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Korea in den er-Jahren. Inzwischen bringt er es auf stattliche Lebensjahre. Doch auf den rastlosen Rentner wartet ein neues Abenteuer. Nebst einer Therapeutin soll auch eine Wahrsagerin helfen Um seinen Problemen zu entfliehen beschliesst der Teenager, Selbstmord zu begehen. Die Blumen von gestern. Ausserdem kriselt es in seiner Ehe mit Hannah Hannah Herzsprung Gimme Danger. Mal de pierres. Double Sentence. El ciudadano ilustre. White Sun. Die junge Pooja lebt bei ihrer Mutter und ihrem geliebten Grossvater.

Le ciel attendra. Tiger Girl. Tiger Girl hingegen bedient sich gern ihrer Tricks und Kniffe, agiert spontan und ist eine furchtlose Kriminelle. A United Kingdom. Schnell kommt es zu einer Romanze. Dort angekommen, durchleben Kjeld und Vibeke ein zweites Mal ihre gemeinsame Vergangenheit Diane ist 45 und eben aus einer Klinik in Lausanne geflohen.

Bewaffnet mit einer Pistole macht sie sich auf nach Evian, auf die andere Seite des Genfersees. Dort sucht sie nach dem Besitzer eines mokkafarbenen alten Mercedes, mit dem sie noch eine Rechnung offen hat. The Other Side of Hope. Der Frosch. Jonas, einst ein erfolgreicher Schriftsteller, steckt fest. The Train of Salt and Sugar. Umi yori mo mada fukaku. Erst ein Sommersturm gibt dem Schriftsteller eine neue Chance zur Lebenskorrektur. Schweiz Nora ist eine junge Hausfrau und Mutter, die in einem kleinen Dorf lebt.

Maharishi Mahesh Yogi wollte ihn abschaffen. Der Segelflieger sehnt sich nach seinem Schub. Aufgeteilt in drei verschiedene Zeitebenen wird Chirons Entwicklung zum Mann gezeigt. Wilde Maus. Die beiden wandern nach Washington aus, von wo aus sie den Staat Virginia verklagen und bis zum Obersten Bundesgericht ziehen.

Tour de France. Fuchi ni tatsu. Nach einigen Wochen fragt sich Toshio, ob das die richtige Entscheidung war. Um ihre Ziele zu erreichen, setzt sie auch Mittel ein, die moralisch nicht immer ganz einwandfrei sind. Von Michael Koch. Die Retourkutsche folgt sofort in Form von Nerudas Amtsenthebung, seiner Verhaftung kann er nur durch Flucht entgehen. Ma vie de courgette. Kann er sich in einer Welt mit anderen Leidensgenossen integrieren?

T2 Trainspotting 2. Was hat uns bloss so ruiniert. Martin zelebrierte seinen Drogenkonsum exzessiv. Sie wollten beide das Absolute, der Durchschnitt war ihnen nicht genug. Ihre unbarmherzige Einstellung als Chef einer erfolgreichen Videospielefirma legt sie auch in ihrem Liebesleben an den Tag.

Le cahier africain. Das Cahier Africain ist ein simples kariertes Schulschreibheft, dessen Vorderseite bunte Rennwagen zieren. Le Voyageur. Mit ihm begibt sie sich auf eine metaphysische Reise durch Bulgarien, wo sie von ihrer lang vergessenen Trauer eingeholt wird. Manchester by the Sea. Skizzen von Lou. Ist das schon Liebe? Timm Thaler. Der Waisenjunge Timm Thaler war schon immer ein aufgeweckter und geselliger Zeitgenosse. Gerade wegen seines ansteckenden Lachens fliegen ihm die Sympathien seiner Mitmenschen regelrecht zu.

Aus diesem Grunde hat es auch der ebenso reiche wie skrupellose Baron Lefuet auf ihn abgesehen Gibt es ein Geheimnis des besonderen Sounds? Adopte un veuf. November von einer Kugel in den Kopf getroffen wird. Jean Ziegler. Seither kennt er als Schriftsteller, Professor, Nationalrat und Mitarbeiter von Kofi Annan keine Ruhe, um die weltweiten Ungerechtigkeiten zu geisseln. Marie Curie. Personal Shopper. Worlds Apart. Einfach leben. La La Land. The Salesman. Von Asghar Farhadi. Wien, Anfang des United States of Love - Zjednoczone stany milosci. Polen, Das erste euphorische Jahr der Freiheit, aber auch der Unsicherheit, was die Zukunft bringt.

Juste la fin du monde. Von Xavier Dolan. Love and Friendship. Panzerkreuzer Potemkin. Nocturnal Animals. Nun hat er ihr ein Manuskript geschickt, zu dem er ihre Meinung einholen will. Ferrara Film Festival. Quand on a 17 ans. Ob es der Schulbildung gelingen wird, ihnen Vernunft und den richtigen Weg zu zeigen? Somit sieht sich sie sich hin- und hergerissen zwischen Traditionen und verbotener Leidenschaft. Welcome to Norway. Dokumentarfilm trifft Theater. I, Daniel Blake. Doch nach einer schweren Erkrankung braucht er nun das erste Mal die Hilfe die Staates.

Reset - Restart. Er lebt sich gut ein und ist in seinem Umfeld sehr beliebt. Le confessioni. Little Men. Januar wurde der Pilot Chesley B. Von Clint Eastwood. Dobra zena. In einem gediegenen Viertel in Belgrad hat sie sich ihr Leben gut eingerichtet. Florence Foster Jenkins. Sette Giorni. Sieben Tage bleiben noch, um eine grosse Hochzeitsfeier auf Sizilien auszurichten. Wolf and Sheep. Es ist der erste Arthousefilm einer weiblichen Regisseurin des afghanischen Kinos. American Pastoral.

Von Stefan Haupt. Kiki - el amor se hace. Peter Handke: Bin im Wald. Doch wer ist dieser Mensch? Als sie ohne Essen und Weihnachtsbaum auf ihrem Hof eingeschneit werden, verspricht der alte Pettersson dem besorgten Kater Findus noch, dass sich alles zum Guten wird. The Florence Foster Jenkins Story.

Jheronimus Bosch, Touched by the Devil. La danseuse. Mapplethorpe: Look at the Pictures. Deren Briefwechsel bildet die Textgrundlage. Don't Call Me Son. Hell or High Water. Um das Land zu retten, entschliessen sie sich, eine Reihe von Banken auszurauben. Dies wiederum ruft einen Polizisten auf den Plan. La fille inconnue. Being There. Krongold: The Adventures of a Wunderkind. Ma loute. Zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts leben in einem kleinen Ort in Pas-de-Calais zwei Familien aus dem Norden Frankreichs, die in ihren Eigenschaften und Lebenswelten vollkommen unterschiedlich sind.

Nebel im August. Swiss Army Man. Hank Paul Dano ist auf einer einsamen Insel gestrandet. Wild Plants. Der Film beschreibt, wie die Natur sich Brachland zu eigen macht, wie Pflanzen keimen und Blumen sich entfalten, um neuen Lebensraum zu schaffen. A Dragon Arrives! Es ist der Januar , am Vortag ist der iranische Premierminister vor dem Parlament erschossen worden. Cine Mar - Surf Movie Nights. Die Welt der Wunderlichs. Raving Iran. Sie erleben die Alpzeit der Bergbauern jenseits der Waldgrenze.

Und weil sein Viktor, Ralph und Martin reisen nur zu gerne an. El Bosco. Zum L'economie du couple. Die Ehepartner beschliessen, dass es mit ihrer Beziehung zu Ende ist und sie sich scheiden lassen wollen. Doch schon bald entspinnt sich ein grosser Streit um die finanziellen Konsequenzen der Trennung Saint amour. Doch wenn man den anderen nur allzugut kennt, kann dies nicht nur Vor- sondern auch Nachteile bereithalten La pazza gioia. Dort lernen sich die zwei unterschiedlichen Frauen erst richtig kennen, spannen zusammen und ergreifen die Flucht in ein hoffentlich besseres Leben.

Princess Shaw. Die Geschichte eines normalen Mannes, der es nicht mit seinem Gewissen vereinbaren konnte, zu schweigen. Un peu, beaucoup, aveuglement. Zwei Personen treffen aufeinander, die in verschiedenen Wohnungen leben. Jahrelang wurden sie nur durch eine Wand getrennt, welche nun durchbrochen wird und so treffen zwei Menschen zusammen, die sich eigentlich kennen und sich doch fremd sind Europe, She Loves.

Looking Like My Mother. Diese leidet unter Depressionen. La tortue rouge. The Music of Strangers. Barakah Meets Barakah. Das kalte Herz. Am Projekt beteiligt waren junge Musiker, Theaterschaffende und Schauspieler, die noch ganz am Anfang ihrer Karriere standen. Der bescheidene Ari muss zu seinem antrieblosen Vater in ein abgelegenes Dorf ziehen und trifft dort auf Lara, die ihm den Kopf verdreht. Doch dann kreuzt Tschick Anand Batbileg auf - und der Sommer scheint gerettet. Von Fatih Akin. Un Juif pour l'exemple. Lou Andreas-Salome. In der russischen Stadt St.

Schon in jungen Jahren entschliesst sie sich dazu, sich niemals zu verlieben. Sing Street. Irland in den Achtzigern. Und siehe da: Kaum trifft sie den Herrn, nimmt das Rendezvous eine unerwartete Wendung. Wiener Dog. Die eher unscheinbar wirkende Tierarztassistentin Dawn Wiener will ihrem Leben mehr Pfeffer verleihen. El olivo. Der Alltag der vier unterscheidet sich eigentlich kaum von demjenigen anderer Familien. Doch nicht alle sehen es so. Reise der Hoffnung. Captain Fantastic. Von seiner Frau verlassen beschliesst Mr.

