Arousal is what initiates action. It is fueled by a person's need or desire for something that is missing from their lives at a given moment, either totally or partially. Direction refers to the path employees take in accomplishing the goals they set for themselves. Finally, intensity is the vigor and amount of energy employees put into this goal-directed work performance. The level of intensity is based on the importance and difficulty of the goal. These psychological processes result in four outcomes.
First, motivation serves to direct attention, focusing on particular issues, people, tasks, etc. It also serves to stimulate an employee to put forth effort. Next, motivation results in persistence, preventing one from deviating from the goal-seeking behavior. For example, a job stressor such as conflict with a supervisor can precipitate anger that in turn motivates counterproductive workplace behaviors. A number of models have been developed to explain the job stress process. Examples of models that have influenced research include the person-environment fit model [ 67 ] and the demand-control model.
For instance, researchers at the institute of work psychology IWP examined the mediating role of psychological strain in relation to musculoskeletal disorders. Research has also examined occupational stress in specific occupations. For example, there has been research on job stress in police, [ 71 ] teachers, [ 72 ] general practitioners, [ 73 ] and dentists. Occupational health and safety is concerned with how the work environment contributes to illness and injury of workers.
Of particular importance are psychosocial hazards or risk factors that include fatigue, workplace violence, workplace bullying. Other factors important to employee health and well-being include work schedules e. Another area of concern is the high rate of occupational fatalities and injuries due to accidents. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety.
Organizational culture can be described as a set of assumptions shared by the individuals in an organization that directs interpretation and action by defining appropriate behavior for various situations. There are three levels of organizational culture: artifacts, shared values, and basic beliefs and assumptions. Artifacts comprise the physical components of the organization that relay cultural meaning. Shared values are individuals' preferences regarding certain aspects of the organization's culture e.
Basic beliefs and assumptions include individuals' impressions about the trustworthiness and supportiveness of an organization, and are often deeply ingrained within the organization's culture. In addition to an overall culture, organizations also have subcultures. Examples of subcultures include corporate culture, departmental culture, local culture, and issue-related culture. While there is no single "type" of organizational culture, some researchers have developed models to describe different organizational cultures. Organizational culture has been shown to have an impact on important organizational outcomes such as performance, attraction, recruitment, retention, employee satisfaction, and employee well-being.
Also, organizations with an adaptive culture tend to perform better than organizations with an maladaptive culture. Group behavior is the interaction between individuals of a collective and the processes such as opinions, attitudes, growth, feedback loops, and adaptations that occur and change as a result of this interaction.
A specific area of research in group behavior is the dynamics of teams. Team effectiveness refers to the system of getting people in a company or institution to work together effectively. The idea behind team effectiveness is that a group of people working together can achieve much more than if the individuals of the team were working on their own. Organizations support the use of teams, because teams can accomplish a much greater amount of work in a short period of time than can be accomplished by an individual contributor, and because the collective results of a group of contributors can produce higher quality deliverables.
The composition of teams is initially decided during the selection of individual contributors that are to be assigned to specific teams and has a direct bearing on the resulting effectiveness of those teams. Aspects of team composition that should be considered during the team selection process include team member: knowledge, skills and abilities KSAs , personalities, and attitudes. As previously stated, one of the reasons organizations support the use of teams is the expectation of the delivery of higher quality results.
Additionally, increased average cognitive ability of team members has been shown to consistently correlate to increased work group effectiveness Sundstrom et al. Therefore, organizations should seek to assign teams with team members that have a mix of KSAs. Teams that are composed of members that have the same KSAs may prove to be ineffective in meeting the team goals, no matter how talented the individual members are.
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The personalities and attitudes of the individuals that are selected as team members are other aspects that should be taken into consideration when composing teams, since these individual traits have been found to be good indicators of team effectiveness. Differing personalities of individual team members can affect the team climate in a negative way as members may clash and reduce team performance Barrick, et al.
A fundamental question in team task design is whether or not a task is even appropriate for a team. Those tasks that require predominantly independent work are best left to individuals, and team tasks should include those tasks that consist primarily of interdependent work. These dimensions map well to the team environment. Individual contributors that perform team tasks that are challenging, interesting, and engaging are more likely to be motivated to exert greater effort and perform better than those team members that are working on those tasks that do not have these characteristics.
