Rather than accept reassignment, Thomas and Goldsmith quit the university and went to work for Ned. Berkeley breeding program. Which would have been lost otherwise. In spite of what Thomas and Goldsmith, and the Driscolls and the Reiters, believed in , the university did not abandon its breeding program. In , the university, which presumably retained copies of plants that left the collection, released five new varieties, designed by Thomas and Goldsmith and named for the mountains and lakes of California.
It moved its laboratories north from Berkeley to Davis, and hired breeders to take up where the others had left off. Developing successful cultivars from a set of potential parents depends on intuition, experience, sensibility, and luck, as much as it does on systematic data collection and dogged trial and error. In , Thomas and Goldsmith crossed two university varieties, only one of which was widely available, yielding what at first appeared to be an unimpressive plant of uncertain commercial value.
With that, the company was on its way to becoming a grocery-store staple, a nationwide brand that markets could rely on enough to build display cases around. Dillard, the brand strategist, dreams of a ten-dollar clamshell filled with splurge-worthy super-premium berries. One day at Cassin Ranch, Phil Stewart, the strawberry geneticist, took me into his greenhouse.
Germplasm was everywhere: geriatric university stock; plants from a public seed bank maintained by the U. To explore the limits of this capacity, he was growing a leathery, dark-green plant in a tub of heavily salted water. An oversized jar of Morton salt sat nearby.
Can GMOs Help End World Hunger? | HuffPost
Deeper in the greenhouse, we came upon a droopy little berry that looked like a gnome hat felted by a Waldorf mom. Zuks, was thought to have been grown by Thomas Jefferson; Stewart ordered it from a nursery that works with Monticello. The shelf life is pathetic—berries picked in the morning are trash by the afternoon—but it is strongly resistant to mildew. Even more interesting to the Joy Makers is its aromatic profile, which reflects an abundance of methyl anthranilate, an ester that is rarely found in cultivated varieties, and that calls to mind grape Jolly Ranchers though it can also have a whiff of Gorgonzola.
Like much of what I saw in the greenhouse, Mr. We have people just as capable of identifying good flavors as whoever it was in France who happened upon that strawberry. Ward mentioned that Stewart had made a cross with a wild berry from Alaska. Each one has a different flavor, so it is like that experience that people want to have in the wild. The next day, I visited the consumer lab. It was spacious, consisting of two rooms, and had a determined-to-be-cheerful air, with an orange-painted wall and a whiteboard on which someone had doodled a picture of a raspberry plant over a diagram of a chemical compound.
Only the Mara des Bois exhibited its presence. French consumers really like Mara des Bois, and people like wild strawberries. Another compound, cinnamyl acetate, showed up in some of the berries. What would happen if we introgressed that and got multiple compounds in a strawberry? Looking to the wild for exotic traits—that would be absurd.
As inventors, Shaw and Larson earned as much as two million dollars a year in royalties. But, in , as Shaw prepared for retirement, he began to worry that the university was shifting its focus from field work to the well-funded area of genomics. Where would the cultivars come from?
Like Thomas and Goldsmith before them, Shaw and Larson decided to leave the university for the private sector. In particular, Shaw wanted access to the varieties that he had developed but had not yet released. Criteria for classifying included studies.
The berry behemoth turned produce into a beauty contest, and won.
The study mainly focuses on the impacts of GM crops at farm-level without considering co-existence issues see below. The study mainly focuses on the impacts on environmental economics aspects, including economic quantification of:. It is important to mention that we will make our best effort to retrieve the full text of all potential relevant studies after the first screening, given time and budget constraints. The maximum amount of time we are considering for finishing collecting all the data for the systematic map is six months, which includes the time we will dedicate to contacting the authors of missing references.
Our team currently composed of 10 reviewers will screen the studies identified during the systematic searches in different languages to exclude irrelevant titles. If the Kappa value is less than 0. General information about the study authors, year of publication, affiliation, donor. Type of publication e. Type of evaluation method e.
Other relevant qualitative information, especially when the study design is only qualitative e. The data presentation will include descriptive statistics by type of socio-economic impact; population; geographical focus of the evidence e. The final outcomes of this protocol will be a systematic map report on the socio-economic impacts of GM crops worldwide based on the evidence available in six languages, and a searchable database including the list of references of the included studies, along with the information extracted from those studies; the list of excluded studies and reasons for exclusion; and the list of potentially relevant studies with full text not available.