Maggie's Plan. Doch deswegen will die Mittdreissigerin nicht auf Nachwuchs verzichten. Innocence of Memories. Er soll ihr bei Lern-Aufgaben helfen, doch beide verlieben sich ineinander - verlieren dann aber den Kontakt, als sie jeweils ihre Partner heiraten. Doch die Sehnsucht brennt zu tief The Idol.

Mohammad Assaf hat einen Traum. Er will singen. Bis dieser die Trennung will L'ombre des femmes. Die Liebe ist ein Mysterium, das die Menschen seit jeher umtreibt. Von der Begierde bis zum Abschied.

Guten Morgen Mr. Bush - Beiträge pro Seite (Seite 7)

Der Kreislauf des Lebens ist dabei eng verschlungen mit dem Kreislauf der Liebe Sie steht jeden Morgen bei Tagesanbruch auf und macht sich auf den langen Weg zur Primarschule, an der sie unterrichtet. Diese befindet sich in einem armen und trostlosen Vorort. Doch sie hat dieses Leben satt Acorda Brasil. Ohio, Guibord s'en va-t-en guerre. Rosalie Blum. Sein Cousin versucht ihn stets zu verkuppeln, aber Vincent ist lieber alleine.

The BFG. Von Steven Spielberg. Toni Erdmann. Aqui no ha pasado nada. Obwohl Vicente nicht am Lenkrad sass, gilt er bald als der Schuldige. Am Morgen des La vache. Le Miracle de Tekir. Doch eines Tages wird es unerwartet unruhig auf dem Bauernhof. Coup de chaud. Wie kann die sommerliche Ruhe wiederhergestellt werden?

High Rise. In den einzelnen Etagen werden die Bewohner nach niederer Klasse, Mittelklasse und Oberschicht unterteilt. In den oberen Stockwerken haust die Upperclass Von ihrem verstorbenen Mann hat sie die Leitung seines Betriebes geerbt, an der sie zu zerbrechen droht. Soy Nero. Heart of a Dog. Un plus une. Ma ma. Mit grosser Leidenschaft und voller Tatendrang sagt sie der Krankheit den Kampf an Die Liebe zu einem neuen Mann macht alles schlimmer. Nous trois ou rien. Hibat und Fereshteh Tabib sind die Eltern von Kheiron.

Peggy Guggenheim: Art Addict. Peggy Guggenheim war ihrer Zeit nicht nur voraus, sondern gestaltete sie massgeblich selbst mit. The Assassin. Everybody Wants Some. Much Loved. Marraksch in der Gegenwart. Sie sind Prostituierte, Objekte der Begierde. Petting Zoo. Zen For Nothing. Die junge Frau ist Sabine Timoteo aus Bern. Hierbei ist jedoch zu beachten, dass das eine das andere nach sich zieht. Don't Blink - Robert Frank. Fathers and Daughters. La memoria del agua. Nach ihrem Voyage en Chine. A Bigger Splash. Heavenly Nomadic - Sutak. La belle saison. Los amantes de caracas. A Man Called Ove.

Die ganze Nachbarschaft leidet unter den Launen des Griesgrams. Das Leben drehen. Journey in Sensuality. Trois souvenirs de ma jeunesse. Er erinnert sich an einen Russen, den er auf einer Studienreise kennenlernte. Vor allem erinnert er sich an die Liebe seines Lebens: Esther. Welcome to Iceland. A Hologram for the King. Peur de rien. Un etaj mai jos. Er hat zwar Kohle, aber keine Freunde.

In einer Welt voller Marken vergisst man leicht, wer die ganzen Sportler, Schauspieler und Popstars zu dem gemacht hat, was sie sind: die Fans. Fragments du Paradis. Wenn die Schweiz mitunter als Himmel auf Erden betrachtet wird, stellt sich die Frage, ob ihre Einwohner an den Himmel glauben.

Istanbul versinkt in einer nicht genau definierten, aber nahen Zeit im politischen Chaos. Shan he gu ren. Zwei ungleiche Chinesen - der eine ein einfacher Mienenarbeiter, der andere sein neureicher Boss - buhlen um die Gunst der jungen Lehrerin Tao. Eine Dreiecksbeziehung nimmt ihren Lauf. In drei Zeitfenstern - , und - sieht man die Geschichte einer ganzen Nation im Umbruch. Sonita ist 18 Jahre alt, aus Afghanistan und eine nicht dokumentierte Migrantin im Iran.

Ihr Traum ist eine Karriere als Rapperin. Valley of Love. Violette Regisseurin Julie Depy will sich von ihrem anstrengenden Job in der Modeindustrie entspannen. Mon roi. Tony erholt sich nach einem Ski-Unfall in einer Kurklinik.

II. Zur Unterrichtsstunde

Dem Himmel zu nah. Grozny Blues. Offshore - Elmer und das Bankgeheimnis. Saul fia. Auschwitz Einer der Gefangenen ist gezwungen, die Leichen der anderen zu verbrennen. The Chinese Recipe - Copy and Create. El Clan. Free to Run. Ob in den Strassen New Yorks oder in den Schweizer Bergen, jedes Jahr messen sich Millionen von Sprintern an nationalen und internationalen, grossen und regionalen Laufwettbewerben. Doch der Fakt, dass die beiden vor Jahren eine innige Liebesbeziehung gehabt hatten, schmeisst den sonst so gefassten Xavier aus der Bahn Les Saisons.

Nach dem Ende der letzten Eiszeit vor rund 15' Jahren begann das Zeitalter des Waldes und es kam erstmals zu den vier Jahreszeiten, wie man sie bis heute kennt. Melody of Noise. Das Tagebuch der Anne Frank. Anne Frank bekommt zu ihrem Our Little Sister - Umimachi Diary. Das Leben ist beschaulich, bis sie die Nachricht vom Tod ihres Vaters erreicht, der die Familie vor 15 Jahren wegen einer anderen Frau verliess.

Above and Below. Jahrhunderts nach Paris, um dort Fuss zu fassen. Der geilste Tag. Bevor es aber soweit ist, wollen sie noch den geilsten Tag ihres Lebens erleben. Where to invade next. Niemand vermag es zu sagen, nicht einmal er selbst. Hail, Caesar! Doch das von aussen als unmoralisch beurteilte Herumalbern tritt einen Skandal mit unerwarteten Folgen los.

The Chinese Lives of Uli Sigg. Die Weisse Arche. Alphonse lebt als Einsiedler auf der Alp. Die Erde gibt ihm Lebensbrot, die Gegenwart ist sein Geschenk. Monika geht seit ihrem Nahtoderlebnis gelassen mit ihrer Zeit um. In this context, the author argues that the growing role of non-syrian actors in the conflict makes it dubious to claim that the crisis is only a civil war. On the other hand, the continuity of domestic struggle against the regime makes the term proxy war inaccurate. Overall, the main aim of this paper is to argue that using different names to describe the crisis revolution, civil war, proxy war etc.

Names are, always and especially in this case, norms that have a significant impact when they are used. It particularly deals with the postmodern cultural politics of demand production of war spectacle and the management of the produced demand through the spectacle of a clean war spectacle. Adopting Baudrillard's take on the simulacra and clean war Baudrillard [] ; [] , socio-narrative Baker ; Harding and mediality in translation Littau , , ; Gonzales The paper inspected 27 online materials from the entries dealing with Aleppo's 'holocaust' , the White Helmets' Website and their Oscar award winning Netflix documentary-entitled The White Helmets.

The paper's findings are as follow: first, the White Helmets as the simulacra of the clean war providing for the spectacle of next generation leaders Times cover and the perfect foil for Aleppo s ensuing holocaust. Second is the temporal and spatial framing of Aleppo's 'holocaust' narrative and the spectaclecentric machination of the real-time Holocaust of the American century.

Third is the "totalitarian democracy" Engdahl and the media-regulated message of the New Empire's machination that supplants and configures the reality on the ground to-and-through the virtual reality mediated and managed in accordance to corporate capital stranglehold and in tune with the prognostic vision for a new world order and a New Middle East.

Ultimately, the paper argues for the attention to the implication of postmodern mass communication industry in the technologies of covert-control and circulation of the New Empire's bid for a democratically balkanized 'New Middle East" Peters and a better looking control lever Brezezinski to the pivot of history Mackinder , , administered through tactful de-contextualization and de-historicization of the present.

The initial demonstrations in Northern Syria between and sparked the formation of new means of popular mobilization, and triggered the mass participation in alternative networks that aimed at recruiting ordinary citizens to provide social services, security and self-defence. This paper argues that, in the context of war in Northern Syria, between and , with the emergence of a very diverse range of jihadist groups, including ISIS, the participants within those Popular Committees felt the need to be involved in direct action, including the armed struggle, in order to protect their neighborhoods and substitute the constant absence of security personnel.

Thus, in Syria those social movements evolved into paramilitary organizations that are very different compared to other grassroots mobilizations in the region. Gridlocks of Multipolarity The contribution stresses the international dimension of the Syrian war by contrasting the multidimensional involvement of international actors with the limited explanatory power of theories of International Relations for the conflict. It explores empirical findings on change and persistence of actor structures as well as constellations of ideas and ideologies throughout the region for the theoretical considerations about the multipolar structure of the conflict.