Interrelated to the design of various tasks is the implementation method for the tasks themselves. For example, certain team members may find it challenging to cross train with other team members that have subject matter expertise in areas in which they are not familiar.
In utilizing this approach, greater motivation is likely to result for both parties as the expert becomes the mentor and trainer and the cross-training team member finds learning new tasks to be an interesting change of pace. Such expansions of team task assignments can make teams more effective and require teams to spend greater amounts of time discussing and planning strategies and approaches for completing assigned tasks Hackman, et al.
Organizational support systems impact the effectiveness of teams Sundstrum, et al. In this case, the provided resources include various resource types that teams require to be effective. During the chartering of new teams, organizational enabling resources are first identified. Examples of enabling resources include facilities, equipment, information, training and leadership. Team-specific human resources represent the individual contributors that are selected for each team as team members. Intra-team processes e.
Teams also function in multi-team environments that are dynamic in nature and require teams to respond to shifting organizational contingencies Salas, et al. In regards to resources, such contingencies include the constraints imposed by organizational resources that are not specifically earmarked for the exclusive use of certain teams. These types of resources are scarce in nature and must be shared by multiple teams. Examples of these scarce resources include subject matter experts, simulation and testing facilities, and limited amounts of time for the completion of multi-team goals.
For these types of shared resources inter-team management processes e. In other words, rewards that are given to individual team members should be contingent upon the performance of the entire team Sundstrom, et al. Several design elements of organizational reward systems are needed to meet this objective. The first element for reward systems design is the concept that for a collective assessment to be appropriate for individual team members, the group's tasks must be highly interdependent.
For example, it would be an unfair situation to reward the entire team for a job well done if only one team member did the great majority of the work. That team member would most likely view teams and teamwork in a negative fashion and not want to participate in a team setting in the future. A final design element is the creation of an organizational culture that supports and rewards employees who believe in the value of teamwork and who maintain a positive mental attitude towards team-based rewards Haines and Taggar, In the team setting, goal difficulty is related to group belief that the team can accomplish the tasks required to meet the assigned goal Whitney, This belief collective efficacy is somewhat counterintuitive, but rests on team member perception that they now view themselves as more competent than others in the organization who were not chosen to complete such difficult goals.
This in turn, can lead to higher levels of performance. Goal acceptance and specificity is also applicable to the team setting. As related to the team setting, it is also important to be aware of the interplay between the goals of individual contributors that participate on teams and the goals of the teams themselves. The selection of team goals must be done in coordination with the selection of goals for individuals. This individual performance generally contributes to improved team performance which can, in turn, lead to team recognition, such as a league championship. Job satisfaction reflects an employee's overall assessment of their job, particularly their emotions, behaviors, and attitudes about their work experience.
It is one of the most heavily researched topics in industrial—organizational psychology with several thousand published studies. Job satisfaction has theoretical and practical utility for the field of psychology and has been linked to important job outcomes including attitudinal variables, absenteeism, employee turnover, and job performance.
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For instance, job satisfaction is strongly correlated with attitudinal variables such as job involvement, organizational commitment, job tensions, frustration, and feelings of anxiety. A meta-analyses found positive relationships between job satisfaction and life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and the absence of negative affect. Finally, research has found that although a positive relationship exists between job satisfaction and performance, it is moderated by the use of rewards at an organization and the strength of employee's attitudes about their job.
Productive behavior is defined as employee behavior that contributes positively to the goals and objectives of an organization. To successfully transition from being an outsider to a full-fledged member of an organization, an employee typically needs job-related training as well as more general information about the culture of the organization. In financial terms, productive behavior represents the point at which an organization begins to achieve some return on the investment it has made in a new employee.
While in-role performance tells managers or researchers how well the employee performs the required technical aspects of the job, extra-role performance includes behaviors not necessarily required as part of the job but still contribute to organizational effectiveness. By taking both in-role and extra-role performance into account, industrial—organizational psychologists are able to assess employees' effectiveness how well they do what they were hired to do , efficiency their relative outputs to relative inputs , and their productivity how much they help the organization reach its goals.
