Prediction and perception of social motives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 2 , — McClintock, C. The influence of communication on bargaining. Paulus Ed. Messick, D. Solving social dilemmas: A review. Shaver Eds. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Social traps and temporal traps. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9 , — Oskamp, S.
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Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Ouwerkerk, J. Avoiding the social death penalty: Ostracism and cooperation in social dilemmas. Williams, J. Pruitt, D. Social conflict. Gilbert, S. Lindzey Eds. Samuelson, C. Individual and structural solutions to resource dilemmas in two cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47 1 , 94— Sattler, D. Might versus morality explored: Motivational and cognitive bases for social motives.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60 5 , — Sheldon, K. Learning the lessons of tit-for-tat: Even competitors can get the message. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77 6 , — Siero, F. Changing organizational energy consumption behaviour through comparative feedback. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16 3 , — Thompson, L.
Information exchange in negotiation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27 , — Annual Review of Psychology, 61 , — Lose-lose agreements in interdependent decision making. Psychological Bulletin, 3 , — Tyler, T. A relational model of authority in groups. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25 , — Van Lange, P. Locomotion in social dilemmas: How people adapt to cooperative, tit-for-tat, and noncooperative partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77 4 , — Wall, J.
Mediation: A current review. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 37 1 , — Wolkinson, B. The arbitration of work and family conflicts. Pitt-Catsouphes, E. Sweet Eds. Choose a delete action Empty this page Remove this page and its subpages. Content is out of sync. You must reload the page to continue. Skip to main content. Key Takeaways The social situation has an important influence on choices to cooperate or compete, and it is important to understand these influences. Decisions about whether to cooperate or compete are also influenced by expectations about the likely behavior of others.
Communication has a number of benefits, each of which improves the likelihood of cooperation. Negotiation, mediation, and arbitration can be used to help settle disputes. Exercise and Critical Thinking Choose a real-world dispute among individuals or groups and analyze it using the principles we have considered in this chapter. About the Book. The Story of Raoul Wallenberg.
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Psychological Reactance Key Takeaways. Liking and Loving Chapter Learning Objectives. Furthermore, the approach sends a clear message that competitive choices on the part of the other will not be tolerated and that cooperation will always be reciprocated. It is quick to punish but it is equally quick to forgive. The other party cannot take advantage of a person who is using tit-for-tat on more than one trial because if they try to do so, the result will always be retaliation in the form of a competitive choice on the next trial. Indeed, it has been found that having people play against a partner who uses the tit-for-tat strategy can help them learn to be more cooperative, particularly once they become aware what the strategy is and how it is being used Sheldon, The tit-for-tat strategy seems particularly effective because it balances self-concerned and other-concerned responses in an easy-to-understand way.
Despite the fact that it generally works better than most other strategies, tit-for-tat is not perfect. This is particularly likely if the opposing party never makes a cooperative choice, and thus the party using tit-for-tat never gets a chance to play cooperatively after the first round, or in cases in which there is some noise in the system and the responses given by the parties are not always perceived accurately. Variations of the tit-for-tat strategy in which the individual acts more cooperatively than demanded by the strategy e.
In some cases, conflict becomes so extreme that the groups feel that they need to work together to reach a compromise. Several methods are used in these cases, including negotiation , mediation , and arbitration. The parties involved are often social groups, such as businesses or nations, although the groups may rely on one or a few representatives who actually do the negotiating.
When negotiating, the parties who are in disagreement develop a set of communication structures in which they discuss their respective positions and attempt to develop a compromise agreement. To reach this agreement, each side makes a series of offers, followed by counteroffers from the other side, each time moving closer to a position that they can each agree on. Negotiation is successful if each of the parties finds that they have more to gain by remaining in the relationship or completing the transaction, even if they cannot get exactly what they want, than they would gain if they left the relationship entirely or continued the existing competitive state.
In some cases, negotiation is a type of fixed-sum process in which each individual wants to get as much as he or she can of the same good or commodity. For instance, in the sale of a property, if the seller wants the highest price possible, and the buyer wants the lowest price possible, the compromise will involve some sacrifice for each, or else it will not occur at all if the two parties cannot find a price on which they can agree.
More often, the outcome of the negotiation is dependent upon the ability of the two parties to effectively communicate and to dispel negative misperceptions about the goals of the other party. When communication and trust are obtained in the situation, the parties may find that the situation is not completely fixed-sum but rather more integrative.