Suggesting to approach the Syrian war as a multipolar conflict, it offered a detailed analytical framework along the various dimensions of the Syrian conflict: Impact, actor structure, issues and arenas. The contribution concludes that the existing multidirectional vectors of interests and values of state and non- state actors that target very heterogeneous objectives inside the Syrian territory are amplified in the multipolar regional and world system with contradicting ideologies and interest structures.

Consequently, the core of the conflict is not identifiable and conflict management is hampered by permanently altering conflict foci. Nevertheless, the instruments for conflict management have merely focused on power politics but were not able to employ tools of conflict transformation, structural prevention or normative change in a systematic way. A widening gap is obvious between the narratives of North and South as the tension is interwoven between two narratives; the Global South places its opposition and resistance to the intervention.

On the contrary, melee of reasons are present to justify major powers intervention on the other. Post coloniality has its own constraints, as the nature of the state and statist concept of authority carries forward coloniality; discarding any sense of post coloniality. The paper collected its empirical evidence from the case in point intervention in Syria. The paper goes deep down in the process of knowledge as well as subject formation in the process of intervention. It argues that intervention is a process, not an event; it did not stop at one incident.

Extension of coloniality is sanctioned by international and other forms of national law which reduce and prepare the national space to be fit for intervention. In a current project and process, domination and The paper examines the tension in the perspective of Global South. Nevertheless, the paper also looks into the different, multi-directional strands and processes which act simultaneously at cross purposes.

G Summaries of other Papers Philipp Bruckmayr: The Changing Fates of the Cambodian Islamic Manuscript Tradition Little known to outsiders, predominantly Buddhist Cambodia is home to a distinctive Islamic manuscript tradition, brought into the country by settlers from Champa in present-day Vietnam, and further developed in the Khmer kingdom.

Commonly written in Cham script akhar thrah or in a combination of the latter and Arabic, it has largely fallen into disuse among the majority of Cambodian Muslims since the mid th century, as the community increasingly turned towards Islamic scholarship and printed books in jawi i. Arabic-scriptbased Malay. A minority of akhar thrah users and discontents of growing Malay religious and cultural influence, based mainly in central and northwestern Cambodia, however, have kept the local Islamic manuscript tradition alive into the present.

Recognized by the Cambodian state as a distinct Islamic religious community in , this group now known as the Islamic Community of Imam San, has made the physical preservation of, and engagement with, their manuscripts a central pillar of identity and community formation. Aided in their efforts by other local and international actors, including the US embassy and the Documentation Center of Cambodia, Cambodia s Islamic manuscript tradition has been witnessing an unprecedented revival in recent decades.

The present contribution provides an overview over content, distribution and usage of Islamic manuscripts in Cambodia. By the second half of the 20 th century, he was remembered both as a Malay scholar settling in Cambodia as well as a refugee from Champa in present-day Vietnam, thereby reflecting contrasting orientations within Cambodia s Muslim community towards either the wider Malay World or an ancestral homeland in Champa, and their respective Islamic traditions. By the s both orientations had received state recognition as distinct Islamic congregations.

In the process, the so-called Kan Imam San Community of Imam San , the champions of Imam San and his image as a specifically Cham figure, have been able to monopolize the legacy of this formerly ambiguous saint. This development rested on a combination of inter-related historical and contemporary factors. Firstly, shrines, saints and the form of religiosity associated with them have witnessed a general prolonged process of devaluation among the Cambodian Muslim mainstream since the mid th century. More specifically, the mass killings under Khmer Rouges rule, which had disproportionally targeted Whereas Imam San and his shrine have lost their relevance for the majority of Cambodian Muslims, the rural communities forming the nucleus of the Kan Imam San, have deployed the saint s legacy alongside a number of other ritual and cultural particularities as a tool for identity formation.

Finally, the presentation of Imam San as a historical figure personifying amicable relations between Khmer Buddhists and Cham Muslims has proven effective in garnering government support. Whereas the co-existence of two distinct Muslim communities in Cambodia is a clear indication of the persistence and affirmation of Muslim diversity in the local context, the story of Imam San is also one of rigidity.

Thus, the Kan Imam San have effectively sought to extricate any obvious traces of Malay influence from their Islamic traditions to defend their self-representation as guardians of a purely Cham Islam. This expansion has a long tradition and has been a constant factor of Russian foreign policy for some time. The permanent expansion reached its highest peak in the forms of a direct aggression, civil population s extermination and a bloody war on the foreign territory.

This war has no reasons for any goals of state security. Russia needs the war in Syria for the demonstration of its military power, and for frightening Europe and the rest of the world. This intervention serves also as the practical test of the newest strategic arms. Zweifellos hat die osmanische Mecelle diesen Weg vorgezeichnet. The Case of Walt Whitman Cultural products are loaded with political significance; poetry in modern Iran is no exception. In post- Iran, poetics and politics are so intertwined that knowing politics can lead to a deeper appreciation of poetics.

Translating an American poet in Iran is a case in point. Whitman, the American poet of democracy, has been translated both before and after revolution in Iran. A closer look at how he is depicted in Iranian cultural arena can contribute to a better appreciation of poetry, politics and the relation between the two in post-revolutionary Iran. Although the anti-us, anti-west sentiments of the pre period, which found a safe place in the post- political system, tried to decrease the American influence of the pre-revolutionary period, the interest in Whitman was increasing.

The cultural policy of the new political system was to propagate the image of a poet as a mystic, a person often indifferent to the immediate situation. The post-revolutionary poetic discourse of the political system and the image of an apolitical poet played a significant role in depicting a meek image of the American poet. However, the opposing discourses were also at work to present a different image of the poet. The present study elaborates on the dynamics of Whitman representations in modern Iran to investigate the intricate relationship between poetry and politics along with the interactions between the op-.

It seeks to offer a fresh and critical perspective on the power relations in the post-revolutionary cultural arena. Analysis of militaries involvement in economies, rent-seeking and investment is a prerequisite to understanding its persistent power as in Egypt, Pakistan, Iran, Jordan and Sudan , shifts in power relations as in Yemen and possibly recently, Turkey , as well as changeovers to non-state armed groups as in Syria, Yemen, or Libya.

The presentation highlights the different forms of the vital relationship between coercive power and material wealth in these countries in a comparative approach. It considers military factories, private businesses of retired military officers, and the web of funding of non-state armed groups. It shows how the political and class alliances of militaries have changed from the vanguard of modernization during the post-colonial era to engagement in national and international holdings and global finance markets in the neo-liberal era.

Patronage relationships have undermined professionalism within these militaries and created blurred political and economic relationships. In Sudan, Syria, Yemen and Libya, tribal and regional loyalties have increasingly shaped the militaries and the state, and non-state armed groups are engaged in protracted wars that may break up these countries. Militaries and para-military organizations appropriate resources through smuggling and trafficking, which blurs their economic bases aligning them to those of non-state armed groups.

The national role of the military has been crucial for the containment, suppression, or proliferation of armed groups in the MENA countries. Long-term military regimes have institutionalized their hegemony politically and economically, most outstanding in Pakistan and Egypt. Due to the combined power of business and arms, the military often manages to incorporate or quell competing groups and thus, to revert achievements of revolutionary movements.

In other cases, rump national militaries and non-state armed groups co-exist, or non-state armed groups creating their own economic basis have become a challenge that can lead up to the break-up of states. The empirical information for this presentation was taken from Businessmen in arms. With the help of techniques from natural language processing, keywords, term frequencies, cooccurrences and other characteristics can subsequently be derived. But what were the alternatives? The presentation focusses on first findings and, especially, methodological challenges of a mixed distant and close reading approach.

Several accounts of recent history have been published not only under state supervision but also thanks to civilian interest in the matter. This new tendency towards historiography has showed itself in many spheres of social and political life, however, it is a relatively neglected area in studies on postrevolutionary Iran.

This paper tries to take a small step in the huge issue of the relationship between history, historywriting and various aspects of states and state identity. More specifically, it aims at looking at how history is rewritten and even instrumentalized concerning international issues after the Revolution of in Iran. For this purpose, after deciphering which historical periods, events, figures etc.

This paper is an attempt of reading changing state identity based on the historical perceptions of the Self and the Other and the dynamics of Foreign Policy and historiographic discourses in relation to each other. Furthermore, it is an attempt to understand how the international and national boundaries are constructed in a sphere where international relations and history intermingles.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

The study argues that the state uses a dichotomic historical perception in which the society is a victim of foreign infiltrates and fought for only by some heroes who declared their victory in the Revolution. Occupations are times where this dichotomy appears the most. At those moments, the focus on the traitor leaders almost disappear, and the anger to- In order to control trade-routes to India, Napoleon had taken into account the settlement of European Jews along the Nile, the crossroad of Asia and Africa.

Although the dream of the French Empire lasted not long, the German military advisor Helmuth Moltke, who had been at the service of the Ottoman Empire till , came up with the idea to use settlers in Palestine in order to build a wall between Egypt and Syria. In doing so, Herzl promised to solve the refugee crisis.

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But the Zionist World Organisation, founded in Bale in , did not succeed in gaining significant support by one of the European imperialist powers or the Ottoman Empire. Not until France and England agreed on a new colonialist order in the course of secret diplomacy Sykes-Picot Agreement of at the end of World War I. The Zionist idea of a national home was adopted by the Balfour Declaration in , before being incorporated into the league of nations mandate of the British occupation of Palestine from After the suppression of the Palestinian uprising from , the United Nations plan of partition introduced finally the long suffering of the Palestinians.

