy of Loudoun County still suffered from the devastating effects of the Civil War, large dwellings such as Waverly were built primarily by individuals who had acquired their wealth elsewhere. A finely appointed example of a late Victorian residence incorporating features of both the Queen Anne and Colonial Revival styles, the house was built by the Leesburg firm of John Norris and Sons, probably using a scheme published in one of the many architectural design catalogues of the period.

Waverly stood in shabby condition for many years but was restored in the s and again in , after a major fire, as the centerpiece of an office development known as Waverly Park Corporate Center. Waverly is located at South King St. Now private business offices, the building is not open to the public. Douglass High School. Douglass High School symbolizes the quiet tenacity and sense of purpose evinced by Loudoun County's black citizens in their determination to secure a high standard of secondary education for their children.

The school stands on land purchased by African Americans and presented to the county school board in Though the building was paid for with public funds, the black community raised money for furnishings, laboratory equipment, and band instruments. Named for Frederick Douglass, a former slave and prominent abolitionist, the school operated as the county's first and only black high school from its opening in until the termination of segregated education in The building today houses an alternative school, serving students with special needs.

It is not open for public tours. Goose Creek Historic District. The Quaker influence in this region began in the s with the English Friends who came into the area from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New Jersey. The community's distinctive cast is still reflected in the region's small farms, many of which are yet defined by their 18th-century land patents. The Goose Creek Historic District is a scenically cohesive rural area of some 10, acres in central Loudoun County that sustained Virginia's largest concentration of Quaker settlers.

Worked without slave labor, Quaker farms were limited in size to what could be run by a family unit. The district, which centers on the village of Lincoln, preserves a rich collection of 18th-, 19th-, and 20th-century rural vernacular architecture, much of it incorporating the superb stone masonry peculiar to Quaker settlers. Though threatened with creeping suburbanization, few other areas of the region retain such a high degree of unspoiled pastoral beauty. Oatlands Historic District. This rural district incorporates the Oatlands estate and several associated historic properties.

The site of Oatlands Mills, a milling complex established by George Carter of Oatlands in the early 19th century, is at the southern end, along Goose Creek. The large mill was destroyed in , leaving today only a small ruin and extensive archaeological remains. Surviving from the village of Oatlands nearby are several houses and the Episcopal Church of Our Savior, a simple brick structure erected in A later parish hall stands next to it. At the northern end of the district, on Route 15, is the Mountain Gap School, the county's last operating one-room school when it closed in Most of the property in the historic district is protected by preservation easements or is owned by the National Trust for Historic Preservation.

There are no organized tours of the district available at this time. Begun in and embellished over the next two decades, this monumental mansion, along with its numerous outbuildings and extensive gardens, forms one of the nation's most elaborate Federal estates. The complex was developed by George Carter, one of the scions of prominent Tidewater families who migrated to Northern Virginia after the Revolution.

With its stuccoed walls, demi-octagonal wings, parapeted roof, and a portico of slender Corinthian columns added by Carter in , the house has a special lightness and elegance. The airy rooms with their intricate Federal ornamentation complement the exterior. Prosperous and newly married during the s, Carter made interior changes that echoed the popular Greek Revival style of the time.

A miller's residence, brick manufactory, blacksmith shop, store, school and church soon followed as Oatlands quickly grew into a 3,acre working plantation. Other structures built by Carter include the stone and brick staircases and walls, a smoke house, a brick greenhouse with a hot-water heating system, and a granary. Oatlands's gardens were also designed by George Carter, who constructed ingenious connecting terraces which, by sheltering the area from wind, extended the growing season to supply food for the plantation.

Oatlands fared well during the Civil War compared to many other plantations, but after the war George II and Kate Carter, beset by mounting debts and numerous dependents, began operating Oatlands as a summer boarding house, a country retreat for affluent Washingtonians. This didn't produce the income needed to sustain a great home like Oatlands, and in they were forced to sell.

Oatlands was briefly owned by founder of the Washington Post Stilson Hutchins, who never lived on the property. In Oatlands was sold to William Corcoran Eustis, grandson of banker and philanthropist William Wilson Corcoran and his wife Edith, who restored Oatlands to its former splendor.

Although Mr. Eustis died in , Mrs. Eustis remained at Oatlands until her death in The Eustis daughters presented the estate which had been reduced to acres , house, and furnishings to the National Trust for Historic Preservation in Oatlands was designated a National Historic Landmark in Oatlands is located south of the junction of Rtes. The property is a National Historic Landmark. Call or visit their website for further information.

