To never fall. To play this now and do it all. This Is Beat: The Way. The Way. Be an Artist. Do it now. I want to be luminous, a single blot of paint, the canvas of your eye, a duo on shallow wallow. I want the arc of moon in the vacant road, a sudden swath of carnelian paradise, the layering of dark upon dusk upon our arrival of the final departure. I want the shawl of a couple, nearly unseen, just serene shadowing. Let me be in the shining, in the light of something impasto: memory into sludge, into the distance beginning.
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Stunned into Being: Essays on the Poetry of Lorna Dee Cervantes
The Eleven Eleven Staff. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty. For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law.
The Indian Citizenship Act of granted U. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution , allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands.
The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption.
Before the European settlement of what is now the United States , Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. This mission, San Francisco's oldest standing building, is located in the northwest area of the neighborhood; the Mission District is located in east-central San Francisco.
It is bordered to the east by U. Route , which forms the boundary between the eastern portion of the district, known as " Inner Mission ", its eastern neighbor, Potrero Hill. Sanchez Street separates the neighborhood from Eureka Valley to the north west and Noe Valley to the south west; the part of the neighborhood from Valencia Street to Sanchez Street, north of 20th Street, is known as the "Mission Dolores" neighborhood.
Cesar Chavez Street is the southern border. North of the Mission District is the South of Market neighborhood, bordered by Duboce Avenue and the elevated highway of the Central Freeway which runs above 13th Street. The principal thoroughfare of the Mission District is Mission Street. South of the Mission District, along Mission Street, are the Excelsior and Crocker-Amazon neighborhoods, sometimes referred to as the " Outer Mission "; the Mission District is part of San Francisco's supervisorial districts 6, 9 and The Mission is warmer and sunnier than other parts of San Francisco; the microclimates of San Francisco create a system by which each neighborhood can have different weather at any given time, although this phenomenon tends to be less pronounced during the winter months.
The Mission's geographical location wind from the west; this climatic phenomenon becomes apparent to visitors who walk downhill from 24th Street in the west from Noe Valley towards Mission Street in the east because Noe Valley is on higher ground whereas the Inner Mission is at a lower elevation.
The Mission includes four recognized sub-districts; the northeastern quadrant, adjacent to Potrero Hill is known as a center for high tech startup businesses including some chic bars and restaurants. The northwest quadrant along Dolores Street is famous for Victorian mansions and the popular Dolores Park at 18th Street. Two main commercial zones, known as the Valencia corridor and the 24th Street corridor known as Calle 24 in the south central part of the Mission District are both popular destinations for their restaurants, bars and street life.
Prior to the arrival of Spanish missionaries, the area which now includes the Mission District was inhabited by the Ohlone people who populated much of the San Francisco bay area ; the Yelamu Indians inhabited the region for over 2, years. Spanish missionaries arrived in the area during the late 18th century, they found these people living in two villages on Mission Creek.
Franciscan friars are reported to have used Ohlone slave labor to complete the Mission in This period marked the beginning of the end of the Yelamu culture. The Indian population at Mission Dolores dropped from to 50 between and From to , a large conservatory and zoo known as Woodward's Gardens covered two city blocks bounded by Mission Street, Valencia Street, 13th Street, 15th Street. In the decades after the Gold Rush , the town of San Francisco expanded, the Mission lands were developed and subdivided into housing plots for working-class immigrants German and Italian , for industrial uses.
As the city grew in the decades following the Gold Rush , the Mission District became home to the first professional baseball stadium in California , opened in and known as Recreation Grounds seating 17, people, located at Folsom and 25th Streets. In the 20th century, the Mission District was home to two other baseball stadiums, Recreation Park located at 14th and Valencia and Seals Stadium located at 16th and Bryant with both these stadiums being used by the baseball team named after the Mission District known as the Mission Reds and the San Francisco Seals.
During California's early statehood period, in the 19th and 20th century, large numbers of Irish and German immigrant workers moved into the area. Around , the Mission District was still one of San Francisco's least densely populated areas, with most of the inhabitants being white families from the working class and lower middle class who lived in single-family houses and two-family flats. Development and settlement intensified af.
The Author | Jeanetta Calhoun Mish
From to , she served as Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress , she is the first African American to have been appointed since the position was created by an act of Congress in from the previous "consultant in poetry" position. Dove received an appointment as "special consultant in poetry" for the Library of Congress's bicentennial year from to Dove graduated summa cum laude with a B. In , she held a Fulbright Scholarship from Germany. Dove taught creative writing at Arizona State University from to , she received the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry. In , she was named United States Poet Laureate by the Librarian of Congress , an office she held from to At the age of 40, Dove was the youngest person to hold the position and is the first African American to hold the position since the title was changed to Poet Laureate.
Since , she has been teaching at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville , where she holds the chair of Commonwealth Professor of English. In her public posts, Dove concentrated on spreading the word about poetry and increasing public awareness of the benefits of literature.
- Lorna Dee Cervantes.