It was Edward Said who not only initiated the field of postcolonial studies, but yet integrated Palestine into the long and ongoing century of anticolonial resistance, e. Auch die Darstellung der drusischen Religion in Dschumblats Texten entspricht dem Duktus der neuentdeckten Manuskripte, deren Entdeckung Dschumblats Vision des drusischen Glaubens legitimierte. Beirut , S. While more recent developments have been the focus of extensive research, these early accounts have not received any scholarly attention so far.

The paper therefore sheds light on the period between and which witnessed a major controversy about the legitimacy of female circumcision among Egyptian doctors, religious scholars, and intellectuals in the Egyptian press. Doctors called for an end of female circumcision from the s onward mainly because of its negative effects on women s health and sexual pleasure. Their criticism particularly targeted traditional midwives dayas for their unskilled and dangerous way of circumcising girls.

These doctors were part of an emerging secular male medical elite that benefited from the Egyptianization of medical education in the s and claimed the right to perform any kind of surgery, including circumcision, exclusively for themselves. By favouring a partial ban and medicalization of female circumcision, they negotiated their professional space against both female traditional health practitioners and religious scholars.

The latter, on the other hand, tried to preserve what they regarded as part of their traditional field of expertise, namely the Islamic legal tradition. No matter whether they supported female circumcision or not, they framed the question of its legitimacy primarily as a religious issue and allowed medical aspects to be taken into consideration only after deciding on its Islamic legal status.

The paper therefore argues that in these early debates, what was at stake was not primarily women s sexual and bodily integrity. Rather, women s bodies became a site for negotiating what it meant to be modern, and for negotiating the authority of secular vs. The debates therefore can be regarded as part of broader discourses in mid th century Egyptian society that focused on the rural and female population whose reform and uplifting was deemed necessary to create the modern Egyptian nation.

Die bisherige Forschung zum Nahen Osten konzentriert sich vor allem auf die zentralstaatliche Ebene. Zu Dezentralisierung und zu subnationalen Institutionen der territorial gegliederten politischen Verwaltung gibt es jedoch kaum politikwissenschaftliche Forschung. Als Ebene zwischen der lokalen und der nationalen Verwaltung mag sie jedoch bei der Umsetzung von Dezentralisierungspolitik eine besondere Rolle spielen. Ebenso gehen die Autoren davon aus, dass neben der Verfassung und anderen formalen Institutionen informelle Politik Einfluss auf das Ergebnis der Umsetzung von Dezentralisierung hat.

Umgekehrt beeinflusst der institutionelle Wandel, durch den neben Kompetenzen auch Macht verlagert wird, diese Netzwerke. Entering the Occident initially by means of literature in the late eighteenth century, it has expanded its domain as a living praxis since the turn of, and intensified its visibility and influence since the second half of, the twentieth century. The current paper explores this longstanding presence by means of dividing it into four chronological phases: a early literary Sufism ca.

Through contextualizing this trajectory against the background of the modern West, the paper then seeks to demonstrate how such presence, and the appeal of Sufism to Westerners, occurred chiefly during periods of intense self-critique of hegemonic modern culture within the Euro-American milieu, and how such simultaneity affected the image of Sufism in the West.

It is explained that the first phase of Sufi presence in the West, starting from around the turn of the nineteenth century, coincided with the appearance of counter-enlightenment movements such as Romanticism, which questioned the Age of Reason and its cornerstones, including rationality, materialism and scientism.

Sufism was thus seen as a part of the spiritual traditions of the Orient constituting the mystical other in contrast to the modern self. The second phase took place during another swell of criticism against modernity in the first half of the twentieth century, when counter-modern trends such as the universalistic Traditionalist School set out announcing the crisis of, and the need for a revolt against, the modern world.

Sufism, in its perennialist version, played a significant role at this time in constructing a novel alternative discourse in the West. Finally, the third and fourth phases occurred in an age when modern principles were the object of the most severe critiques yet and the currents challenging modernity moved from margin to center. The advocates of postmodernity then spoke of the end of modernity and the commencement of a distinct epoch after the modern period.

In such an atmosphere, Sufism, in both its New Age and orthodox variants, was an active component on the palette of Eastern spiritualities that reinforced the re-sacralization of Western discourse. As a result, the paper concludes that the dominant image of Sufism constructed since the second half of the eighteenth century in the West incorporates the critique of modern culture and participation in the reenchantment of the world, the latter being placed opposite to die Entzauberung der Welt, seen as a hallmark of modernity. Jahrhundert Die Frage nach dem Beginn menschlichen Lebens kann auf vielfache Weise beantwortet werden.

Es ist folglich bedeutend, wer sie diskutiert. Allerdings wurden bisher nur ansatzweise einzelne Akteure in den Blick genommen. Durch den Aufstieg der modernen westlichen Medizin entstanden seit dem Jahrhundert zahlreiche neue Auffassungen und Fakten, die Eingang in die rechtsphilosophische Betrachtung des Ungeborenen fanden.

Wie die bisherige Forschung gezeigt hat, erstellen neben den Rechtsgelehrten auch Mediziner eigene Studien zu Fragen vorgeburtlichen Lebens. The PhD thesis deals with the relationship and interaction between German domestic political variables and its foreign policy-making in the Middle East. The presentation takes place at a very early stage of research, thus seeks to put the broad analytical framework up for discussion. Given the debate on Germany s alleged growing importance in world politics, not only in light of changing transatlantic rela-. It seeks to identify specific linkages in selected policy fields between the domestic and foreign policy level and analyze the implications for German foreign policy choices in the region.

The thesis shall conclude with a range of policy recommendations. Veranschaulicht wird dies durch Beispiele wie den Arztbesuch oder Sport. Oktober um 11 Uhr. Ort: Seminarhaus, Max-Horkheimer-Str. Tagesordnung 1. Sonstiges gez. It is organized by Prof. Please note that the language used at the General Meeting is German.

Konto einziehen lassen. Traditionally Africa and Asia have been well represented, although Latin America and the Middle East have become more present in the conference proceedings in recent years. Annual Meeting: International Qur'anic Studies Association, Denver, CO, November Please feel free to contact the chairs specified by each program unit to which you d like to apply if you require further information or experience difficulties with the submission process.

Albuquerque, New Mexico, November The conference is dedicated to understanding the politics, economy, history, arts, and ecology of the Global 4 th Meeting of the Society of Iranian and Turanian Studies: "Genealogy, Transmissions and Prosopography". Autonomous University of Barcelona, November The organizing team of the fourth meeting has taken the decision to ask for papers on the theme of genealogy, transmissions and prosopography of Iran and the Eurasian steppes in the ancient and medieval periods.

This theme is of great importance for political history, the history of traditions, technology and science, diplomatics, literature and mythology. Emphasis will be given to theoretical, methodological or empirical aspects of these issues. What is, we ask, the analytical purchase of these turns within the study of Islam and Muslims in Europe? What, furthermore, might escape our attention while preferring one turn among the other?

International Conference: "The Migrant and the State: From Colonialism to Neoliberalism", Centre for Development Practice and Research, Takshila Campus, Patna, India, 29 November 1 December The Conference on the dynamic and ever-changing relationship between the state and the migrant aims to meet the timely demand of chronicling these interactive, interspersed narratives of mutuality where the figure of the migrant is produced in the various domains of statist paraphernalia over the last two hundred years.

Symposium: "Societal Conflict and Cohabitation in Turkey and Beyond", Institute for Turkish Studies SUITS , Stockholm University, 29 November-1 December We need to understand why in some cases societal conflicts escalate into collective violence while in other cases, the tensions exist but societal disputes are contained by formal or informal institutional mechanisms.

We welcome contributions from all disciplines in the social sciences and humanities both quantitative and qualitative and encourage interdisciplinary and comparative work in collaborative form. The conference will explore all three of the fundamental modes of dialogue and discourse reception, appropriation and innovation between Byzantium Global Conference: Migrations and Diasporas Incorporating Cultural Diversity as a Special Focus, Vienna, December Some of our suggested main issues to be approached include: Defining and measuring migration, the current refugee crisis, global and local social responses to migration, etc.

Our main goal is to facilitate dialogue and spark innovative collaborations and discussions at an international level, in a dynamic and interactive setting. Thus, we welcome participants from all relevant disciplines, professions and vocations. Conference: "Love s Labour s Cost? Asian Migration, Intimate Labour and the Politics of Gender", Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore, December To extend existing feminist theories about migration, labour, value, gender, and intimacy, this workshop calls for papers that commingle the intimate labour that people enact across the apparent divisions of their public and private lives, instead of analyzing migration in terms of separate and hostile domains of work and love, or money and affection.

Conference: Future of Salafism, Department of International Development, University of Oxford, December This conference is aimed at bringing together established scholars, post-doctoral researchers, as well as doctoral students who can offer original insights into how Salafi thought, and the diverse set of groups inspired by it, are evolving in different contexts in light of the post-arab Spring developments and the changes unfolding within Saudi Arabia.

Information: www. The poster session will be a forum for exchange of ideas, recent research results and experiences, and active dialogue between senior and junior scholars. International Interdisciplinary Conference: "Gulf Crisis: Origin, Repercussions and Future", Gulf Studies Center, Qatar University, December This annual international conference on the Gulf Crisis will debate on the role of the cyber and information security on the politics as well as the shift of alliances in the region.