Oak Hill. James Monroe , the fifth President of the United States, began the construction of Oak Hill, his Loudoun County mansion, between and and lived here following his presidency until , the year before he died. The house was constructed by local builder William Benton. Its dominant architectural feature is the unusual pentastyle portico. Oak Hill was visited by Lafayette in during his tour of America, and it was here that Monroe worked on the drafting of the Monroe Doctrine, a policy aimed to limit European expansion into the Western Hemisphere and assign the United States the role of protector of independent Western nations.

Monroe was born on April 28, , in Westmoreland County, Virginia. In , Monroe formed the most important association of his life when he began the study of law under Thomas Jefferson, who was then governor of Virginia. Jefferson came to value Monroe for his persistence, patriotism, and devotion to republican principles. The two men, together with James Madison, formed political and personal bonds that lasted for half a century. Monroe soon began a steady accumulation of offices, including acting as a delegate to the Continental Congress ; a member of the Virginia ratifying convention , where he opposed adoption of the new federal Constitution; U.

Senator from Virginia ; minister to France ; and Governor of Virginia President Jefferson sent him on a diplomatic mission in to help Robert R. Livingston negotiate the purchase of New Orleans from the French. The two Americans were astonished when Napoleon I offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory, which they quickly negotiated to purchase for the United States.

After a term serving as President Madison's Secretary of State, Monroe was elected President by an overwhelming majority in , distinguishing his term in office most notably in foreign affairs. The estate passed out of the family after Monroe's death. The house was increased in size in by the enlargment of its wings and the addition of terminal porticoes during the ownership of Mr.

Frank C. Still a private residence, this historic seat is a fitting monument to the last of the "Virginia Dynasty" of presidents. Oak Hill is located 8 Miles south of Leesburg on Rte. Aldie Mill Historic District. Charles Fenton Mercer, military officer, legislator, and advocate of the colonization of African Americans, settled here in He named his property for Aldie Castle, his Scottish ancestral home. The large merchant mill, constructed in by Mercer's partner William Cooke, survives as one of the best outfitted early mills in the state.

The three-part complex includes what was a plaster mill at one end and a store at the other. The mill's twin overshot Fitz wheels, installed in , are a unique surviving pair in Virginia. Overlooking the mill is the large Federal house, built by Mercer in as his residence. Behind the mill is the miller's house. Completing the grouping is an early stone bridge across Little River.

The mill operated into the s. James Edward Douglas, whose family had owned and operated the mill continuously for six generations since , donated it to the Virginia Outdoors Foundation in The Virginia Outdoors Foundation has been restoring the mill to serve as an operating example of an early 19th-century wheat and corn mill.

Historic Aldie Mill is located at John Mosby Highway, and is open pm to on Saturdays and pm to pm on Sundays from April 30 to the last week of October. Middleburg Historic District. The physical and psychological heart of Northern Virginia's hunt country, Middleburg is a compact and fastidious village retaining the qualities of its early years. There are approximately people currently residing in the town established in by Leven Powell, a Revolutionary War officer and regional Federalist leader. The town developed as a coach stop and relay station on Ashby's Gap Turnpike, becoming by mid-century a commercial center for lower Loudoun and upper Fauquier counties.

Thus being in the "middle," the village provided the overnight resting stop for travelers making the mile overland journey. The town saw frequent Civil War cavalry action and won a reputation for fierce Confederate loyalty but afterwards it declined in fortune and population. By the second decade of the 20th century, it assumed a new identity as a social and equestrian center. Middleburg prospered and grew in reputation as the nation's foremost area for fox hunting, Thoroughbred breeding, and horse racing. With its tree-lined streets, brick sidewalks, and harmonious scale, the town has a diverse collection of late 18th- to early 20th-century architectural styles highlighted by early stone and brick structures.

The Middleburg Historic District is located at Rte. One of the Virginia hunt country's best-known landmarks, the Red Fox Inn, occupies a site used for a tavern since the 18th century. Rawleigh Chinn, who originally owned the land on which Middleburg developed, reputedly built a tavern near this intersection in Chinn's Ordinary served travelers on the wagon trail, and later stagecoach route, that ran east-west generally along the present U.

Route The present stone building may incorporate earlier fabric but was mostly constructed in for Nobel Beveridge, who stated in a newspaper advertisement that year: "A new House of Entertainment has been built. The subscriber's bar is well-appointed with choice liquors. The Inn's present appearance, largely dating from a s renovation by local architect William B. Dew, is designed to attract its clientele with an old-fashioned ambience. The tavern has since become an area institution and remains a fashionable venue for lodging and repast.