Job performance represents behaviors employees engage in while at work which contribute to organizational goals. Job performance is about behaviors that are within the control of the employee and not about results effectiveness , the costs involved in achieving results productivity , the results that can be achieved in a period of time efficiency , or the value an organization places on a given level of performance, effectiveness, productivity or efficiency utility.
To model job performance, researchers have attempted to define a set of dimensions that are common to all jobs. Using a common set of dimensions provides a consistent basis for assessing performance and enables the comparison of performance across jobs. Performance is commonly broken into two major categories: in-role technical aspects of a job and extra-role non-technical abilities such as communication skills and being a good team member.
While this distinction in behavior has been challenged [ 95 ] it is commonly made by both employees and management. To assess job performance, reliable and valid measures must be established. While there are many sources of error with performance ratings, error can be reduced through rater training [ ] and through the use of behaviorally-anchored rating scales. Such scales can be used to clearly define the behaviors that constitute poor, average, and superior performance.
These factors include errors in job measurement techniques, acceptance and the justification of poor performance and lack of importance of individual performance. The determinants of job performance consist of factors having to do with the individual worker as well as environmental factors in the workplace. According to Campbell's Model of The Determinants of Job Performance, [ 94 ] [ 97 ] job performance is a result of the interaction between declarative knowledge knowledge of facts or things , procedural knowledge knowledge of what needs to be done and how to do it , and motivation reflective of an employee's choices regarding whether to expend effort, the level of effort to expend, and whether to persist with the level of effort chosen.
Regardless of the job, three determinants stand out as predictors of performance: 1 general mental ability especially for jobs higher in complexity ; 2 job experience although there is a law of diminishing returns ; and 3 the personality trait of conscientiousness people who are dependable and achievement-oriented, who plan well. Further, an expanding area of research in job performance determinants includes emotional intelligence. Organizational citizenship behaviors "OCBs" are another form of productive behavior, having been shown to be beneficial to both organization and team effectiveness.
Dennis Organ is often thought of as the father of OCB research and defines OCBs as "individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization. Researchers have adapted, elaborated, or otherwise changed Organ's five OCB categories, but they remain popular today.
The categories and their descriptions are as follows:. OCBs are also categorized using other methods. This theory stems from a history of numerous studies indicating that positive mood increases the frequency of helping and prosocial behaviors. A second explanation, which stems from equity theory, is that employees reciprocate fair treatment that they received from the organization.
Equity theory researchers found that certain forms of fairness or justice predict OCB better than others. While these behaviors are not formally part of the job description, performing them can certainly influence performance appraisals. Goffman defines impression management as "the way in which the individual With this research on why employees engage in OCBs comes the debate among I—O psychologists about the voluntary or involuntary nature of engaging in OCBs.
Many researchers, including the "father of OCB research," Dennis Organ have consistently portrayed OCBs as voluntary behaviors done at the discretion of the individual. For example, Eran Vigoda-Gadot suggests that some, but not all, OCBs may be performed voluntarily out of goodwill, but many may be more involuntary in nature and "may arise from coercive managerial strategies or coercive social pressure by powerful peers. Industrial and Organizational Psychologists consider innovation, more often than not, a variable of less importance and often a counter-productive one to include in conducting job performance appraisals when irrelevant to the major job functions for which a given job exists.
Nonetheless, Industrial and Organizational Psychologists see the value of that variable where its consideration would, were its reliability and validity questioned, achieve a statistically significant probability that its results are not due to chance, and that it can be replicated reliably with a statistically significant ratio of reliability, and that were a court to raise a question on its reliability and validity testing, the Industrial and Organizational Psychologist behind its use would be able to defend it before a court of justice with the belief that it will stand before such a court as reliable, and valid.
With the above in mind, innovation is often considered a form of productive behavior that employees exhibit when they come up with novel ideas that further the goals of the organization.