This conference will also explore the long-term economic implications of the blockade and will identify how the economy of Qatar is adjusting to the impact of the siege. This change of residence location leads to a cultural frame switching entailing the development of bicultural identities flexible enough to adapt to new societal structures while retaining cultural citizenship in one s country of origin. Papers should take both realities into account and create a link between them in order to understand the immigration experience. Through indepth discussions of these case studies, past and present, we hope to build analytical models and a conceptual vocabulary for understanding the possible contours of relationships between strongmen, informal diplomats, and the numerous transnational networks that empower them.

Information: m. Information: icostantini unior. Conference: The Narrative of Islamic Violence. International Workshop: Migration: Mixed Migration Flows and the Changing Dynamics of Migration Research, Istanbul, 15 December The Workshop Series on migration seeks to question policy categories that are assumed to be fixed and natural and discuss new ways of analyzing migratory processes. Researchers at all academic levels and practitioners are invited to submit theoretical and empirical papers that address migration studies. Workshop: "Religion, Economy, and Value: Histories of Religious Fundraising", University of Copenhagen, December This workshop aims to bring together scholars working across a variety of religious, geographical and cultural contexts and historical periods to discuss what religious fundraising practices can tell us more broadly about economic thinking and conceptions of the social god.

What are the challenges of conducting fieldwork in Palestine and among Palestinian communities in diaspora? Deadline for abstracts in English or Arabic: 15 October Information: conference insaniyyat. Third International Conference of the Arab World Geographer: The Arab Encounter with Africa: Past, Present and Future, Zanzibar, Tanzania, January Social science scholars and other interested persons are welcome to submit abstracts and participate in field trips in this fascinating island where Arabs and Moslems contributed to culture and society for many centuries in the past and continue to do so today.

Deadline for abstracts: 25 November Information: Professor Dr. Ghazi-Walid Falah: falah ua kron. International Migration and Women Symposium: Being a Woman between Borders", Bursa, Turkey, December The main aim of the symposium is to create an approach that puts women in the center of migration topic and its economic, cultural, legal and social consequences.

Taking this into account and the need to carry out multidisciplinary research on migration, we would like to tackle the topic from the aspect of sociology, psychology, history, international relations, political science, cinema and media. For further information contact Abdulkader.

Tayob uct. Conference: Knowledge Exchange in Academic Cultures through Migration between and within Europe and the Black Sea Region until World War I and its Aftermaths Including Turkey , Scopje, Macedonia, January The conference aims to investigate cultural exchanges in a time of the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire, wars and massive migration on the one hand and in a time of increasing institutionalization of academic research on the other hand first professors and founders of education units, establishment of national training facilities, etc.

Deadline for abstracts: 30 September International Workshop: "Beyond Legal Documents: Constitutions in the Middle East Past and Present", Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, January This interdisciplinary workshop will bring together historians, legal scholars, and social scientists interested in exploring constitutions in countries of the Middle East, past and present, and from a comparative perspective.

It aims at studying regional constitutions and constitution writing in the economic, political, socio-cultural and socio-legal contexts in which they took place. The aim is to introduce a profound critical academic dialogue between the specialists in the domain of public policy analysis and decision makers to achieve a thorough diagnosis of public policies while constructively It will focus on the relationship between armed groups and the legitimate use of violence, by analyzing similarities, differences, transfers and their influences on the social world at large associations, coteries, clans, the nation, etc.

Second Khoja Studies Conference: " The Way : Historicizing the Interspace among Indic Religions", University of Mumbai, January This conference is intended to bring together scholars of the Adivasi, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, Sikhism, and Zoroastrianism to explore how aesthetics, authority, narratives, rituals, and script have been historically shared and divided by faith communities in South Asia.

The output of the conference will be two edited volumes. Workshop: "Marriage Migration, Family and Citizenship in Asia", National University of Singapore, 31 January February The workshop focuses on families formed out of cross-border marriages as a case in point to examine how the intricate nexus between marriage migration, family and citizenship emerges and develops in the context of inter-regional marriage migration within Asia or in Asian diasporas.

The official languages are Italian, English and French. Contact: torino se samoitalia. International Seminar on Identity, History, and Narrative in Contemporary Afghan, Gauhati University, India, February We invite papers that look into the complex cultural, historical and political contexts that underpin the literature emerging from both within Afghanistan and the Afghan diaspora since the last two decades. International Conference on Film Studies: "Identity, Projection and the Other", London Centre for Interdisciplinary Research, 9 February This conference aims to consider film studies from a variety of critical, theoretical, and analytical approaches and to focus on how "self-other" relations are represented.

Papers are invited on topics related, but not limited, to: Post-colonial discourses in the cinema; Representations of femininity and masculinity; Nationalism and multiculturalis; etc. Deadline for abstracts: 10 November Ce colloque souhaite les aborder en focalisant sur le Maghreb et le Moyen- Orient. Deadline for proposals: 15 November International Conference: Gender and Power, London Centre for Interdisciplinary Research, 2 March The conference is addressed to academics, researchers and professionals with a particular interest related to the conference topic. We invite proposals from various disciplines including history, sociology, political studies, anthropology, culture studies and literature.

Deadline for abstracts: 10 December How have the different forms of resistance in Islam changed throughout history? Deadline for abstracts: 1 October Conference: "Untangling Popular Power: Rhetoric, Faith, and Social Order in the Middle East", Columbia Global Center in Amman, Jordan, March The conference will consider various forms of popular power in the Middle East and North Africa by examining how populism is defined, the role of modern populist movements like anti-colonial struggles or popular anti-regime uprisings, how the use of religious identity has shaped these movements, and the relationship between populist ambitions and various media platforms, from print to broadcast to digital.

Conference: Arabic as a Language of Knowledge Transfer and Production: A Look into the Future, Doha Institute for Graduate Studies, March Themes: Role of language in knowledge transfer and production, Interrelationship of language and thought, Enforcement of language planning policies, Descriptive and analytical studies of native language proficiencies, Academic and intellectual requirements of knowledge processes, Academic language assessment tools, Realities of academic and language training in Arab universities, Socio- and Psycholinguistic param- Deadline for abstracts: 30 October Conference of the Association for the Scientific Study of Religion ASSR , Irving, TX, March ASSR invites paper proposals from faculty, graduate and undergraduate students on any topic concerning the scientific study of religion, particularly those dealing with the sociological, philosophical, economic, historical, psychological, and political considerations of religion in society.

International Conference: "Mirror, Mirror: Perceptions, Deceptions, and Reflections in Time", London Centre for Interdisciplinary Research, 9 March This conference explores how our virtual concepts and reconstructed worlds impact humanity, the arts, and nature in the age of rising anthropocentrism. Papers are invited on topics related, but not limited, to: Illusion and the ancient world-mirrors and other artifacts and their elite metaphysical uses; Specific cultural beliefs related to mirrors, truth, soul, and self; etc.

Deadline for abstracts: 15 November How did offers for higher appointments travel in Islamic lands? How did the competition between ruling elites and households impact this professional mobility? Conference: "Strictly Observant Religion, Gender and the State", Woolf Institute, Cambridge, March This conference seeks to address the question how strictly observant religious groups or "fundamentalists" challenge two basic principles within contemporary societies: gender equality and the modern state.

Ein extra abgegrenzter Bereich direkt vor der Klagemauer gilt als Freilichtsynagoge. Theology and ritual Judaism: Jewish tradition teaches that the Western Wall was built by King Solomon and that the wall we see today is built upon his foundations, which date from the time of the First Temple. Others believed that the wall still stood and was actually a surviving wall of the Temple courtyard. However, today there is no doubt that the wall is the western retaining wall of the Temple Mount and the Midrash refers to the Temple in its broader sense, that is, the Temple Mount.

When asked by Titus why he did not destroy it, Pangar replied that it would stand as a reminder of what Titus had conquered. He was duly executed. There is a tradition that states that when water starts trickling through the stones of the Wall, it is a signal of the advent of the Messiah. They then began calling it the Al-Buraq Wall. The tradition is first referred to in a manuscript by Ibn Furkah d. Other sources which referred to this tradition date from the 19th century and include the deliberation refusing the Jews the right to pave the area in front of the wall and the map of Jerusalem by Wilson that names the area around the Wailing Wall Hosh al-Buraq.

The second factor is the claim that it is waqf property and a part of the Noble Sanctuary. However, the actions of many modern Christian leaders, including Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI, who visited the Wall and actually left prayer messages in its crevices, has symbolized for many Christians a restoration of respect and even veneration for this ancient religious site. Some extreme Christian Zionists go further, claiming that the Third Temple must be rebuilt as part of the groundwork for the Second Coming.

A small group of extremists even advocate the destruction of the Muslim Dome of the Rock to hasten the new Temple construction. Views Jewish: Most Jews, religious and secular, consider the wall to be important to Judaism since it was originally built to hold the Second Temple. They consider the capture of the wall by Israel in as a historic event since it restored Jewish access to the site after a 19 year gap.

There are, however, some haredi Jews who hold opposing views. Most notable are the adherents of the Satmar hasidic sect who retain the views expoused by rabbi Joel Teitelbaum who would not approach the Wall. Our holy places, the Temple Mount - will remain under Israeli sovereignty forever. The Jews, he maintained, had no rights there at all. The Jews began praying at this wall only in the nineteenth century, when they began to develop [national] aspirations. The Jews cannot legitimately claim this wall, neither religiously nor historically. The Committee of the League of Nations recommended in , to allow the Jews to pray there, in order to keep them quiet.