Paul's Episcopal Church. Haymarket's Episcopal church was built in as a district courthouse for the counties of Fairfax, Fauquier, Loudoun, and Prince William. Like other early 19th-century Virginia courthouses it originally had an arcaded entrance. The district court was accommodated here until when changes in the court system resulted in the eventual sale of the building and its conversion to an academy.

It was first used as an Episcopal church in and was consecrated by Bishop William Meade in Near both the first and second battles of Manassas, both sides at different times used it as a hospital. In November Union troops converted the building to a stable and then burned it. The congregation rebuilt within the original walls in , at which time the arcade was closed up for the narthex and the belfry and bracketed cornice were added.

The St. Paul's Episcopal Church is located off State Rte. It is generally not open for tours, but large tour groups can call for information and possible interior viewing. Sunday Church services at am, am children's event and changed to am during the summer are open to everyone. Buckland Historic District. This tiny village bravely holds its own against the roar of constant traffic on U. Highway 29, which bisects the historic community.

Buckland nonetheless is an especially picturesque example of the many mill-oriented settlements that characterized much of the Virginia Piedmont from the late 18th through the 19th centuries. Chartered by the Virginia legislature in , Buckland was the first inland town established in Prince William County. It was an important wagon stop on the main east-west road between Alexandria and the territory beyond the Blue Ridge.

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  5. The present turn-of-the-century grist mill is believed to be the third mill on this site. The water for the mill race was fed by Broad Run, which flows by immediately to the north. Also included in the district is an early 19th-century tavern and a small midth-century church.

    These buildings, in addition to several residential dwellings, sustain the village's historic character.

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    Greenwich Presbyterian Church. Built in , this picturesque country Gothic church is distinguished by its rustic Gothic porches and lych roofed gate. Charles Green, an English cotton merchant from Savannah who built a dwelling at The Lawn nearby, donated the land on which the church stands. During the Civil War, Green objected when Union troops attempted to seize the church for a hospital, claiming that a clause in the deed provided that the land would revert to him if its religious use ceased, thereby making it English property.

    The church was thus the only one in the county not damaged by Union forces. Several Civil War soldiers are buried in the church cemetery, including one of Col. John S.

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    Wounded nearby in , Hoskins was brought by Green to The Lawn, where he died. Named for its immaculately maintained greensward, the English-born Savannah cotton merchant Charles Green established The Lawn in as a country home following his marriage to Greenwich native Lucy Ireland Hunton. He built here a fanciful complex of Carpenter's Gothic structures. The Greenwich buildings appeared quite foreign to the area. One Civil War visitor described the house as "the strangest in Virginia. Green was imprisoned, accused of being a Confederate spy.

    Architecturally, The Lawn is unique and the only surviving example of a midth-century Gothic Revival farm complex in Prince William County. The main house burned in and was replaced with a Tudor Revival work, completed in , designed by A. Mullett and Co. The Lawn is located at Vint Hill Rd. It is a private residence, and is not open to the public. Manassas National Battlefield Park. The acre tract bordered by Bull Run was the scene of two Confederate victories. The naive, unprepared troops would soon have their hopes of a short war dashed as they came face to face with the horrors and carnage of war.

    The Union attack was repulsed by Confederates inspired by Gen. Thomas J. Jackson and his Virginians, who stood against the enemy like a "stone wall," earning Jackson his famous epithet. By the day's end, nearly men lay dead and dying on what the day before had been the peaceful farms of Northern Virginia.

    Thirteen months later the same armies, now much larger and battle hardened, would again clash over the same ground. Second Manassas, fought on August , , cleared the way for Gen. Robert E. Lee's first invasion of the North. This time, the destruction would be far greater, more than 23, killed, missing or wounded. The outcome of the second battle would lead to the Southern army's first full-scale invasion across the Potomac River into Maryland. Surviving landmarks include the Dogan house, a Union snipers' nest in ; the Stone House, a Union field hospital during both battles; and the stone bridge, blown up in but reconstructed in the s.

    It is open in the summer am to pm daily and in the winter am to pm daily. Call for further information or visit the website. The Manassas National Battlefield Park is the subject of an online-lesson plan produced by Teaching with Historic Places, a National Register program that offers classroom-ready lesson plans on properties listed in the National Register. Warrenton Historic District. From its beginnings as a colonial village, this prosperous community has been home to lawyers and politicians such as Supreme Court Chief John Marshall, who practiced here; William Smith, governor of Virginia in and ; and Eppa Hunton, Confederate general and U.

