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The hero who dies within the city will project his own personal fate onto the forests. This is no doubt what Gilgamesh means when he says that he would enter the land and raise up his name. For if he is not wide enough to "cover the earth," yet may he still uncover it. It is a sorry fact of history that human beings have never ceased reenacting the gesture of Gilgamesh. The destructive impulse with respect to nature all too often has psychological causes that go beyond the greed for material resource or the need to domesticate an environment.

There is too often a deliberate rage and vengefulness at work in the assault on nature and its species, as if one would project onto the natural world the intolerable anxieties of finitude which hold humanity hostage to death. There is a kind of childish furor that needs to create victims without in order to exorcise the pathos of victim age within. The epic of Gilgamesh tells the story of such furor; but while Gilgamesh ends up as the ultimate victim of his own despair, the logs meanwhile float down the river like bodies of the dead.

From the epic cycle as a whole in its Sumerian and Akkadian versions, we gather that Gilgamesh's expedition to the Cedar Mountain was in fact a vain attempt to overcome the source of his afflictions. To begin with, the slaying ofHuwawa angers the gods. It was a sacrilege, for Huwawa had the dignity of a sacred being. In some versions of the story, Gilgamesh's beloved friend, Enkidu, must pay for the crime of killing Huwawa with his own life.

Upon the death of his friend Gilgamesh falls into an exacerbated state of melancholy, consuming himself with thoughts about death. Fame and the monuments of memory no longer console him for the fact of dying. That is why Gilgamesh sets out on another journey, this time in search of everlasting life. Yet the long and desperate quest for personal immortality only leads him to the knowledge that death is the ineluctable and nonnegotiable condition of life-that the cadaverous logs he sent down to the city from the Cedar Mountain cannot spare him his last journey of all down the very same river.

And this, at the dawn of civilization, is called "wisdom. In her round biosphere, life, death, and rebirth recurred eternally, like the cycles of the moon or menstruation. She revolved the seasons and gave the grain, replenished the herds and took the dead back into the safekeeping of her cosmic matrix. She appears to us across the ages as the great lap of the world, the first of all royal thrones.

Remarkable icons depict her as huge, swollen with abundance, generous. There was much that was sacred to her: caves, groves, lakes, mountain peaks The horned bull was especially sacred to her, as were the forests through which it roamed. Those forests were probably the first labyrinths surrounding the sacred caves in whose depths prehistoric artists would impregnate her womb with the forms of wild animals.

Vico had little to say about the prehistory of this goddess, for his New Science was seeking to reconstruct the origins of patriarchy, that is to say the religious traumas that led to the differentiations, oppositions, and hierarchies of the patriarchal institutions we discussed in the opening sections of this chapter. Under the goddess's reign, however, earth and sky were not opposed, nor were life and death, animal and human, male and female, inanimate and animate, matter and form, forest and clearing.

These unconditional distinctions which the forest forever confuses lie at the basis of "civilization" as opposed to mere "culture. Civilization institutes and grounds itself on oppositions. The great Mother, on the other hand, enveloped them and drew them back into the primordial chaos and unity of origins. In retrospect we could say that the goddess's demise as the dominant deity of antiquity probably represents the most momentous cultural revolution in our human past to date.

It was the result, it seems, of her violent overthrow by the male sky gods that erupted on the scene with dreadful fury during the Bronze Age. The nomadic Hebrew tribes, following their sky-and-thunder god, Yahweh, waged a pitiless war against her. The Dorians in particular were fiercely intolerant of the goddess, destroying her temples wherever they went. In Mesopotamian art works Gilgamesh is often depicted as a brawny man with a beard fighting horned bulls, inspired no doubt by the famous episode in the epic cycle which recounts how Gilgamesh slayed the sacred bull of Inanna.

Inanna Semitic Ishtar was the Sumerian goddess of love. In the epic cycle she appears as a wanton seductress angered by Gilgamesh's presumption in repudiating her charms, but what we see in the figure ofInanna is a historically transformed and degraded version of the great Mother who had once reigned throughout Mesopotamia. As Rachel Levy showed so persuasively in her book The Gate of Horn, the bull's horns had been one of the most pervasive symbols of her fertility throughout prehistory.

As the slayer of the sacred bull, Gilgamesh figures as a poetic character for the historic triumph of Sumerian patriarchy over the earlier matriarchal religions of Mesopotamia. He slays Inanna's bull and severs its horns as a trophy a memory , thus severing a bond that had once affiliated the people to an antecedent religion.

