Du kanske gillar. Meditations Marcus Aurelius Inbunden. Spara som favorit. Skickas inom vardagar. The smooth functioning of an ordered society depends on the possession of a means of regularising its activities over time. That means is a calendar, and its regularity is a function of how well it models the more or less regular movements of the celestial bodies - of the moon, the sun or the stars. Collection Latomus Latomus, Brussels, pp — Google Scholar. Dinsmoor WB Archaeology and astronomy.
Hannah R Greek and Roman calendars: constructions of time in the classical world. Duckworth, London Google Scholar. Hannah R Time in antiquity. Routledge, London Google Scholar.
Theorization, Measurement, and Standardization of Calendrical Time
Oxbow Books, Oxford, pp 79—93 Google Scholar. Nexus Network Journal forthcoming Google Scholar. Lehoux DR Astronomy, weather, and calendars in the ancient world: parapegmata and related texts in classical and Near Eastern societies. Calends or Kalends - Occurred on the first day of every month and it had more days than the other two period combined.
It spanned more than two lunar phases, starting from the day after a full moon and continuing through the moon's last quarter and waning period, then past the dark new moon until another lunar crescent was sighted. The day of Kalends began a new month.
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It was dedicated to the god Juno. Ides - Occurred on the 15th day of every month which contained 31 days, and the 13th day of all other months. Ides was dedicated to Jupiter and was originally based on the date of a full moon. Because a full moon occurs halfway thru each lunar cycle, its day was called "Idus" from the Latin word meaning to divide.
Calendar, Roman - Oxford Classical Dictionary
The next new moon was expected to develop between 15 to 17 days. Variations in this length of time, due to the lunar and solar cycles not corresponding exactly, led to Ides becoming mainly a day marking the middle of the month. Nones - Always occured nine days before the Ides, on either the 5th or 7th of the month, depending on the length of the month. It was representative of the moon reaching its first quarter phase.
As it was the duty of the Pontifex Maximus to assign these days, he would, after viewing the moon, assign how long it would take for the next phase to begin. If, on the day after the Kalends, he determined that it would be 5 days until the new crescent moon would appear, the day would then be referred to as the 5th day before Nones.
During the Late Republic, social disorder, political strife and an ongoing series of civil wars left the maintenance of the calendar in complete disarray. By the time Julius Caesar consolidated his power in 46 BC, the calendar months were off by as much as several months in comparison to the seasons. Fortunately, while Caesar was in Alexandria, Egypt, he had access to the ancient world's foremost astronomy experts. The Egyptians were able to calculate the length of the actual solar year as While the Eqyptians did the work, Caesar was the one who both authorized and implemented its use, thereby receiving the credit.
Regardless, its accuracy at the time it was developed was remarkable, and only a millennium of a slight annual difference would eventually accumulate.
The new Julian Calendar would follow the solar year, rather than lunar, with a total of days vs. The intercalary month was eliminated and the leap year, adding a day to February every 4th year, was adopted as well. In 46 BC, the calendar had to be set right before the new one could begin. A total of 3 intercalary months were inserted prior to the start of the new year.
Caesar, in his divine ego, also renamed Quintilis, the fifth month, Julius July , after himself.