    The community has long been noted for its beautiful setting, healthful climate, and cultivated society. As a result it boasts an exceptional collection of houses, churches, and commercial buildings in a wide range of styles. The district also preserves a number of structures associated with the Civil War, when Warrenton was variously occupied by both sides. The architectural focal point is the county courthouse, a Classical Revival building erected in on the site of an earlier courthouse. The most prestigious residences line Culpeper and Falmouth streets.

    The Visitor Center, located at Keith, is open 7 days a week am to pm and provides a walking tour brochure for the historic district. Old Fauquier County Jail. Warrenton's former jail is a singular example of the state's early county penal architecture. The complex includes the brick jail, converted to the jailer's residence and completed in , and the parallel stone jail with its high-walled jail-yard. Located next to the courthouse, the jail provides a telling picture of conditions endured by inmates of such county facilities.

    A jail was built for the county in , but it proved to be inadequate within a number of years. The more substantial brick structure was finished in , and County Jail c. With the completion of the stone jail and its plank-lined cells, the resulting two-part building served the county until The complex is now maintained by the Fauquier County Historical Society as a county history museum. In his book The Architecture of Country Houses , Andrew Jackson Downing illustrated a design resembling Brentmoor described as "a simple, rational, convenient, and economic dwelling for the southern part of the Union.

    In John Singleton Mosby, the Confederate ranger, purchased the house. Mosby, with his Partisans outwitted the Union army during the Civil War to the extent that much of northern Virginia was known as "Mosby's Confederacy. Brentmoor is located at Main St. Although Brentmoor is currently not open to the public, the town of Warrenton has purchased it, and intends to open it as a museum in the future. Smith also served in the Senate of Virginia, the U.

    Early in his career, Smith ran the longest mail route in the nation and was dubbed "Extra Billy" by a U. Senator during a Congressional investigation of waste in Federal spending, which focused, in part, on the U. Postal Service. Sharing the site with Smith's two-and-a-half story brick house are three outbuildings: an extraordinary Italianate brick stable built in , a brick smokehouse and a two-story dwelling that dates from the late 19th century 19th-century stagecoach stables Photograph courtesy of Virginia Department of Historic Resources Archives known as the Office.

    James K. Maddux, a later owner and a leader in the Warrenton Hunt, remodeled Smith's Italianate dwelling in the Colonial Revival taste, adding the portico. He also changed the name to Neptune Lodge. Monterosa is located at Culpeper St. The wood-frame dwelling, completed by when Marshall was 17, is a classic example of Virginia's colonial vernacular. Although John Marshall lived mostly in Richmond and Washington, he kept his Fauquier County property, making improvements and using it as a retreat.

    In he built an attached Classical Revival house as a residence for his son Thomas. The property left the family after Thomas Marshall, Jr. Oak Hill can be seen from Interstate 66, and is located north of the highway just east of the exit for Rte. Oak Hill is the subject of an online-lesson plan produced by Teaching with Historic Places, a National Register program that offers classroom-ready lesson plans on properties listed in the National Register. An instructive amalgamation of farm buildings, Weston was originally the residence of the Fitzhugh family.

    The rambling house began as a log cottage probably built for Thomas Fitzhugh around The property was purchased from the Fitzhughs by Charles Joseph Nourse in l Nourse, who was reared in Georgetown, D. Under Nourse the house grew by steady accretion. Changes and additions made in , , and resulted in an L-shaped structure with Carpenter's Gothic detailing. Following Nourse's death in , his widow, Annie, operated a school and summer camp here. During World War II the Nourse daughters maintained Weston as a hospitality center for servicemen, serving some 11, meals by the end of the war.

    Weston and its important collection of outbuildings is now a farm museum owned by the Warrenton Antiquarian Society. Weston is located at Weston Rd. Owned by the Warrenton Antiquarian Society, Weston is now a museum. It is only open for tours occasionally. There is a suggested donation. Call for further tour information. Culpeper Historic District. The county-seat town of Culpeper is significant for its architectural cohesiveness and associations with commercial, military, political, and transportation history.