Ancient Greece witnessed similar religious revolutions during its prehistory, but in Greece too this goddess lived on in various transfigured versions even after the Olympian gods emerged victorious over the Titans. Her name in Greek is Artemis. She is one of the oldest, most enigmatic of Greek deities. Her worship goes back to the PreHellenic period, but even in historical times she was widely worshipped as a fertility goddess in Asia Minor, her cult being based at Ephesus.

From that city there has come down to us the famous marble statue that depicts her standing upright with arms extending outward from the elbows. A congeries of wild animals stare out from her gown and headdress, while her front side is weighed down by multiple bulbs that suggest a proliferation of female breasts. For a long time no one thought to doubt that these bulbs were breasts symbolizing the goddess's superabundant fertility, but then someone looked closer and remarked on their strange lack of plastic realism. In short, a group of Austrian archaeologists recently confirmed that these protrusions do not represent breasts after all but rather the testicles of bulls.

The fact is corroborated by evidence uncovered at Ephesus which indicates that on her festival days Artemis's priests would castrate several bulls, string the scrotums together, and then place the gruesome garlands 20 C HAP T E RON E around a wooden image of the goddess, which her votives would then follow in an ecstatic procession from her sacred altar to the center of the city. Such was the nature of the "virgin" goddess, Artemis. In her city the Christian prelates convened in A. The Church at that time was decisively hostile toward Mary, her worship being dangerously reminiscent of paganism.

But it was decided by the bishops in Ephesus that her following was too popular and that the Church would do best to canonize her. Mary was officially declared the mother of God, and Artemis's traditional festival day-August Is-was chosen as the holy day of Mary's "assumption" into heaven. Thus was the virgin goddess assimilated yet again into a new religious order. This was only the most recent chapter in the story of her various accommodations to new religious institutions. Prior to the Christian revolution, the Olympian pantheon had also been obliged to make room for Artemis, for she was originally an outsider among the Olympians, so much that Hesiod had to invent a genealogy for her.

Homer, the great champion of Olympianism, was not very fond of this goddess and conspicuously degraded her dignity in the Iliad by portraying her as an adolescent girl completely out of place in the war, contemptuously roughed up and chided by Hera Iliad Nevertheless Artemis remained for the Greeks an awesome goddess. When she chides her in the Iliad, Hera declares: "A lion unto women Zeus made you-to kill any at your pleasure" The reference is to Artemis's role as the goddess who presided over childbirth-one of her ancient fertility functions that she managed to preserve.

In this capacity she was often identified with Eileithyia, the goddess of release who responds to the cries of pain and fear of pregnant women at the moment of delivery. In a similar vein Artemis also presided over the initiation rites of young girls. At her cult in Brauron, in Attica, for example, young girls were placed in her service for extended periods of time and were dressed ceremoniously in bear skins in symbolic atonement for a sacred bear killed by Attic youths in one of the goddess's groves.

The traditional cults and myths indicate that Artemis was also a goddess of sacrifice.

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When Agamemnon kills a stag in one of her sacred groves, she demands the sacrifice of his daughter Iphigenia. If there is a deity of the wilderness in Greek antiquity, it is Artemis. We know from the myths that many groves were sacred to her, and that her chastity was inviolable. Her virginity referred, among other things, to the virgin forests beyond the bounds of the polis and cultivated fields. Her outlying domain may, in this sense, reflect her original status as an outsider among the Olympian gods. For all their similarities, the Roman counterpart of Artemis, Diana nemorensis, or "Diana of the Woods," was not the same goddess, at least not in origin.

It used to be assumed that the Romans merely adopted Artemis and gave her a Latin name, but Diana was in fact an aboriginal Latin deity whose worship also goes back to prehistoric times. The Latin myth of the Golden Bough, which provided the impulse for Frazer's monumental The Golden Bough, is one of the indications of her indigenous antiquity. Given this discrepancy between the two goddesses, then, we will leave Diana nemorensis to Sir James Frazer and focus here on Artemis of the virgin woodlands.

Her virginal aspect deserves greater emphasis, for in ancient times forests were by no means always virgin or beyond the bounds of human domestication. From the very beginning, it seems, the exploitation and harvesting of forests were an integral part of neolithic life. Silviculture is an ancient practice, but our goddess had nothing to do with it.