As indicated above, the first focus looks specifically to find certain attributes of an individual that may lead to innovation, therefore, one must ask, "Are there quantifiable predictors that an individual will be innovative? These qualities are generally linked to creativity. In addition to the role and characteristics of the individual, one must consider what it is that may be done on an organizational level to develop and reward innovation. A study by Damanpour identified four specific characteristics that may predict innovation within an organization.
Additionally, organizations could use and institutionalize many participatory system-processes, which could breed innovation in the workplace. Some of these items include providing creativity training, having leaders encourage and model innovation, allowing employees to question current procedures and rules, seeing that the implementation of innovations had real consequences, documenting innovations in a professional manner, allowing employees to have autonomy and freedom in their job roles, reducing the number of obstacles that may be in the way of innovation, and giving employees access to resources whether these are monetary, informational, or access to key people inside or outside of the organization.
In discussing innovation for a Best-Practice report, APQC Knowledge Management expert, Kimberly Lopez, stated, "It requires a blending of creativity within business processes to ensure good ideas become of value to the company Supporting a creative environment requires innovation to be recognized, nurtured, and rewarded. Counterproductive work behavior CWB can be defined as employee behavior that goes against the goals of an organization.
These behaviors can be intentional or unintentional and result from a wide range of underlying causes and motivations. Some CWBs have instrumental motivations e. For instance, an employee who sabotages another employee's work may do so because of lax supervision environment and underlying psychopathology person that work in concert to result in the counterproductive behavior.
There is evidence that an emotional response e. The forms of counterproductive behavior with the most empirical examination are ineffective job performance, absenteeism, job turnover, and accidents. Less common but potentially more detrimental forms of counterproductive behavior have also been investigated including violence and sexual harassment. In I—O psychology, leadership can be defined as a process of influencing others to agree on a shared purpose, and to work towards shared objectives.
Managers process administrative tasks and organize work environments. Although leaders may be required to undertake managerial duties as well, leaders typically focus on inspiring followers and creating a shared organizational culture and values. Managers deal with complexity, while leaders deal with initiating and adapting to change.
Managers undertake the tasks of planning, budgeting, organizing, staffing, controlling and problem solving. In contrast, leaders undertake the tasks of setting a direction or vision, aligning people to shared goals, communicating, and motivating. Approaches to studying leadership in I—O psychology can be broadly classified into three categories: Leader-focused approaches, Contingency-focused approaches, and Follower-focused approaches.
Leader-focused approaches look to organizational leaders to determine the characteristics of effective leadership. According to the trait approach, more effective leaders possess certain traits that less effective leaders lack. More recently, this approach is being used to predict leader emergence. The following traits have been identified as those that predict leader emergence when there is no formal leader: high intelligence, high needs for dominance, high self-motivation, and socially perceptive.
There are two categories of leadership behaviors: 1 consideration; and 2 initiating structure. Behaviors associated with the category of consideration include showing subordinates they are valued and that the leader cares about them. An example of a consideration behavior is showing compassion when problems arise in or out of the office.
Behaviors associated with the category of initiating structure include facilitating the task performance of groups. One example of an initiating structure behavior is meeting one-on-one with subordinates to explain expectations and goals. The final leader-focused approach is power and influence.
To be most effective a leader should be able to influence others to behave in ways that are in line with the organization's mission and goals. How influential a leader can be depends on their social power or their potential to influence their subordinates. There are six bases of power: coercive power, reward power, legitimate power, expert power, referent power, and informational power.
A leader can use several different tactics to influence others within an organization. These common tactics include: rational persuasion, inspirational appeal, consultation, ingratiation, exchange, personal appeal, coalition, legitimating, and pressure. Of the 3 approaches to leadership, contingency-focused approaches have been the most prevalent over the past 30 years.
Contingency-focused theories base a leader's effectiveness on their ability to assess a situation and adapt their behavior accordingly. A brief introduction to the most prominent contingency-focused theories will follow. Fiedler's Contingency Theory holds that a leader's effectiveness depends on the interaction between their characteristics and the characteristics of the situation. Path—Goal Theory asserts that the role of the leader is to help his or her subordinates achieve their goals.