    Originally known as Fairfax, Culpeper was founded in Most of the commercial buildings are vernacular, Italianate, and neoclassical-style brick structures. The quiet, tree-shaded residential streets hold a rich variety of domestic architecture. The district's focal point is the Culpeper County Courthouse, completed in by Samuel Proctor who crowned it with a fanciful cupola. Commercial history is linked with its early roads, stagecoach routes, and the railroad. The town served as a staging area and hospital center for armies of both sides in the Civil War.

    Though a growing community, Culpeper preserves a genial, typically American small-town ambiance. The Culpeper Chamber of Commerce and Visitors Center can provide you with "In and Around Culpeper," a brochure that includes 5 self-guided walking tours, and information on guided walking tours that start in June. Located at South Commerce St. The Museum of Culpeper History can provide you with more information on the history of Culpeper, and visit the website for details on the opening of their new museum.

    Slaughter-Hill House. Maintaining connections to various phases of Culpeper's history, the Slaughter-Hill house began in the late 18th century as a one-room-plan structure built of planked log construction. A frame addition in the early 19th century doubled its size. The house was further remodeled between and when the older sections were renovated and enlarged. The core of the Slaughter-Hill house remains one of the region's rare examples of a one-room urban vernacular structure using planked log construction.

    It probably was built for John Jameson, who served as the country clerk from to The present name derives from Dr. Philip Slaughter, a prominent local physician who made the midth-century modifications. The Hill name is from Sarah Hill, of the locally prominent Hill family, who purchased the house in and whose daughter owned it until It can be viewed externally on one of the Culpeper Historic District's walking tours. The Hill Mansion is a sophisticated example of the Italianate style, one of the several picturesque modes popular in the s.

    The house was completed in for Edward Baptist Hill, member of a prominent Culpeper family. The front is sheltered by an arcaded veranda, a device advocated for southern houses in this period. Other noteworthy features are the scored stucco, the elaborate porches, both cast-iron and wood, as well as interior appointments, including a broad curving stair. The house served as a Confederate hospital and was visited both by Lieutenant General A. Hill, a brother of the builder, and Gen. Lee, whose wounded son, Brig. Later in the war it was used as headquarters for Union officers who permitted the Hill family to occupy two rooms.

    Hill Mansion is located at East St. Hill Boyhood Home. Confederate Lieutenant General Ambrose Powell Hill lived in the original portion of this house from age seven until , when he entered the U. Military Academy. Hill's parents enlarged the plain Federal town house into the present Italian Villa-style building just before the Civil War, expanding its depth and adding the third story, heavy bracketed cornice, and cupola.

    Later altered for commercial use, the building, situated on one of the town's main intersections, remains a dominant architectural element in downtown Culpeper. Hill was one of General Robert E. Lee's most valued lieutenants; he assisted him in nearly every major engagement of the Army of Northern Virginia until felled on April 2, , just after the siege of Petersburg, and was brought to Richmond for burial. The A. Culpeper National Cemetery. The Culpeper National Cemetery was established in April , in a county that may have seen more Civil War combat than any other in Virginia.

    Several monuments commemorate the Union casualties of the battle of Cedar Mountain fought on August 9, Occupied by each army for months at a time, Culpeper County was the scene of the battle of Brandy Station on June 9, , the largest cavalry battle of the war. Here also was the Union Army's winter encampment of , when Lt. Ulysses S. Grant arrived to take command.

    Union dead from those actions are interred in the cemetery. The cemetery was established in for the burial of more than 2, Civil War soldiers. In the Veterans of Foreign Wars donated adjacent land that doubled the size of the cemetery and relieved pressure on Arlington National Cemetery. The cemetery is in active use for the burial of veterans of all wars and their dependents.

    The Culpeper National Cemetery is located at U. It is open between dusk and dawn. The office is open am to pm, Monday-Friday except holidays. The Burgandine House has long been considered to be Culpeper's oldest dwelling. Architectural evidence suggests that as originally built, it was a story-and-half structure put up in the late 18th century or the first part of the 19th century, and was probably a laborer's residence.

    The original core employs plank log construction, a building material not unusual for area vernacular houses. It later received a porch and was covered with weatherboards. A wing since removed was added in the midth century. At one time the Burgandine House was used as a tavern. Despite other modifications the original simple lines of the house betray its early origins.

    The house was donated to the town of Culpeper in and has since served as the headquarters of the Culpeper Historical Society. This small, historic dwelling was restored in Call for seasonal visiting hours and days as well as additional information. During the early 19th century many rich, influential men of the western Piedmont contented themselves with small yet commodious plantation houses. Greenwood, built c. With its dormered center section and one-story wings, the house shows how a standard vernacular type could be expanded and given a pleasing but unpretentious formality.