She belonged to those dark and inaccessible regions where wild animals enjoyed sanctuary from all human disturbance except that of the most intrepid hunters. Like her domain, the goddess too was remote and inaccessible. She refused to be seen by man or woman. Even her most ardent priestesses and votives did not set eyes on her.

The story of Hippolytus, son of Theseus, confirms this. So total was the youth's devotion to Artemis that he went so far as to spurn the power of Aphrodite, who in revenge devised a cruel fate for him at the hands of his stepmother Phaedra. In Euripides' Hippolytus the young hunter brings Artemis flowers from a wild meadow where no human being except himself could enter, and where he was granted the extraordinary privilege of hearing the goddess's voice.

But even he could not set eyes on her. This, then, is how Artemis appears, or refuses to appear, in the mythologies: invisible, intangible, enigmatic, cruel, reigning over the nonhuman reaches of the wilderness. As virgin of the woodlands, she withdraws behind the forest's shadows into her noumenal realm where human beings cannot, or must not, have access.

Her virginity does not suggest so much asexuality as the primordial chastity of this sylvan retreat. The Greek myth of Actaeon dramatizes in an unforgettable way this prohibitive, inviolable nature of Artemis. The myth is taken up by the Roman poet Ovid in his Metamorphoses 3. Actaeon had been out hunting on the slopes of a mountain with his friends and hounds. As noon came around he told his companions that they had done well enough for the day, leaving them to gather up the nets and return home with the dogs.

In a valley beneath the mountain there was a grove of pine and cypress trees, sacred to Artemis, where a waterfall poured into a pristine pool. Tired from hunting, Artemis would sometimes come here to bathe with her nymphs. On that particular day she had already disrobed, handed her weapons to her maidens and entered the pool, when Actaeon, wandering through unfamiliar woodlands, strayed into the grove by mistake.

Seeing a man in their midst the nymphs began to beat their breasts and scream, gathering around the goddess to hide her nakedness. Artemis, however, being taller than them, remained exposed to the gaze of Actaeon. With no weapons handy, she gathered up a handful of water from the pool and flung it in Actaeon's face and hair. Actaeon will be incapable of telling any such thing, for he loses the capacity of human speech altogether. Horns begin to sprout from his forehead, his arms become legs; his hands become feet, his skin becomes a hide.

Transformed into a stag, he takes flight through the forest. The only thing left to him of his former self is his personal awareness of himself. As he dashes through the forest he hears his bloodthirsty hounds in the distance rushing after him. The pursuer becomes the pursued. As the pack bears down on him Actaeon wants to call out to his hounds and say: "I am Actaeon! His companions urge on the pack and wonder what has become of Actaeon, disappointed that he is not with them to join in the chase.

As his dogs lacerate and tear him apart, Actaeon's life expires, and so was "the wrath of the quiver-bearing goddess appeased. To begin with, what is it exactly that leaves the forest goddess naked in this story? If Artemis became visible to human eyes on this occasion, it was due to the momentary loss of her natural cover at that critical time of day when the forest's shade is at its minimum. Her habitat proper is the dark side of the visible world.

Her robe is none other than the forest's umbrae, its protective shadows. Ovid's version emphasizes the sinister dialectic of the classical myth. On the most obvious plane, the veiled becomes unveiled, the hunter becomes the hunted, and the master becomes the victim of his own hounds; but the logic of reversal and retribution goes beyond this. In a moment of indiscretion, Actaeon actually partakes of the sort of vision that is forbidden to mortals. Human vision is privative in nature; it does not see directly into the nature of things but sees only the outward surface of phenomenal appearances.

Actaeon transgresses these limits. He sees the goddess in a moment of noumenal, as opposed to mere phenomenal, vision. In retribution for his having violated the realm that lies behind the world of appearances, Artemis brings about Actaeon's change of appearance, while leaving his human essence intact.

He retains his inner mind mens tantum pristina mansit; 3. In the process of external metamorphosis he comes to realize that his own inner identity is superfluous in a realm governed by appearances. Actaeon's dogs know nothing of the inner identity of Actaeon; nor do his companions. They fail to recognize him and respond solely to the outer phenomenon.

In this way she restores with a vengeance the cloak of discretion which Actaeon had violated. The Metamorphoses in general, and this story in particular, use the trope of metamorphosis to express a materialist philosophy of reality, which holds that all embodied substances partake of the same primal matter. In Ovid's mythic world, all living species preserve an intimate affiliation with one another by virtue of their emergence from a mutual womb of creation. The possibility of one creature's metamorphosis into another points to the underlying material nature they share in common. Metamorphosis itself from the Greek words meta and morphe, meaning change of form is a kind of birth, or rebirth, as one material form returns to its matrix in order to assume a new form.