To effectively do this, leaders must skillfully select from four different leadership styles to meet the situational factors. The situational factors are a product of the characteristics of subordinates and the characteristics of the environment. Generally speaking, when a subordinate performs well or when there are positive exchanges between a leader and a subordinate, their relationship is strengthened, performance and job satisfaction are enhanced, and the subordinate will feel more commitment to the leader and the organization as a whole.
In addition to the contingency-focused approaches mentioned, there has been a high degree of interest paid to three novel approaches that have recently emerged. The first is transformational leadership, which posits that there are certain leadership traits that inspire subordinates to perform beyond their capabilities.
The second is transactional leadership, which is most concerned with keeping subordinates in-line with deadlines and organizational policy. This type of leader fills more of a managerial role and lacks qualities necessary to inspire subordinates and induce meaningful change. And the third is authentic leadership which is centered around empathy and a leader's values or character.
If the leader understands their followers, they can inspire subordinates by cultivating a personal connection and leading them to share in the vision and goals of the team. Although there has been a limited amount of research conducted on these theories, they are sure to receive continued attention as the field of I—O psychology matures. Follower-focused approaches look at the processes by which leaders motivate followers, and lead teams to achieve shared goals.
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Understandably, the area of leadership motivation draws heavily from the abundant research literature in the domain of motivation in I—O psychology. Because leaders are held responsible for their followers' ability to achieve the organization's goals, their ability to motivate their followers is a critical factor of leadership effectiveness. Similarly, the area of team leadership draws heavily from the research in teams and team effectiveness in I—O psychology. Because organizational employees are frequently structured in the form of teams, leaders need to be aware of the potential benefits and pitfalls of working in teams, how teams develop, how to satisfy team members' needs, and ultimately how to bring about team effectiveness and performance.
An emerging area of research in the area of team leadership is in leading virtual teams, where people in the team are geographically-distributed across various distances and sometimes even countries. While technological advances have enabled the leadership process to take place in such virtual contexts, they present new challenges for leaders as well, such as the need to use technology to build relationships with followers, and influencing followers when faced with limited or no face-to-face interaction.
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Industrial-organizational psychologists have displayed a great deal of consideration for the problems of total organizational change and systematic ways to bring about planned change. This effort, called organizational development OD , involves techniques such as:. Within the survey feedback technique, surveys after being answered by employees periodically, are assessed for their emotions and attitudes which are then communicated to various members within the organization.
In order to further enhance a team's or group's morale and problem-solving skills, OD consultants called change agents help the groups to build their self-confidence, group cohesiveness, and working effectiveness. A change agent's impartiality, gives the managers within the organization a new outlook of the organization's structure, functions, and culture.
A change agent's first task is diagnosis, where questionnaires and interviews are used to assess the problems and needs of the organization. Once analyzed, the strengths and weaknesses of the organization are presented and used to create strategies for solving problems and coping with future changes.
Flexibility and adaptability are some strengths of the OD process, as it possesses the ability to conform to the needs of the situation. Regardless of the specific techniques applied, the OD process helps to free the typical bureaucratic organization from its rigidity and formality, hereby allowing more responsiveness and open participation. Public and private organizations both have employed OD techniques, despite their varied results in research conducted. However, the use of the techniques are justified by the significant increases in productivity that was proven by various studies.
Schultz and Schultz states that modern I—O Psychology is a complex and intricate position. It requires intense university training, and hands on experience. Individuals who choose I—O psychology as a profession should also be aware that they will be constantly studying to learn about new developments that may emerge.
The minimum requirement for working as an I—O psychologist is a master's degree. Normally, this degree requires 42 semester hours and takes about 2—3 years to complete. Most master's degree students work, either full-time or part-time, while studying to become an I—O psychologist.
Of all the degrees granted in I—O psychology, each year approximately two thirds are at the master's level. Admission into I—O psychology PhD programs is highly competitive given that many programs accept a small number of applicants every year. I—O psychologists whose primary responsibility is teaching at private and public colleges and universities often earn additional income from consulting with government and industry.
In the consulting field, it is important for the consultant to maintain high ethical standards in all aspects of relationships: consultant to client, consultant to consultant, and client to consultant. For example, the consultant should only accept projects for which he or she is qualified; the consultant should also avoid all conflicts of interest and being in multiple relationships with those he or she is working with.
