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Google Scholar. Beaglehole, E. American Anthropological Association Memoir. Brandt, R. Hopi Ethics: A Theoretical Analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
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In Spier, L. Dozier, E. P Eggan, D. American Anthropologist. Euler, R. The Hopi People.
Fewkes, J. The Hopi recognize two major ceremonial cycles, masked January or February until July and unmasked, which are determined by the position of the sun and the lunar calendar. The purpose of most ceremonies is to bring rain. As the symbol of life and well-being, corn, a staple crop, is the focus of many ceremonies.
All great ceremonies last nine days, including a preliminary day. Each ceremony is controlled by a clan or several clans. Central to Hopi ceremonialism is the kiva, or underground chamber, which is seen as a doorway to the cave world from whence their ancestors originally came. Katsinas are guardian spirits, or intermediaries between the creator and the people. These clan organizations extend across all villages. Children are named by the women of the father's clan. After the child is introduced to the Sun, the women of the paternal clan gather, and name the child in honor of the father's clan.
Children can be given over forty names. The village members decide the common name. Current practice is to either use a non-Hopi or English name or the parent's chosen Hopi name. A person may also change the name upon initiation to traditional religious societies, or a major life event. The Hopi have always viewed their land as sacred.
Agriculture is a very important part of their culture, and their villages are spread out across the northwestern part of Arizona. The Hopi did not have a conception of land being bounded and divided.
The Hopi people settled on the high mesas both for protection against raiding tribes , and irrigation in these areas. The Hopi are caretakers of the land that they inherited from their ancestors. On December 16, , President Chester A. Arthur passed an executive order creating a reservation for the Hopi. It was smaller than the surrounding land that was annexed by the Navajo reservation , which is the largest in the country. On October 24, , the Hopi people ratified a Constitution.
That Constitution created a unicameral government where all powers are vested in a Tribal Council. While there is an executive branch tribal chairman and vice chairman and judicial branch, their powers are limited under the Hopi Constitution. The traditional powers and authority of the Hopi Villages were preserved in the Constitution. Today, the Hopi Reservation is entirely surrounded by the much larger Navajo Reservation. The partition of this area, commonly known as Big Mountain , by Acts of Congress in and , has also resulted in long-term controversy.
Old Oraibi is one of four original Hopi villages, and one of the oldest continuously inhabited villages within the territory of the United States. In the s the village was recorded as having 1,—3, residents.
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The first recorded European contact with the Hopi was by the Spanish in A. D While at the Zuni villages, he learned of the Hopi tribe. Coronado dispatched Pedro de Tovar and other members of their party to find the Hopi villages. They noted that there were about 16, Hopi and Zuni people. They warmly entertained Cardenas and his men and directed him on his journey. He noted that there were five Hopi villages and around 12, Hopi people.
Many times the visits were from military explorations. The Spanish colonized near the Rio Grande and, because the Hopi did not live near rivers that gave access to the Rio Grande, the Spanish never left any troops on their land. Beginning in , with the arrival of 30 friars in Hopi country, the Franciscan Period started. The Franciscans had missionaries assigned and built a church at Awatovi. Spanish Roman Catholic priests were only marginally successful in converting the Hopi and persecuted them in a draconian manner for adhering to Hopi religious practices.
The Spanish occupiers in effect enslaved the Hopi populace, compelling them to endure forced labor and hand over goods and crops. Spanish oppression and attempts to convert the Hopi caused the Hopi over time to become increasingly intolerant towards their occupiers. As punishment, Guerra was removed from his post on the Hopi mesas and sent to Mexico City.
The Pueblo Revolt was the first time that diverse Pueblo groups had worked in unison to drive out the Spanish colonists. In the Burning of Awatovi, Spanish soldiers, local Catholic Church missionaries, friars, and priests were all put to death, and the churches and mission buildings were dismantled stone by stone. It took two decades for the Spanish to reassert their control over the Rio Grande Pueblos but the Catholic Inquisition never made it back to Hopiland. In , the Spanish friars had begun rebuilding a smaller church at Awatovi.
During the winter of —01, selected teams of men from the other Hopi villages sacked Awatovi at the request of the village chief, killed all the men of the village, and removed the women and children to other Hopi villages, then completely destroyed the village and burned it to the ground. Thereafter, despite intermittent attempts in the course of the 18th century, the Spanish failed subsequently to ever re-establish a presence in Hopi country.
In , James S. He had headquarters in Santa Fe and was responsible for all of the Indian residents of the area. The first formal meeting between the Hopi and the U. S government occurred in when seven Hopi leaders made the trip to Santa Fe to meet with Calhoun. They wanted the government to provide protection against the Navajo , an Apachean -language tribe, but distinct from other Apache. At this time, the Hopi leader was Nakwaiyamtewa.
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General James J. Carleton, with the assistance of Kit Carson , was assigned to travel through the area. They "captured" the Navajo natives and forced them to the fort. As a result of the Long Walk of the Navajo , the Hopi enjoyed a short period of peace. In , Mormons settled in Utah and tried to convert the Indians to Mormonism. Arthur in Washington D. Loololma, village chief of Oraibi at the time, was very impressed with Washington.
It forced them to use English and give up their traditional ways. Boys, who were also forced to cut their long hair, were taught European farming and carpentry skills. Girls were taught ironing, sewing and "civilized" dining. The school also reinforced European-American religions. The American Baptist Home Mission Society made students attend services every morning and religious teachings during the week. Seeing that few students were enrolled, they returned with federal troops who threatened to arrest the Hopi parents who refused to send their children to school, with Morgan forcibly taking children to fill the school.
Agriculture is an important part of Hopi culture, and their villages are spread out across the northern part of Arizona. The Hopi and the Navajo did not have a conception of land being bounded and divided. The Hopi people had settled in permanent villages, while the nomadic Navajo people moved around the four corners.