This preformal kinship of all creation, which enables human beings to be transformed into animals, trees, flowers, and other forest phenomena, is the recurring materialist theme of the Metamorphoses. In the Actaeon story Artemis is the agent both of metamorphosis and the guardian of nature's mysterious matrix of forms. By transforming the predator into the prey, she reveals to Actaeon in his person the true nature of what he has laid eyes upon: the preformal kinship of all creation. The story has an unmistakable psychological effect upon the reader, for while Actaeon is literally de-anthropomorphized, the stag that he turns into becomes humanized.

Now that Actaeon has become a stag we are able to suffer its fate as if it were a human being. The distinctions collapse. The world reveals its deceptions, its irrevocable deceptions. Like Actaeon, we are made to see that the forms of the world are transient, illusory, and reversible. All things, whatever their formal natures, arise from a more primordial unity. This is the terrifying insight enjoyed by Actaeon that day in the forest, where he had the dubious privilege of seeing the dea silvarum naked.

There are important reasons why this materialist doctrine is expressed mythologically, through the trope of metamorphosis, rather than logically, but to understand them we must follow a detour that takes us back to the beginnings of Western philosophy, when myth os , or myth, presumably gave way to logos, or logical reason. These beginnings were dominated by a simple question: what is the essence of all that is?

The early Greek "nature philosophers" looked to one or more of the elements for an answer-water, fire, earth, air, or a combination of these. Regardless of their local disagreements about elemental primacies, the materialist philosophers generally agreed that all things come into being-assume form and appearance-from out of 26 C HAP T E RON E the womb of some primordial, undifferentiated matter. While forms are forever changing and passing away, the matter of which they are composed remains eternal. In the most extreme versions of preSocratic materialism, the mere fact of coming into being, or assuming form, entails a tragic estrangement from the source of being.

The oldest fragment of Western philosophy, attributed to Anaximander, expresses the doctrine in a wondrous sentence: "Whence things have their origin, there they must also pass away according to the order of necessity; for they must pay penalty and be judged for their injustice, according to the ordinance of time. Aristotle especially argued the case for form in a way that became decisive for Western philosophy as a whole.

Aristotle revised the very agenda of philosophy by introducing a series of logical distinctions between the ways in which "we speak" about abstract things-being, change, cause, motion, substance, matter, nature, etc. The distinction he drew between form and matter-morphe and hyle, as he called it-was typical of his grammarian revolution in philosophy.

He pointed out that the distinction is a logical, not ontological, one. Neither matter nor form has an independent existence of its own. We cannot, for example, separate the bronze from the statue and still have pure matter on one side and pure form on the other. No, matter and form are merely unavoidable categories by which we distinguish conceptually between the "stuff" and its "structure.

He cites the ingenious argument of the materialist Antiphon, which works by analogy. If a man were to bury a bedstead in the ground, and if the rotting wood were to take root and throw out a shoot, wood, and not a bedstead, would continue to exist. The form, then, may undergo external transformations, but the matter endures as the intrinsic "nature" of the thing. By extending the analogy to natural substances in general, Antiphon concludes that since what endures throughout the many transformations undergone by substances in their elemental matter, physis is the matter and not the form of substances.

Aristotle refutes this argument delicately. Even Antiphon's analogy unwittingly confirms this. If the inability to reproduce itself is what distinguishes the formal artifact from the matter of which it is composed, then the "nature" of natural as opposed to artificial substances must reside in their form, for substances reproduce their forms. Men beget men, not elephants, and elephants beget elephants, not men.

Form is the telos, or goal, which governs the physis of natural substances. Physis is nothing other than the movement of things into their natural forms. As for matter, we cannot speak about it in any logical fashion. There are neither words, images, or categories for undifferentiated matter, since form is the condition of our logical access to reality.

Even Antiphon's "wood" has formal properties by which we identify it as a substance.


Yet there is one word that Aristotle could not avoid using when he spoke about the unspeakable-hyle. He is the first to give the word its philosophical meaning of "matter. Let us repeat that: hyle is the Greek word for forest. The cognate of hyle in Latin is silva. The archaic Latin word was sylua, phonetically close to hyle.