But by no means did it acknowledge that the wall belongs to them. Ende hatte die Stadt At the end of , it had a total population of 38, consisting of over families. By , the population is expected to reach , Beitar Illit was established in and initially settled by a small group of young families from the religious zionist yeshiva of Machon Meir, including that of Rabbi Reuven Hass now of Beit El. As Beitar Illit began to grow, an influx of Haredi Jewish Bobov families came to predominate while the original group moved on. The city has since expanded to three adjacent hills.

It is named after the ancient Jewish city of Betar, whose ruins lie 1 km away. Demographics Beitar Illit is a fast-growing settlement, with a higher birthrate than any other habitation in the West Bank or Israel. According to the statistics from the Ministry of Interior, the population figures for January there are 34, members listed on their computers and 29, citizens that are listed as active.

The town is reported to have almost 20, schoolchildren. According to former mayor Yitzchak Pindrus, the population is expected to reach , by , based on population growth and the building of new apartments to attract more Haredim from older Haredi cities such as Bnei Brak and parts of Jerusalem. A significant. Geography Beitar Illit is in the northern Judean Hills at about m above sea level.

It is located just west of the intersection of Route 60, the north—south artery which roughly follows the watershed from Nazareth through Jerusalem to Beersheba, and Route , which descends west into the Elah Valley to the coastal plain and Tel Aviv area. It takes about 10 minutes to get to Jerusalem and Tel Aviv is around 60 minutes away. Status under international law Like all Israeli settlements in the Israeli-occupied territories, Beitar Illit is considered illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this. Education There are dozens of pre-schools, 50 elementary schools, 2 girls high schools, 3 yeshiva ketanahs, 2 yeshiva gedollahs, and 2 English kollels in Beitar Illit.

The resulting flooding with wastewater is said to endanger the water table as well as cause health problems for the nearby villagers. Media reports also say it ruins surrounding crops, vineyards, and almond orchards. Since , it has led the nation in environmental action, striving to fulfill its vision of a truly beautiful country. CBI is a public organization, under no governmental auspices. Its operations are funded mainly by philanthropic donations, through fund-raising events in Israel and abroad. Additional revenues come from strategic collaboration with leading companies in the industrial, financial and hi-tech sectors, social and community organizations, and from cooperation with governmental bodies such as the Ministry of Education and with the Israel Defense Forces IDF.

In accordance with this belief, CBI works through education, media campaigns, competitions and exemplary projects to inspire citizens and organizations in Israel to actively seek a greener, cleaner environment. This attitude allows CBI to gain wide public support for its initiatives and carry its messages through all parts of Israeli society. The Council is also escorted by leading public figures and top professionals who voluntarily give their time and expertise.

The Council for a Beautiful Israel has 2, dedicated longtime volunteers coming from and working for all sectors of the Israeli society: Secular, Religious and Haredi Jews, Arabs, Bedouins, and Druze. Activity Environmental Education The most profound, long-lasting changes are made through education. Therefore, the Council for a Beautiful Israel has made environmental education a major focus in its activities. This includes periphery towns, non-Jewish communities and major cities.

CBI is selected once and again by the Ministry of Education for developing and implementing environmental education programs, making them a household name. Media Campaigns In many cases, Media Campaigns are the most efficient way to have a de facto influence on public matters concerning the environment. The Council for a Beautiful Israel uses this outlet to address issues in cases where the involvement and awareness of the general public is critical: consumption of plastic bags, using energy efficient light bulbs, litter-free elections and so on. Competitions, Awards and Prizes Since , the Council for a Beautiful Israel has initiated and operated a series of unique national competitions.

These competitions grant recognition to organizations that strive toward excellence in environment and aesthetics, setting new standards in various fields and sectors. Among them are municipalities, industrial plants, IDF camps, hospitals and hotels. Through these awards and prizes, CBI not only recognizes but also rewards individuals and organizations whose contribution in creating a truly beautiful Israel is ground-breaking.

As the soldiers of today are the citizens of tomorrow, CBI sees environmental education within the armed forces as both influential and effective in introducing core values, which the soldiers will carry with them throughout their lives. Er grenzt an Bait Sahur. Im Jahr hatte Har Choma Jedoch fing die Grundsteinlegung unter der Regierung des Premierministers Benjamin Netanjahu nicht vor an.

Diese Jerusalemer Stadtgrenze wurde einseitig von Israel nach gezogen und ist international nicht anerkannt. In March , the Israeli government announced it would build 6, Jewish homes, expected to accommodate 30,, Israelis, at Har Homa. This announcement led to Palestinian riots and a breakdown in the peace talks. Following these events and heavy international pressure, construction was frozen.

In May , the Israeli government announced plans for the construction of 3, new apartments and government financed housing units in the Arab neighborhood of Sur Bahir, which faces Har Homa. Position of Palestinian Authority The Palestinians denounced the project as a Jewish settlement, stating that it will complete a ring of Jewish settlements around Jerusalem and seal off the city from the Palestinians Applied Research Institute of Jerusalem Website.

The PA views the project as a violation of the peace agreements because it creates facts on the ground which predetermine final status negotiations Palestinian National Authority Official Website. Position of U. Government The U. The U. In a vote of to 3, the United States, along with Israel and Micronesia, were the only countries among the members in the UN General Assembly to vote against an April resolution demanding an immediate halt to construction at Har Homa.

The previous month, a similar resolution condemning Israeli activity at Har Homa was passed to 2, with only the U. The Clinton Administration cautioned that while its UN votes do not indicate support for the project, the U. Built on land annexed to the Jerusalem municipality by Israel after the Six-Day War, it is considered by much of the world an illegal Israeli settlement, although Israel disputes this.

The neighborhood was officially renamed Homat Shmuel in after Shmuel Meir, a former deputy mayor of Jerusalem, who played an active role in its development before he was killed in a car accident in In , Har Homa had a population of 20, Following the war, the Jordanian Custodian of Enemy Property planted a pine forest there to prevent misuse of the land by local Jordanian residents.

Since , the forest has been maintained by the Jewish National Fund. Plans for residential development were drawn up in the s, but were opposed by Israeli environmental groups working to preserve the open areas in Jerusalem. Prime Minister Shimon Peres initially approved construction plans for Jewish homes on the site, but postponed the groundbreaking ceremony to avoid conflict with Palestinians who were seeking to overturn the decision in the Israeli courts. Controversy Israeli officials acknowledge that some Palestinian land was expropriated for the Har Homa neighborhood, but say that nearly 80 percent of the land taken for the project belonged to Jews.

Israel says Har Homa is within the city limits of Jerusalem and most of the land was owned by Jews prior to its conquest by Jordan in Furthermore, the land was unoccupied and undeveloped prior to the current construction; both Jewish and Arab landholders were compensated for the land; and residents of Beit Sahour would not be able to develop the land in any event as the Oslo agreements specifically barred Palestinian jurisdiction over Jerusalem for the time being, and also excluded settlements as an issue, leaving it for permanent status negotiations.

Most of the residents of Har Homa today are young families who moved there in search of affordable housing. When the Jerusalem Municipality approved the initial 2, housing units in Har Homa, it also approved 3, housing units and government financed housing units in the Arab neighborhood of Sur Baher, which faces Har Homa.

The plans were drawn up in , but the approval process was stepped up in May as a counterbalance to Jewish development at Har Homa Palestinian officials dismissed the project as a ploy aimed at deflecting international criticism. After failing to stop the development of the site, the residents of Beit Sahour have petitioned Israeli Supreme Court to return the undeveloped land between Beit Sahour and Har Homa to the Palestinian municipality, and to move the security fence to reflect their ownership of this land.

Views of U. While the United States has traditionally refrained from describing Jerusalem neighborhoods as settlements, in , Condoleezza Rice was critical of building tenders in Har Homa announced after the Annapolis meeting. Zurzeit gibt es rund Die Zentrale ist in Washington, D. Im Februar wurde in Frankreich die Pariser Loge nach ihm benannt.

It was one of the many fraternities that were founded in the United States during that period. In , for example, it circulated petitions urging Secretary of State Daniel Webster to demand the end of Jewish disabilities in Switzerland, during on-going trade negotiations. The spread of the organization around the world, first to Germany in and then to Palestine, Romania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, France, England and elsewhere, made it a nerve center of intra-Jewish communication and mutual endeavor.

Its ultimate purpose is to secure justice and fair treatment to all citizens alike and to put an end forever to unjust and unfair discrimination against and ridicule of any sect or body of citizens. Kennedy, George H. Bush, Stephen Harper and Golda Meir. It was part of the Jaffa—Jerusalem railway until its closure in The station today is also known as the Khan station for the old caravanserai building located across the road from its site now The Jerusalem khan Theater. The station was opened in as a terminus of the Jaffa—Jerusalem line, at the In the railway line to Jerusalem was closed and the station has been decaying since.

It was not included in the restoration of the Tel Aviv — Jerusalem line, completed in Plans exist to renovate it as an entertainment venue, similarly to the Jaffa Railway Station. History The idea to build a railway linking the coast with the Jerusalem was first raised in the middle of the 19th century by Dr. Conrad Schick, Moses Montefiore and others. Among those present at the ceremony was Eliezer Ben Yehuda, the reviver of the Hebrew language, which gave the train the literal name of — horse of the steel in Hebrew as the word Rakevet had not yet been created.

The station operated almost continuously until , when traffic stopped on the Jaffa—Jerusalem line due to the Arab—Israeli War. At the end of the war a section of the track near Beit Safafa, an Arab neighborhood in southeastern Jerusalem, remained under the control of the Jordanian Arab Legion. Following the Rhodes armistice agreement, it was agreed that Jordan will hand the control of this section of the track to Israel, in order to enable Israel Railways to restart the service to Jerusalem.