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As United States Poet Laureate, for example, she brought together writers to explore the African diaspora through the eyes of its artists. Dove was on the board of the Associated Writing Programs from to , she led the organization as its president from to From to , she was a senator of the national academic honor society Phi Beta Kappa. From to , she served as a chancellor of the Academy of American Poets. Dove's work can not be confined to a specific school in contemporary literature, her most famous work to date is Thomas and Beulah , published by Carnegie-Mellon University Press in , a collection of poems loosely based on the lives of her maternal grandparents, for which she received the Pulitzer Prize in Dove has published ten volumes of poetry, a book of short stories, a collection of essays, a novel, Through the Ivory Gate.
Her Collected Poems — was released by W. Norton in Dove's most ambitious collection of poetry, Sonata Mulattica , was published in Over its more than pages, it "has the sweep and vivid characters of a novel", as Mark Doty wrote in O, The Oprah Magazine. Dove edited The Penguin Anthology of 20th-Century American Poetry, published in ; the collection provoked heated controversy as some critics complained that she valued an inclusive, populist agenda over quality. Poet John Olson commented that "her exclusions are breathtaking".
Well-known poets left out include Sylvia Plath , Allen Ginsberg , Sterling Brown , Louis Zukofsky , George Oppen , Charles Reznikoff and Lorine Niedecker ; as Dove explained in her foreword and in media interviews, she had selected works by Plath and Brown but these as well as some other poets were left out against her editorial wishes. Critic Helen Vendler condemned Dove's choices, asking "why are we b. Corrido The corrido is a popular narrative song and poetry that form a ballad. The songs are about oppression, daily life for peasants, other relevant topics, it is still a popular form today in Mexico and was popular during the Mexican Revolutions of the 20th century.
The corrido derives from the romance , in its most known form consists of a salutation from the singer and prologue to the story, the story itself, a moral and farewell from the singer; until the arrival and success of electronic mass-media, the corrido served in Mexico as the main informational and educational outlet with subversive purposes, due to an apparent linguistic and musical simplicity that lent itself to oral transmission.
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After the spread of radio and television, the genre evolved into a new stage and is still in the process of maturation; some scholars, consider the corrido to be dead or moribund in more recent times. In more rural areas where Spanish and Mexican cultures have been preserved because of isolation, the romance has taken on other forms related to the corrido as well. In New Mexico , for example, a story-song emerged during the colonial period, known as an Indita, which loosely follows the format of a corrido, but is chanted rather than sung, similar to a Native American chant, hence the name Indita.
The earliest living specimens of corrido are adapted versions of Spanish romances or European tales about disgraced or idealized love, or religious topics.
These, that include " La Martina " and "La Delgadina", show the same basic stylistic features of the mainstream corridos. Beginning with the Mexican War of Independence and culminating during the Mexican Revolution, the genre flourished and acquired its " epic " tones, along with the three-step narrative structure as described above; some corridos may be love stories. Prior to widespread use of radio, popular corridos were passed around as an oral tradition to spread news of events and popular heroes and humor to the population, many of whom were illiterate prior to the post-Revolution improvements to the educational system.
Sheet music of popular corridos was included in publications. Other corrido sheets were passed out free as a form of propaganda, to eulogize leaders and political movements, or in some cases to mock the opposition; the best known Revolutionary corrido is La cucaracha, an old song, rephrased to celebrate the exploits of Pancho Villa's army and poke fun at his nemesis Victoriano Huerta.
Jeanetta Calhoun Mish
With the consolidation of "Presidencialismo" and the success of electronic mass-media, the corrido lost its primacy as a mass communication form, becoming part of a folklorist cult in one branch and, in another, the voice of the new subversives: oppressed workers, drug growers or traffickers, leftist activists and emigrated farmworkers. This is what scholars designate as the "decaying" stage of the genre, which tends to erase the stylistic or structural characteristics of "revolutionary" or traditional corrido without a clear and unified understanding of its evolution.
The corrido was, for example, a favorite device employed by the Teatro Campesino led by Luis Valdez in mobilizing Mexican and Mexican-American farmworkers in California during the s. Corridos have seen a renaissance in the 21st century. Contemporary corridos feature contemporary themes such as drug trafficking, migrant labor and the Chupacabra. Corridos, like rancheras, have introductory instrumental music and adornos interrupting the stanzas of the lyrics. However, unlike rancheras, the rhythm of a corrido remains consistent; the corrido has a rhythm similar to that of the European waltz.
Corridos tell stories, while rancheras are for dancing. Like rancheras, corridos can be play. Mikhail Bakhtin Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin was a Russian philosopher, literary critic and scholar who worked on literary theory and the philosophy of language. His writings, on a variety of subjects, inspired scholars working in a number of different traditions and in disciplines as diverse as literary criticism, philosophy, sociology and psychology.
Although Bakhtin was active in the debates on aesthetics and literature that took place in the Soviet Union in the s, his distinctive position did not become well known until he was rediscovered by Russian scholars in the s. Bakhtin was born in Russia , to an old family of the nobility, his father worked in several cities. For this reason Bakhtin spent his early childhood years in Oryol , in Vilnius , in Odessa , where in he joined the historical and philological faculty at the local university. Katerina Clark and Michael Holquist write: "Odessa Like Vilnius, was an appropriate setting for a chapter in the life of a man, to become the philosopher of heteroglossia and carnival.
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