    The interior preserves most of its Federal woodwork. Greenwood is located at Orange St. This simple log structure is a rare relic of pre-Civil War black entrepreneurship in rural Virginia. Completed about , the tavern was built by, owned, and operated by Willis Madden a free black, and was likely the only tavern in the region with a proprietor of Madden's race.

    Virginia free blacks were able to earn and keep wages and to own and operate a business, but were forbidden to vote, bear arms, testify against a white person, or be educated. Madden built the tavern on property purchased in on the Old Fredericksburg Road. The western half of the structure was Madden's family quarters; the eastern portion consisted of a public room and a loft for overnight guests. A general store and blacksmith-wheelwright shop were also on the property. Union troops sacked the place in Elizabeths Hospital has had a distinguished history in the treatment of the mentally ill.

    The Hospital's early mission, as defined by its founder, the leading mental health reformer Dorothea Dix, was to provide the "most humane care and enlightened curative treatment of the insane of the Army, Navy, and District of Columbia. Elizabeths, the colonial name of the land where the Hospital is located. Congress officially changed the Hospital's name to St. Elizabeths in By the s, the Hospital complex covered an area of over acres and housed 7, patients.

    It was the first and only federal mental facility with a national scope. In , the federal government transferred the hospital operations to the DC Department of Mental Health, while retaining ownership of the western campus. In , the Hospital celebrated the th anniversary of its founding and honored members of the Armed Forces who became mentally ill while serving their country. Elizabeths at the National Building Museum. Transportation: Access to this site is restricted. This large brick building on Capitol Hill served as the Naval Hospital from to It sits on a triangular lot, between 9th and 10th Streets, defined by Pennsylvania Avenue on the north.

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    The building faces south, with an entrance on E Street, and is within the vicinity of the current Marine Barracks and the Navy Yard. Prior to the construction of this building, the Navy had used as hospital a rented building near the Navy Yard — ; a facility within the confines of the Marine Barracks until the Civil War; and a portion of the Government Hospital for the Insane St.

    Elizabeths Hospital during the War. Designed to accommodate 50 patients, the new hospital had good ventilation and running water supplied by the city, and was furnished with gas for lighting. After serving the naval personnel for four decades, the hospital moved to its newly constructed facility at Observatory Hill, 23rd and E Streets, NW, now headquarters of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery.

    The property is still owned by the federal government but its jurisdiction was transferred to the District of Columbia in Thanks to the efforts of the Friends of the Old Naval Hospital and other concerned residents, the DC government's Office of Property Management has restored the building.

    Today, the year old structure has become the Hill Center , a facility for education and community life on Capitol Hill. Grave of John S. Over , veterans and their family members are buried in these hilly grounds covering more than acres. In addition to the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, the Cemetery's most famous monument, there are a number of memorials, including the Nurses Memorial which honors the nurses of the armed forces who served from the Spanish-American War thru the Vietnam War.

    Among the physicians who rest here are: Alexander T. Visit Online: Arlington National Cemetery. In , a Edward Stabler, a young Quaker pharmacist, opened his business on Fairfax Street, which operated continuously until It was the center of daily life in Alexandria, and among its famous customers were George Washington and Robert E. The Stabler-Leadbeater Apothecary Shop is now a museum, and its rich collection includes over 8, objects such as pill rollers, mortars and pestles, drug mills, and glassware as well as journals, letters, and day books.

    Original furnishings with patent medicines, potions and herbs still remain in place. Georgetown Medical School, ca. In the early years, courses were taught at night, and the student body was small. The Georgetown University Hospital opened in a bed facility in , staffed by the Sisters of St. Francis, and moved together with the Medical School to its current location on Reservoir Road in Today, nearly medical students are enrolled in the School of Medicine. Joseph J. Daniel E. Initially unaffiliated with a university, it was established, in part, to train veterinarians for service in the federal government as meat inspectors, chiefly, and as researchers.

    The college suspended operations in , resumed them in , and then ceased operating altogether in , after the Secretary of Agriculture forbade federal veterinarians from teaching at either of the two District of Columbia veterinary schools. Salmon's attempt to make the National Veterinary College a post-graduate institution exclusively in failed when no post-graduate students appeared. Salmon was Dean from until and David E. Buckingham Penn. VMD, —recruited as a faculty member by Salmon in —was Dean from to Besides Salmon and Buckingham, prominent faculty members included F.