As a result, between to the Beit Safafa neighborhood was divided; the area south of the railway line was part of the Jordanian controlled West Bank and the railway line itself and small area to the North part of the Israeli controlled section of Jerusalem. The service on the line resumed on August 7, In the railway tracks to Jerusalem underwent extensive renovations, but over time, the number of passengers using the line decreased.

During the s, due to the poor level of railway tracks maintenance, there were many minor derailments[5]; therefore it was decided to close the section of the Jaffa—Jerusalem railway line from Beit Shemesh Railway Station along Nahal Sorek to Jerusalem. On 14 August the last train service left the station, and on 15 August the station was officially closed. The station building The station building is a symmetrical structure containing the station offices, ticket hall and a Concourse. The original building before later modifications was identical to the Ramla Railway Station and Jaffa Railway Station buildings, which were all built at the same time.

The triangular arches on the roof of the first floor, on both sides of the ticket hall, were built in early s by the British-run Palestine Railway, who managed the railway during the British Mandate of Palestine. The building underwent many renovations over the years, but its basic shape has not changed since The station today Today, the station is abandoned and suffering from neglect and vandalism.

The area where the station is located is of prime real estate potential. One of the plans of the Jerusalem Development Authority is to build a new neighborhood on the land surrounding the station. The plan also includes moving the station building about 20 meters to make room for a new road, however conservation officials have expressed concern that moving the station would cause the destruction of the entire structure, this despite being one of buildings selected for preservation in Jerusalem. In recent years the area around the station has been used during cultural events; such as: the Jerusalem Film Festival, Jerusalem Jazz Festival and Israel Festival.

According to Christian tradition, John the Baptist was born in Ein Kerem, leading to the establishment of many churches and monasteries. In , the neighborhood had a population of 2, It attracts three million visitors a year, one-third of them pilgrims from around the world. Some Palestinian internal refugees families were resettled in the village, however, the original residents were completely ethnically cleansed.

Wer macht mit? Juli demonstrierten Die Demonstrationen wuchsen jedoch weiter an und bereits am Neben Mieten wurden zunehmend auch andere Probleme, etwa Verschlechterungen der Gesundheitsversorgung und des Bildungssystems angesprochen. Bereits am 3. Im August wuchsen die Demonstrationen auf Auch arabische Israelis schlossen sich den Demonstrationen an. Forderungen der Demonstranten Die Bewegung begann mit der Forderung nach bezahlbarem Wohnraum, innerhalb kurzer Zeit wurden jedoch auch allgemeinere Forderungen nach einer Senkung der Lebenshaltungskosten und sozialer Gerechtigkeit erhoben.

Als problematisch wird angesehen, dass die beteiligten Gruppen ein sehr breites inhaltliches Spektrum bilden und daher in ihren Forderungen nicht einheitlich auftreten. It was established in by a number of independent Palestinians who re cognized the crucial need for a professional body to revive and preserve visual arts being a major part of the Palestinian cultural identity. Al Hoash was founded with a vision to establish the first Palestinian Art Museum. The museum will be a national institute for the public to acquire, conserve, research, communicate and exhibit. The mission of al Hoash is to collect, preserve, interpret, and promote Palestinian visual arts, through actively interacting with artists and the local community, building art knowledge and appreciation among Palestinians particularly the youth and documenting Palestinian visual art.

The annual program also contains planning and organizing art workshops for women, children, youth, and artists, to enhance their creative abilities, and explore new means of self expression. As a contribution to preserve the Palestinian art heritage al Hoash is establishing a professional art archive for Palestinian artists and producing arts book and other art research based publication.

While the term has also been used to refer to ancient art produced in the geographical region of Palestine, in its modern usage it generally refers to work of contemporary Palestinian artists. Similar to the structure of Palestinian society, the Palestinian art field extends over four main geographic centers: the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Israel; the Palestinian diaspora in the Arab world; and the Palestinian diaspora in Europe and the United States.

Contemporary Palestinian art finds its roots in folk art and traditional Christian and Islamic painting popular in Palestine over the ages. After the Nakba of , nationalistic themes have predominated as Palestinian artists use diverse media to express and explore their connection to identity and land. Proximity and distance from the historical Palestinian homeland and the relationship between the artist and his current place of residence is the key element moving Palestinian art. For example, in art produced during the first decades following , works created by Palestinian artists living in places within the region of their country of birth with largely figurative, whereas those created by artist living furthest from it were largely abstract.

This reflects how the idea of a Palestinian homeland is more abstract to the distant exile or refugee and more figurative or concrete for the artist still dwelling there or nearby. Before , Jerusalem occupied was the key place explored by Palestinian artists reflecting its spiritual and cultural importance to the Palestinian polity.

However, after , the dispersal of Palestinians, large scale ethnic cleansing from their homeland, and new conception of identity changed the idea of place so that there was no central hub of Palestinian art. After , memory of place and distance from homeland became a central theme in Palestinian art. Even among Palestinian artist who were born and raised in Israel explored their own alienation of growing up as foreigners within the geographical land of their ancestors. Each sought to explore the question of cul-.

Politics Palestinian art - from the early religious paintings of the 19th century to completely abstract works created today also tend to explore a common focus on the idea of resistance and the political backdrop of the Palestinian issue. The Palestinian identity itself is often dismissed by Zionist groups as being indistinct from Arab or Islamic identity thus the act of making art itself and claiming identity is at times a form of protest. Even during the colonialism, struggle with Ottoman or British forces played a key role in Palestinian art.

One of the earliest artist to add a political dimension to his works was Nicola Saig While most of the art at the time tended to explore religious themes and non-controversial issues so as to not offend conservative patrons or ire the British authorities00 Saig managed to give his works a striking political dimension. For instance, his work Caliph Umar at Jerusalem Gates c.

However, upon closer look, the subject matter and the Christ-like stature given to the Caliph in the painting jab at what many Palestinians saw as divisive policies of the British during the Mandate Period which attempted to create friction between Muslims and Christian Arabs. After , politics became a lot more blatant in Palestinian art. Beginning with Ismail Shammout, Naji al-ali, Mustafa al-Hallaj and Paul Guiragossian directly tackled the painful memories of the Nabka with works showing massacres, refugees, and clear political themes.

Others such as Sophia Halaby, Ibrahim Ghannam, and Juliana Seraphim focused more subtly on questions of identity including Palestinian cultural traditions, physical geography, and especially case of Juliana Seraphim and others, surrealistic look at memories of childhood reverie. Symbolism Palestinian art employs a number of key iconic symbols that reflect the cultural and political dimensions of art. Likewise the Cactus Tree plays a prominent symbolic role in Palestinian art representing national dispossession. Israeli Jews raised the indigenous plant to the status of a national symbol while Palestinians saw it as an incarnation of their national dispossession.

Both Israeli and Palestinian artist helped to inform and shape the Cactus Tree as a symbolic artistic symbol for the region. The earliest photographs of Palestine from the 19th and 20th century show cactus hedges dotting the landscape. The plant served the practical function to designate territorial borders in peasant villages. In summer, the prickly pear was a common fruit eaten by people in the region. During the s, the thorny tree was the main element most Jewish settlers from Europe used to represent their new exotic home and eventually became incorporated as a major symbol of Israeli identity.

Nicolas Saig, one of the earliest Palestinian artists to break from the Christian icon tradition, painted works of the prickly pear cactus to break into secular art by capturing one of the most common pleasures of the era. The prickily pear still lives served as some of the most important early secular works of the period. The cactus also had become a symbol of Palestinian defiance and sumud. Pre Most Palestinian artists during this time were self-taught, painting landscapes and religious scenes in imitation of the European style, but overall the discipline was not very developed and art exhibitions were almost unheard of.

Sophie Halaby was an exception, in that she was educated in France where she lived and worked for years. Jamal Badran — was a leading artist in the Islamic style. Thus, the point of departure from which the history of the Palestinians in Israel is written is the very point in which the history of the Palestinians outside Israel was created. Art institutions in Israel, for example, are attended by a maximum of three Palestinian students per year. Palestinian artists are forced to develop their artistic modes of expression in Hebrew, rather than their mother tongue of Arabic.

The allusion is to a tenacious, thorny desert plant with a thick hide that conceals a sweet, softer interior, suggesting that even though the Israeli Sabra are rough and masculine on the outside, they are delicate and sensitive on the inside. Februar erstmals zusammen. Die derzeit amtierende Knesset wurde am Letzte Parlamentswahlen Die letzten Parlamentswahlen zur Knesset fanden am Februar statt.

Als dritte Kraft etablierte sich die ultranationalistische Partei Israel Beitenu Das ganze Land besteht nur aus einem Wahlkreis. Nur einmal, in der achten Knesset von bis , waren neun Parteien vertreten. Um Gesetzeskraft zu erlangen, muss ein Gesetzentwurf drei Lesungen in der Knesset passieren. Danach erscheint sie im Regierungsbulletin und wird zuletzt vom Justizminister mit dem Staatssiegel versehen.

Gegen ein beschlossenes Gesetz kann vor dem Obersten Gerichtshof Klage erhoben werden. August der Sitz des Parlaments. Der typische er-Jahre-Bau verbindet konstruktivistische Elemente mit wenigen klassizistischen Elementen. The park was established in Over varieties of roses are grown there, many of them gifts from countries around the world. The Wohl Rose Park covers 19 acres 77, m2. It is one of the few rose parks of its kind in the Middle East, where there is no rainfall in summer. Each section has rose varieties characteristic of, or grown in, the respective country.