However, systematic reviews, in contrast to systematic maps, include an evidence synthesis and are set out to critically appraise the evidence. Both systematic maps and systematic reviews are considered stand-alone pieces of review of the evidence. Nevertheless, systematic maps can also be undertaken as the first step before conducting systematic reviews, which would be only undertaken if there is sufficient quantity and quality of evidence on specific sub-topics for example, the CASE project [ 57 ] conducted first a broad systematic map and then subsequent systematic reviews on particular sub-topics identified from the systematic map.
TUM may conduct subsequent systematic reviews, which will depend on the amount of evidence found in particular sub-topics and time availability after finishing the systematic map. Given the case, TUM will elaborate additional independent protocols before conducting the systematic reviews. In contrast, free terms are natural language terms i. Jiao Xu, Camilo Lopez, and Oliver Etzel provided support with the searches in different databases and languages.
Roi Duran provided inputs related to the translation of the search terms in Portuguese. Al-Asadi translated the search terms to French, selected the language-specific databases and conducted searches in this language no longer member of the GRACE team. The authors are grateful to the six reviewers from CEE who provided useful comments and suggestions to this protocol. Sources of support.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Systematic Review Protocol Open Access. What are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? A systematic map protocol. Environmental Evidence The official journal of the Collaboration for Environmental Evidence 3 Abstract Background Genetically modified GM crops have generated a great deal of controversy.
Methods This protocol specifies the methodology for identifying, evaluating, and mapping evidence related to the main review question: what are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? In particular, the Description of Work DoW for GRACE states that TUM is responsible for carrying out reviews on the following key topics: 1 farm-level economic impacts of GM crops; 2 economics of coexistence; 3 economics of segregation at the level of supply-chains; and 4 consumer acceptance of GM crops.
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The stakeholders include members of industry and civil society organizations, as well as competent authorities on GM crops in the EU Member States and scientific experts from academia d. Two new topics were added based on stakeholder requests: environmental economic impacts e of GM crops and the impacts of GM crops on food security for more information about the participatory process, see GRACE [ 8 ]. The extensive systematic map will address the broad review question: what are the socio-economic impacts of genetically modified crops worldwide? Figure 1 Overall conceptual model of the topics to be covered in the systematic map.
Farmers have different socio-economic motivations for adopting GM crops. Significant socio-economic determinants include: gender associated aspects e. For GM adopters, potential changes in yield and economic returns depend on current and previous crops and specific trait characteristics; agricultural practices; incidence of pest infestation; seed costs; and market characteristics e. The adoption of GM crops could have different impacts on wealthier and poorer farmers e. Ethical aspects may also be affected, as it has been demonstrated that ethical values can change over time e.
Finally, cultural aspects may be impacted as well; for example, GM seeds need to be purchased, causing a disturbance in the traditional exchange of seeds among indigenous farmers along with potential changes in identity and trust among involved farmers. This conceptual model shows that socio-economic factors influence farmer decisions regarding the adoption of GM crops.
The potential income-related impacts include changes in the use of inputs; associated costs; output quantity and quality ; and gross income. Some farmers could experience changes in time available for conducting off-farm income-generating activities. Primary social, ethical, and cultural aspects are also depicted in the conceptual model.
Figure 2 Conceptual model of socio-economic impacts on farmers. The possibility that GM farms contaminate non-GM farms via unintentional or inadvertent gene flow constitutes a challenge for the coexistence of GM farming and conventional agriculture, including organic certified agricultural systems. Several studies have analysed the effects that the introduction of ex-ante regulatory and ex-post liability aspects would have on farm-level costs and GM spatial configuration and adoption dynamics e. In addition, potential benefits due to higher price premiums for non-GM products have also been evaluated e.
The different coexistence options are expected to influence in different manners GM and non-GM farm-level costs, particularly operational; transaction; opportunity; and testing and remediation costs. GM adoption dynamics could change as well, such as the rate of adoption, spatial configuration, and speed and stability of GM expansion. GM-farmers would also generate externalities and directly influence the economic benefits of non-GM farmers due to inadvertent gene flow from GM to non-GM fields which may create problems for non-GM farmers willing to sell their products in specific markets e.