It is an ongoing controversial issue in the consulting field. Areas of consulting include but are not limited to selection and recruiting, training, leadership, and development, compensation and benefits, employee relations, performance management, succession planning, and executive coaching.
Consultants can be categorized as internal or external to an organization. An internal consultant is someone who is working specifically for an organization that he or she is a part of whereas an external consultant can be either a sole proprietor or an employee of a consulting firm who is hired by another organization on a project basis or for a certain period of time.
There are different types of I—O consultants: [ ]. Consultants offer these consulting services to all kinds of organizations, such as profit and nonprofit sectors, public and private sectors, and a government organization. Like any other careers, there are many benefits and downsides of consulting. There are many different sets of competencies for different specializations within I—O psychology and I—O psychologists are versatile behavioral scientists.
For example, an I—O psychologist specializing in selection and recruiting should have expertise in finding the best talent for the organization and getting everyone on board while he or she might not need to know much about executive coaching. Some consultants tend to specialize in specific areas of consulting whereas others tend to generalize their areas of expertise. However, Cummings and Worley claimed that there are basic skills and knowledge, which most consultants agree, needed to be effective consultants: [ ].
Block [ ] identified the following five stages of consulting. This is the most important part of the consulting, and most consultants agree that most mistakes in the project can essentially be traced back to the faulty contracting stage. This stage is where the consultant makes his or her own judgment about the problem identified by the client and about the project. Sometimes, the problem presented by the client is not the actual problem but a symptom of a true cause.
Then, the consultant collects more information about the situation. This stage is where the consultant analyzes the data and presents the results to the client. The consultant needs to reduce a large amount of data into a manageable size and present them to the client in a clear and simple way. After presenting the results, the consultant helps the client make plans and goals for actions to be taken as a next step to solve the identified problem.
However, it is important for the consultant to be present at the fourth stage since without implementing the changes suggested by the consultant, the problem is not likely to be solved. So, in this fourth stage, the consultant needs to get everyone on board with the changes and help implement the changes. This final stage is where the consultant and the client evaluate the project, and it is usually the most neglected yet important stage.
Teachout and Vequist identified driving forces affecting future trends in the business consulting: [ ]. They also discussed three trends in the field as a result of these forces — people, process, and technology. As a result, trends, such as major talent management, selection and recruiting, workplace education and training, and planning for next generation, have emerged. In addition, change management also becomes important in organizations in order to innovate and implement new technology, tools, and systems to cope with changes in the business.
In terms of process consulting, because of an increase in competition, it becomes important to identify and improve key processes that meet customer values and demands as well as that are faster and cheaper. In terms of technology consulting, there is an increased need to automate processes or data so that employees can focus on actually doing work rather than doing the manual labor.
The consultant can add value to these technologies by providing training, communication plans, and change management as well as to incorporate these technologies into organizational culture. So, regardless of how advanced technology is, consultants are still needed to make sure that these advanced technologies have positive effects on employees and organizations in both technical and social aspects. Aside from technology consulting, there is a future trend for the interaction that comes with technology.
This includes human-technology interaction, technology-technology interaction, and human-human interaction through technology. Due to evolving technologies, communication and relationships in the workplace are dramatically changing. Technology consultants help organizations cope with the interjection of technology in the work place.
However, their job descriptions will eventually expand to include proper technology communication styles and when technology does or does not have a place in an interaction. This delicate subject alters the meanings and interpretations behind social interactions and creating concise guidelines to technological interactions is essential. Bestnes Industrial and organizational psychology Industrial and organizational psychology also known as I—O psychology , occupational psychology , work psychology , WO psychology , IWO psychology and business psychology is the scientific study of human behavior in the workplace and applies psychological theories and principles to organizations and individuals in their workplace.
Main articles: Performance appraisal and Performance management. Main articles: Workplace bullying, Workplace aggression and Workplace violence. Applied psychology Association of Business Psychologists Behavioral risk management Educational psychology Employment law Human resources development Human resource management Individual psychological assessment Industrial sociology Kick the cat Kiss up kick down Machiavellianism in the workplace Narcissism in the workplace Occupational stress Occupational safety and health Occupational health psychology Organizational socialization Outline of psychology Personnel psychology Psychopathy in the workplace Quality of working life Systems psychology.