The park also has an experimental section where new varieties of roses are tested for their suitability for public and private gardens in Israel. From Wikipedia, Representatives from the 40 tent cities across the country and the heads of the Student Union on Tuesday reached an agreement on eight demands to present to the Netanyahu government to settle the housing and social issues crisis.

The agreement was reached during a meeting held at the University of Tel Aviv on Tuesday. On Monday , the student union convinced tent city protest leaders to nix a demand that cameras be present at any negotiation with the government. From docstalk. Sitz des Gerichts ist Jerusalem. Die Amtszeit endet mit Vollendung des The Supreme Court sits in Jerusalem. The area of its jurisdiction is all of Israel and the Israeli-occupied territories. A ruling of the Supreme Court is binding upon every court, other than the Supreme Court itself. This is the principle of binding precedent stare decisis in Israel.

The Supreme Court can sit as an appellate court and a court of first instance. The Court has ruled on numerous issues relating to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the rights of Arab citizens of Israel, and on discrimination between Jewish groups in Israel. It is unique in that its rulings can intervene in Israel Defense Forces military operations.

The committee is chaired by the Minister of Justice. Thus, the shaping of the judicial body, through the manner of judicial appointment, is carried out by all the authorities together. Justices: he number of Supreme Court justices is determined by a resolution of the Knesset. Usually, 12 Justices serve in the Supreme Court. At the present time there are 14 Supreme Court Justices. At the head of the Supreme Court and at the head of the judicial system as a whole stands the President of the Supreme Court, and at his or her side, the Deputy President. Roles: Appellate court: As an appellate court, the Supreme Court considers cases on appeal both criminal and civil on judgments and other decisions of the District Courts.

It also considers appeals on judicial and quasi-judicial decisions of various kinds, such as matters relating to the legality of Knesset elections and disciplinary rulings of the Bar Association. The court has broad discretionary authority to rule on matters in which it considers it necessary to grant relief in the interests of justice, and which are not within the jurisdiction of another court or tribunal.

The High Court of Justice grants relief through orders such as injunction, mandamus and Habeas Corpus, as well as through declaratory judgments. In a matter on which the Supreme Court has ruled—whether as a court of appeals or as the High Court of Justice—with a panel of three or more justices, it may rule at a further hearing with a panel of a larger number of justices. A further hearing may be held if the Supreme Court makes a ruling inconsistent with a previous ruling or if the Court deems that the importance, difficulty or novelty of a ruling of the Court justifies such hearing.

Composition: The Supreme Court, both as an appellate court and the High Court of Justice, is normally constituted of a panel of three Justices. The Supreme Court may sit as a panel of a larger uneven number of justices than three in matters that involve fundamental legal questions and constitutional issues of particular importance. A ruling to hold a retrial may be made where the Court finds that evidence provided in the case was based upon lies or was forged; where new facts or evidence are discovered that are likely to alter the decision in the case in favor of the accused; where another has meanwhile been convicted of carrying out the same offense and it appears from the circumstances revealed in the trial of that other person that the original party convicted of the offense did not commit it; or, where there is a real concern for miscarriage of justice in the conviction.

In practice, a ruling to hold a retrial is very rarely made. Intervention: In the s and the s, the Supreme Court established its role as a protector of human rights, intervening to secure freedom of speech and free-. He writes that, It makes rich and wide-ranging references to the whole lexicon of Eretz-Israel building over the centuries, starting with Herodian structures, through the Hellenistic tomb of Absalom, the Crusaders, Greek Orthodox monasteries, and up to the British Mandate period.

This outpouring is organized in a complex, almost baroque structure, built out of contrasts light-shade, narrow-wide, open-closed, stone-plaster, straight-round, and a profusion of existential experiences. There is no clear front door and no simple pattern to the organization. The building cannot be described solely as long, or solely as rounded or as being arranged around a series of courtyards, though from certain angles, like the elephant described by the blind man, it could be thought to be any one of these.

The building is a blend of enclosed and open spaces; old and new; lines and circles. Approaching the Supreme Court library, one enters the pyramid area, a large space that serves as a turning point before the entrance to the courtrooms. Natural light enters round windows at the apex of the pyramid, forming circles of sunlight on the inside walls and on the floor.

Juni beschloss die Knesset die Hariri Resolution, nach der eine Verfassung in Form von einzelnen Grundgesetzen aufgebaut werden soll. Mai und durch inzwischen 11 Grundgesetze ersetzt. Die zwischen und verabschiedeten neun Grundgesetze befassen sich alle mit den Institutionen des Staates Israel. Er stammt aus dem haschimitischen Zweig der Koreischiten und war ein Vetter und Schwiegersohn des Propheten Mohammed, dessen Tochter Fatima er heiratate.

Auch herrschte in der Frage der Nachfolge innerhalb der Umma kein Konsens.

Doku über den Nahostkonflikt Palästina Israel Deutsch

Er leitete das sogenannte Goldene Zeitalter des Islams ein. Ali als vierter Kalif Am Juni wurde Ali nach der Ermordung des dritten Kalifen, Uthman. Doch konnte Ali die Anerkennung seines Kalifats gegen Muawiya nicht durchsetzen. Unter Ali begann sich das politische Zentrum des Kalifats zu verschieben. Tod Am Januar Er starb am Sonntag, dem Ramadan 40 , durch die schweren Verletzungen. Er wurde 63 Jahre alt und starb damit angeblich im selben Alter, in dem auch der Prophet Mohammed starb.

Muawiya folgte dem verstorbenen Ali im Kalifenamt nach und wurde als Muawiya I. Muawiya I. Yazid I. Dadurch waren alle Hoffnungen der Schiiten, einen Kalifen aus der Blutslinie von Ali zu installieren, gescheitert. Wer zu mir gelangen will muss erst durch Ali. Unterschiede tauchen bei der Interpretation auf. Alis Grabmoschee, die Imam-Ali-Moschee, befindet sich nach herrschender Ansicht im irakischen Nadschaf, das daher auch als schiitisches Theologiezentrum gilt. Nach einer anderen Version befindet sich die Grabmoschee,. The population of Wadi Joz is 13, In the early s, an oil depot and distribution center was established there.

In , a neighborhood association was formed to push for improvements in local services and infrastructure. Another mosque is the Hejazi Mosque built later in the 20th century. An ephemeral stream flows through it with occasional flash floods in the rainy winter months. It then continues east through the Judean Desert, towards the Dead Sea, descending feet along its 20 mile course.

The settlement Kedar, located on a ridge above the valley, is named after it. According to the prophecies, in the war of Gog and Magog, the two major coalitions of gentile nations will join forces against the Jewish state in Israel. Israel will be overwhelmed and conquered, and the last stronghold will be Jerusalem, which will also be conquered by the gentiles. After the gentiles finally succeed and destroy Israel, God will commence Judgement. In the prophecies, it says he will bring the gentiles down to Emek-Yehoshafat Kidron Valley , and then he will judge all of the gentiles for all of the wrong they have done against Israel since the be-.

It should be noted, though, that not all scholars agree with the traditional view that the Kidron Valley is the location of the Valley of Jehoshaphat. Biblical commentator Adam Clarke maintains this view, claiming that the Valley of Judgment is a symbolic place. Tombs The valley is also known for its tombs most notably the Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary which is revered by both Christians and Muslims. There are many Muslim tombs present, as well as Christian holy places including the tombs of Saint James, and Josaphat.

Other scriptural significance According to the Tanakh, King David fled through the valley during the rebellion of Absalom. According to the New Testament Jesus crossed the valley many times traveling between Jerusalem and Bethany. Contemporary There is a controversial proposal to reconstruct part of the valley in a Palestinian neighborhood of East Jerusalem and turn it into a park to be called the Garden of the King.

Hauptorte seines Wirkens waren Aleppo und Schiraz. Rockefeller — er spendete zwei Millionen Dollar — erbaut. Jahrhundert und marmorne Schlusssteine aus der Grabeskirche. Jahrhundert, zu sehen. Im Nordraum sind Exponate aus der Kreuzfahrerzeit ausgestellt. Most of the buildings that are institutional in origin, such as former or present Madrasas Moslem religious academies , khans inns , mosques, courts and tombs date back to the Mamluke Period C.

Some of the former are even remodeled Crusader structures as are some of the covered markets. Walking up Hagai St. Mannequins model head scarves, stores and even occasional fashion posters displaying traditional Moslem dress. The atmosphere is enhanced by the banter of local merchants and the smell of falafel and other local victuals.

If you keep your eye on the right side of the street, you should spot some traditional Arab bakeries with massive stone ovens. Next to Abu Shukri is a souvenir shop, which overflows with pure capitalism: Side by side are T-shirts displaying emblems of the Israeli air force, Free Palestine, Yassir Arafat, Che Guevera and the Uzi submachine gun.

Along the route you are likely to see both Jews and Arabs sporting different variations of their traditional dress, as well as a variety of Christian clergy people with their own unique attire and possibly even pilgrims carrying large wooden crosses as they ply the Via Dolorosa. In the street next to the 3rd Station are several 2nd-3rd century C. The stones were raised, and are now integrated into the present day street. The Austrian Hospice is at the northeast corner of this junction.

This building is little island of Vienna in the Middle East. The view from its roof is stunning. The illusion of Austria is jolted back to reality when the Mosque across the street starts calling the faithful to pray! Have an enjoyable walk.