Finally, social factors, such as the level of trust between neighbors, would influence farm-level costs e. Figure 3 Conceptual model of socio-economic impacts of coexistence. In general, the basic elements of the structure of the supply chain include: a Vertical relations.
The main factors related to supply chain performance are: a Efficiency or the ability to deliver value at a minimum of total costs. Several studies have analysed the effect that the commercialization of GM crops would have on the supply chain structure, as well as the distribution of costs and benefits of different actors along the supply chain e. Moreover, governance mechanisms and market power of different actors would also be affected e. This conceptual model shows that the commercialization of GM products under different enforced coexistence rules, labeling schemes, and protection of intellectual property rights would have impacts on the supply chain structure e.
This in turn would affect the distribution of costs and benefits for the different actors along the supply chain, as well as their market power ability to influence the price of a commercialized item. Figure 4 Conceptual model of socio-economic impacts along the supply chain.
Other studies have evaluated the option values of a moratorium or ban on GM products e. Those price premiums and option values have been used to calculate economic welfare effects e. The conceptual model shows that GM products can be introduced into the market under mandatory and voluntary GM-related labels, including different tolerance levels or percentage of GM ingredients in the final products or can be subject to moratorium or ban.
Potential buyers can indicate their willingness to pay WTP for these products, and changes in social welfare can be calculated based on the differences between the WTP and actual or expected prices price premiums. If there is a moratorium or ban on GM products, option values can be calculated based on a hypothetical WTP to preserve or maintain this situation.
Social welfare can be estimated by the difference between the WTP and the opportunity costs of forgoing economic growth associated with the commercialization of GM products. Social, ethical, and cultural aspects were added as requested by stakeholders. Figure 5 Conceptual model of socio-economic impacts at consumer level. Figure 6 Conceptual model of environmental economic impacts of GM crops. In relation to GM crops, reports from expert governmental and nongovernmental bodies increasingly include GM crops as part of a wider approach to food security [ 50 ]. GM crops could help to mitigate expected food shortages related to population growth and the effects of climate change in specific regions worldwide.
Figure 7 Conceptual model of food security at household level. Our question related to the overall objective of the systematic map is: What research evidence exists number of studies and the current state of research studies on the socio-economic impacts of GM crops worldwide in Chinese, English, French, German, Spanish, and Portuguese languages? Relating to the secondary objectives, the systematic map will identify the types of socio-economic impacts; populations; crops and GM traits; geographical focus; research methodologies; evidence gaps; and the particular topics that could be subjects of further analyses or subsequent systematic reviews.
Therefore, the questions related to the secondary objectives of the systematic map are: a What types of socio-economic impacts have been addressed? What types of populations have been addressed? What types of crops and GM traits have been addressed? What is the geographical focus of the evidence? What research methods have been used to collect and analyse the evidence?
Search strategy Systematic maps require an objective and reproducible search of a range of sources to identify as many relevant studies as possible within resource and time limits. Search terms which did not retrieve relevant references e. The searches were conducted on title, abstract, and keywords. Finally the titles from the reference lists of the reviews and meta-analysis included in the Additional file 1 were visually examined to evaluate the completeness of our selected search terms, and new search terms were added when needed e.
Table 1 List of search terms in English language. Little evidence exists to guide prioritization of databases for reviewers [ 51 ]. Our criteria for database selection considered the following aspects: a subject area socio-economics ;. Table 2 Selected databases, platforms, and search engines for searches in English language. Specific search strategies must be constructed for each database indicated above. Some databases allow truncation, stemming, and searches with strings, while others only partially or do not allow doing so.
When a database does not allow truncation or stemming, different words endings or suffixes need to be used for conducting the searches for example, with Google Scholar. During our scoping exercise, we identified the total number of records obtained from searches in each of the databases included in our protocol. The details of the searches per database in English, and the results of the searches for non-English languages are included in the Additional file 7.
Table 3 Number of references identified per database in English language.
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Our inclusion criteria specify the types of populations, interventions, comparators, outcomes, and study designs, to be addressed in the systematic map. The identified studies will be screened against these criteria in order to be included in the systematic map. First, the studies will be screened against the inclusion criteria by title and abstract when available.
The studies which do not fulfill the inclusion criteria will be excluded. In case of doubt, the study will be retained for further evaluation. Second, we will review the abstract and full text of the articles, and in a similar way, the studies that do not fulfill the general inclusion criteria will be excluded.
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