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Putka and Tippins distinguished among the different validation strategies. They noted that all of the strategies involve establishing evidence that scores on a predictor measure are actually predictive of subsequent performance on the job or of some other criterion of interest e. In a criterion-related validation study, the evidence is a statistical relationship e. Tippins emphasized that the criterion measure needs to be collected in the same way using the same instruments for all people. In the. However, if applicants are tested, often a longer waiting period ensues before accurate measures of performance can be made.
In a construct-related validation, according to Putka, existing theory and relevant literature are used to justify linkages between the predictor measure and criterion. Putka pointed out that declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge and skill tend to be malleable and therefore amenable to training, whereas attributes like ability and personality are viewed as more stable individual differences that are not as trainable.
If a job requires certain ability or personality attributes going in, Putka suggested they should be considered at the selection or recruiting stage and not at the training stage. In content-related validation, Putka noted that the predictor measure closely resembles what people do on the job. The evidence to link the predictor measure to the criterion is bolstered by judgments of subject matter experts. Tippins explained that subject matter experts are asked to judge the extent different KSAOs are needed to perform the task, as well as to judge the extent to which the test predictor measure measures critical KSAOs.
She noted that relying on subject matter experts can make the validation process easier in some respects but more difficult in others. According to Tippins, subject matter experts usually know what the job requires in terms of task but may find it tedious or challenging to link KSAOs to the task and test. She noted that sometimes I-O psychologists will use professional test writers instead of job experts to make judgments about the relationships between KSAOs and the tests.
Oswald pointed out that the dichotomy is useful for understanding the differences between strategies, but in practice, organizations interconnect the different validation approaches. Tippins agreed and acknowledged that many organizations strive to continually accumulate evidence of validity. They may start out with a content-related validation study to. Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. Dunnette and L. Hough Eds.
After it is implemented, they might collect applicant and performance data for those hired and then conduct a criterion-related study. Inevitably, they need to use the applicant data to adjust for the restriction of range that occurs in the predictor and criterion with the criterion-related study. Tippins highlighted the pros and cons of the different validation approaches and a number of things to consider before deciding how a test is going to be developed and validated for selection purposes.
Box summarizes considerations for content-related and criterion-related validation strategies. According to Tippins, a content-related validation study typically takes less time than a criterion-related validation study. Tippins pointed out that smaller samples can be used in content validation. A sample that is representative of the various demographic groups for the job is needed, but it does not have to be as large as for criterion-related validation studies. However, Tippins noted content-related validation is not useful in all situations.
The Uniform Guidelines states that content validation approaches are not appropriate for measures of certain constructs, specifically calling out personality and intelligence. Tippins explained that as the construct being measured becomes more abstract or difficult to observe, appropriateness and legal defensibility of content-related approach diminish.
In addition, she conveyed that a content validation study does not provide evidence needed to address fairness concerns and demonstrate that the test works equally well for all members of protected classes, primarily defined by race and gender. In her workshop presentation, Ann Marie Ryan Michigan State University pointed out the importance of recruitment and how it feeds into selection.
Recruitment is the process of getting people in the pipeline ready to have the skills and qualifications to be selected for the job and attracting them to apply. Today, through advances in communications and social media as well as increased networking, more people are exposed to any single job posting compared to a decade or two ago.
The downside of this is the heightened possibility of many candidates without the requisite qualifications and fit entering the recruitment process. Earlier in the workshop, McPhail emphasized that the goal of personnel recruitment should be the effective matching of the needs, preferences, skills, and abilities of job recruits and those of existing employees with the needs and preferences of organizations. Ryan reminded the audience that employers, when trying to get personnel selection right, should keep recruitment in mind and consider whether their recruitment efforts will return enough applicants of the right quality and skills to make informed.
A Handbook of Work and Organizational Psychology: Volume 3: Personnel Psychology - Google книги
However, she cautioned against messages that might inadvertently lead those who should not screen themselves out to do so. Employers must consider whether their message is appropriately screening-oriented. Does it make the job look too hard to get? Or does it give people good information so informed decisions can be made about the fit?