The seller and buyer may be able to find an acceptable solution that is based on other aspects of the deal, such as the time that the deal is made or other costs and benefits involved. In fact, negotiators that maintain the assumption that the conflict is fixed-sum end up with lower individual and joint gain in comparison with negotiators who change their perceptions to be more integrative.
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Negotiation works better when both sides have an open mind and do not commit themselves to positions. It has been argued that negotiation is most beneficial when you take a position and stick to it, no matter what, because if you begin to compromise at all, it will look like weakness or as if you do not really need all that you asked for. However, when negotiators do not allow any compromise, the negotiations are likely to break off without a solution. Negotiation is often accompanied by conflict, including threats and harassment of the other party or parties. In general, individuals who are firm in their positions will achieve more positive outcomes as a result of negotiation, unless both sides are too firm and no compromise can be reached.
However, positive and cooperative communication is an important factor in improving negotiation. Parties that are in negotiation should therefore be encouraged to communicate. The third party may be called upon by the parties who are in disagreement, their use may be required by laws, or in some cases a third party may rather spontaneously appear such as when a friend or coworker steps in to help solve a dispute.
The goal of the third party is to help those who are in conflict to reach agreement without embarrassment to either party. In general, third-party intervention works better if it is implemented before the conflict is too great. If the level of conflict is already high, the attempts to help may increase hostility, and the disputants may not consent to third-party intervention.
A mediator is a third party who is knowledgeable about the dispute and skilled at resolving conflict. Mediators have a number of potential tactics that they can use, and they choose which ones seem best depending on the current state of affairs. These tactics include attempting to help the parties have more trust in each other, conferring with each of the parties separately, and helping them to accept the necessity of compromise. If necessary, the mediator may attempt to force the parties to make concessions, especially if there is little common ground to begin with.
Mediation works best when both parties believe that a compromise is possible and think that third-party intervention can help reach it. Mediators who have experience and training make better mediators Deutsch, In the most common type of arbitration—binding arbitration—both sides agree ahead of time to abide by the decision of the third party the arbitrator. They then independently submit their offers or desires along with their basis for their claims, and the arbitrator chooses between them.
Arbitration is particularly useful when there is a single decision to be made under time constraints, whereas negotiation may be better if the parties have a long-term possibility for conflict and future discussion is necessary. Axelrod, R. The success of tit-for-tat in computer tournaments.
Bazerman Ed. Balliet, D. Communication and cooperation in social dilemmas: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 54 1 , 39— Brewer, M. Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50 , — De Cremer, D.
Social identification effects in social dilemmas: A transformation of motives. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29 7 , — Deutsch, M. An experimental study of the effects of cooperation and competition upon group processes. Human Relations, 2 , — Constuctive conflict resolution: Principles, traning,and research. Journal of Social Issues, 1 , 13— Farber, H.
Splitting-the-difference in interest arbitration. Fischer, I. The emergence of tit-for-tat strategies. Suleiman, D. Budescu, I. Messick Eds. Gockel, C. Indispensability and group identification as sources of task motivation.
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Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44 5 , — Jorgenson, D. The effects of communication, resource feedback, and identifiability on behavior in a simulated commons. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17 , — Karau, S. Social loafing: A meta-analytic review and theoretical integration.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 4 , — Kelley, H. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16 , 66— Collective behavior in a simulated panic situation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1 , 19— Kerr, N. Illusions of efficacy: The effects of group size on perceived efficacy in social dilemmas.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25 , — Dispensability of member effort and group motivation losses: Free-rider effects.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44 1 , 78— Communication, commitment, and cooperation in social dilemma. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66 3 , — That still, small voice: Commitment to cooperate as an internalized versus a social norm. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23 12 , — Komorita, S. Social dilemmas. Liebrand, W. The effect of social motives, communication and group size on behaviour in an N-person multi-stage mixed-motive game.
European Journal of Social Psychology, 14 3 , — Maki, J. Prediction and perception of social motives. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 2 , — McClintock, C. The influence of communication on bargaining. Paulus Ed. Messick, D. Solving social dilemmas: A review. Shaver Eds. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Social traps and temporal traps. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9 , — Oskamp, S. Using psychological science to achieve ecological sustainability. Donaldson, D. Pezdek Eds.
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Ouwerkerk, J. Avoiding the social death penalty: Ostracism and cooperation in social dilemmas. Williams, J.