It is strange that the Romans should have translated the Aristotelian hyle with the word materia when the Latin language possessed such a cognate. But even the word materia did not stray very far from the forests. Materia means wood-the usable wood of a tree as opposed to its bark, fruit, sap, etc. And materia has the same root-yes, root-as the word mater, or mother. The analogy of motherhood, or embryonic genesis, in fact pervades Aristotle's discussion. He compares hyle to embryonic tissue that merely has the potential for assuming specific form, but which has not yet assumed the determinate properties by which it can be categorized as this or that entity.

The following passage from the Physics concludes Aristotle's argument in favor of the logical primacy of form over matter: "What is potentially flesh or bone has not yet its own nature, and does not exist by nature, until it receives the form specified in the definition, which we name in defining what flesh or bone is" Physics 2. Until a substance emerges into the tel os of its form we simply cannot talk about it. Logos begins with the phenomenon. Yet the fact that we cannot speak logically about matter does not mean that it loses its primacy as the genetic matrix.

The matter and the matrix are one, but Aristotle takes the words away. Dylan 28 C HAP T E R a N E Thomas, the Welsh poet, cannot find those words anymore, hence he must speak about the logical impossibility of speaking about the immediate kinship he feels with creation: The force that through the green fuse drives the flower Drives my green age; that blasts the roots of trees Is my destroyer. And I am dumb to tell the crooked rose My youth is bent by the same wintry fever.

This preverbal kinship that the poet cannot communicate to the crooked rose finds expression in mythos, if not in logos. It is expressed by Ovid in stories of human beings turning into faun, flora, trees, and other forest phenomena. The trope of metamorphosis dramatizes the ultimately insubstantial nature of the forms of creation, and in so doing it points to the affiliations that link all things together by virtue of their common genesis. Actaeon will never be able to speak about what he saw, for his insight is prelogical and lies beyond the possibility of speech.

For Actaeon there is no choice but to undergo a material metamorphosis. He has seen into the goddess's nature and must be reborn. In his rebirth as a stag he will promptly be lacerated by his dogs and returned once again to the universal matrix of all things, for "Whence things have their origin, there they must also pass away according to the order of necessity. She is the huntress and protectress of wild animals, but also the goddess of childbirth.

She was worshipped during antiquity as the great womb of the world, yet she also haunted the outlying forests beyond the bounds of human dwelling. She is invisible and unapproachable, the guardian of cruel mysteries. She is the mother who "delights in the suckling young of every wild creature," yet she hunts them down and takes their lives. She is the matrix, the matter, and the forest in one.

In her wild woodlands there are no irreducible distinctionsno noise that does not sound like a response to some other noise, no tree that does not fuse into the arboreal confusion. The diversity of species in the forest belongs to the same phylogeny, so much so that in heightened moments of perception they appear as mere versions of each other-the fern a version of the dragonfly, the robin a version of its supporting branch, the reptile's rustle a version of the rivulet's trickle, the wildflower a version of the ray of light that reaches it through the canopy.

Symbolist poets of the nineteenth century will speak of the forest as the place of ancient "correspondences"-the mutual implication of the species and sense perception. Artemis reigns over this inconceivable implication. In her forests the hunter and the hunted become one, just as Artemis is both huntress and protectress of the beasts.

But Artemis is even more than that, as she demonstrates so persuasively to Actaeon through his metamorphosis. By transforming him into a stag, she presides over his initiation into the genetic mysteries of her nature-a nature imponderable, unspeakable, yet primordial enough to give new meaning to the phrase, "first the forests. This "god who comes," to adopt the phrase of Walter Otto, reaches the city from afar. He arrives from foreign Artemisian regions dressed in animal skins and crowned with ivy wreaths. He is dissolute, wanton, and orgiastic, yet these characteristics that seem to oppose him to the chaste goddess arise from a more originary source of kinship.

In his dramatic epiphanies among men and women we can see in Dionysos the mask of Artemis. Consider, for example, the blithe image of Dionysos that comes to us from a Homeric hymn, which assigns the god to the forest's domain: I begin to sing of the boisterous Dionysos of the ivywreathed head, the noble son of Zeus and glorious Semele. The lovely-haired nymphs nurtured him and from his lordly father took him to their bosoms to cuddle and nurse in the dells of Nysa. But after the goddesses brought him up with many songs, covered with ivy and laurel he started haunting the wooded glens.