Who does the message attract? This becomes particularly important in fields that are currently not attracting a demographically diverse group of people. Ryan distinguished between external and internal recruitment. External recruitment involves hiring people from outside the organization. Internal recruitment refers to applicants from other jobs within the organization.
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There are benefits to internal recruitment: applicants know something about the organization and the job, and hiring managers can access information about their performance easier. It can also build morale by defining career paths. On the other hand, she said, relying too heavily on internal recruitment can lead to stagnation in creativity or improvements if fresh perspectives are not entering the organization or create significant vacancies in other areas of the organization. Ryan asked the audience to consider the current situation in hiring pattern evidence examiners in terms of internal and external recruitment.
She posed a series of questions: Is it a good balance? Are the pros and cons appropriately considered? Are people who are potential candidates getting appropriate information about what the job requires to make an informed decision to apply or not apply? Ryan pointed to issues of recruitment sources. She noted that private-sector organizations are starting to focus on the role of all their employees in recruitment—what messages are given to employees and what they share in their networks.
Ryan acknowledged that research shows that referrals from current employees are effective toward identifying more successful performers.
History of Organizational Psychology
However, it is also well established that reliance on referrals can result in greater homogeneity in the types of people in an organization. This can be a negative in situations that do not have a very diverse group of. Top 15 Recruiting Statistics for In his remarks, Scott Highhouse Bowling Green State University focused on what is known about getting the right personnel fit for a workplace. The field of I-O psychology approaches the employer image in terms of instrumental dimensions and symbolic dimensions. Instrumental dimensions are the tangible things, such as location, pay, benefits, and advancement, that people consider when looking at a job.
Symbolic dimensions are subjective perceptions, for example, whether people perceive an employer to be innovative, dominant in the industry, sincere, competent, or other qualities. Highhouse emphasized that symbolic dimensions can be important for attracting applicants if they positively distinguish an organization from other workplaces even when the instrumental dimensions are the same.
In developing image dimensions, Highhouse suggested that employers examine competing organizations and determine how their image might differ from other potential employers, identify the instrumental and symbolic dimensions that distinguish competing workplaces, and then choose to emphasize those dimensions that provide a competitive advantage and attraction.
Highhouse recognized that attraction may not be an issue in forensic science. The issue may be avoiding misfit. A common approach to limit misfit and avoid unrealistic expectations is the realistic job preview. He noted that areas with the potential to create discomfort for some people can be identified in a job analysis discussed. The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40 , Employer image and employer branding: What we know and what we need to know. As McPhail noted, in the United States, assessment in the employment context is governed by a broad array of legal and regulatory requirements intended to provide fairness, which various state and federal agencies enforce.
Box shows the statutes and enforcement agencies most likely relevant with respect to assessment and selection. He stressed that for legal defensibility, the laws that govern selection are primarily associated with enforcement of fairness in employment selection and hiring, but they apply to any aspect of the employment situation, including promotions or transfers. Pre-employment selection was the initiating point and continues to be probably the single most common, he said. The defensibility comes from having done the validation research in a way that is compliant with professional standards, the Uniform Guidelines, and case law.
These experiences may be too aggravating for some people, whereas others may find them satisfying or less egregious. See Bernardin, H. Development and validation of a forced choice scale to measure job-related discomfort among customer service representatives. Academy of Management Journal , 30 1 , Ryan pointed out that the legal requirements are important because they constrain and define some of the things that can be done.
However, more important are the professional standards for the I-O psychology community. They dictate finding the best, most accurate ways to predict who is going to be an effective employee. In July The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop with the goal of bringing together industrial and organizational I-O psychologists, experts on personnel selection and testing, forensic scientists, and other researchers whose work has a nexus with workforce needs in the forensic science field with a focus on pattern evidence.
Participants reviewed the current status of selection and training of forensic scientists who specialize in pattern evidence and discussed how tools used in I-O psychology to understand elements of a task and measure aptitude and performance could address challenges in the pattern evidence domain of the forensic sciences. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one.
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