The nymphs followed him and he led the way as the boundless forest resounded with din. And so hail to you, Dionysos, with your many grapes! Grant that we joyously reach this season again and then after this season many more years. Homeric Hymns, "Hymn to Dionysos" no. This is only one of many characteristics which links the two deities together.

They, and they alone, have a thiasos, a retinue of animated dancers, though the maenads of Dionysos are mature women and the nymphs of Artemis are young virgins; masks and even phallic costumes are found in dances for Artemis as well as in dances for Dionysos. A protest was raised, however, when a song by Timotheus addressed Artemis herself as a "frenzied Thyiad. There is a story attached to the sanctuary of Artemis at Karyai which tells of the arrival ofDionysos and how he seduces a maiden.

At Patrai the festivals of Artemis and Dionysos are intertwined: the central temple of the three provinces is dedicated to Artemis Triklaria. Young boys go down to the sanctuary by the river Melichos wearing garlands of com-ears on their heads; they lay down the garlands by the goddess, wash themselves in the river, put on fresh garlands of ivy, and thus adorned they go to meet Dionysos Aisymnetes The myth tells how, after a young couple desecrated her temple by making love there, Artemis had demanded the sacrifice of a youth and a virgin until the arrival of Aisymnetes put an end to the practise.

Virginal cruelty is resolved in nocturnal frenzy. Referring to the maenads in Euripides' The Bacchae, who in a moment of frenzy become predators and assault a herd of cattle, Otto writes: The true victims of their gruesome hunt, however, are the animals of the forest, the very ones they have mothered [i. Thus the madness of these bloodthirsty huntresses has evolved from the magic of a motherliness which has no bounds. The revel rout, however, is only following the example of its divine leader. Dionysos, himself, is a hunter. Agave in Euripides calls him "an experienced hunter" Dionysos is the animal god who is forever transforming himself-into a lion, a boar, a panther, a snake, a bull, a dragon.

In this sense he is the god of metamorphosis par excellence. It is interesting to note in this context that Friedrich Nietzsche argued that metamorphosis is the very essence of the psychic ecstasy that overtakes the initiates of the Dionysian mystery cults, who during their dances believed themselves transformed into satyrs, or creatures of the forest: This process of the tragic chorus is the dramatic protophenomenon: to see oneself transformed before one's own eyes and to begin to act as if one had actually entered into another body, another character.

This process stands at the beginning of the origin of drama Here we have a surrender of individuality and a way of entering another character. Such magic transformation is the presupposition of all dramatic art. In this magic transformation the Dionysian 32 C HAP T E RON E reveler sees himself as satyr [man of the woods], and as a satyr, in turn, he sees the god, which means that in his metamorphosis he beholds another vision outside himself, as the Apollinian complement of his own state.

With this new vision the drama is complete. The Birth of Tragedy, 64 Here too metamorphosis is bound to the forest, which, as we remarked in the last section, preserves the original affiliations that enable individual forms to give way to one another in a promiscuous confusion of identities. Actaeon's transformation into a stag figures as the Dionysian state of ecstasy in its quintessential version-the state in which a man sees himself enter "into another body, another character. In other words, Actaeon's having set eyes upon the naked Artemis represents the visionary moment of Dionysian insight as such.

Such insight is perhaps prohibitive, unspeakable, abominable-but the tragic wisdom of the Greeks is bound up with it. This brings us to the most compelling hint of kinship between Artemis and Dionysos, namely the consanguinity of their two most famous victims: Actaeon and Pentheus. These two Theban characters were first cousins. Both were the grandsons of Cadmus and both met their tragic deaths in the same forest on the Cithaeron mountain outside of Thebes. Their strangely parallel fates suggest underlying, subterranean connections between Artemis and Dionysos which go beyond the hard evidence of philology.

We have already discussed the fate of Actaeon. In what follows we will look at the fate of Pentheus as dramatized by Euripides in The Bacchae. One day the god appears, no one knows from where, but from afar, and the city loses its mind. Piety, laws, and the civic order break down before his epiphany. Thrown into a state of agitation by the presence of the god, the women rush from their homes and make their way in swarms to the mountains. Out of their houses, out of their city, out of their minds-they go into the forests.

Here they wear ivy or oak wreaths on their heads and dress in fawnskins. Snakes, coiled around the fur, lick their cheeks. Like Artemis who "delights in the suckling young of every wild creature," they hold young gazelle or wolf cubs in their arms, suckling them with overflowing breasts. Then the revelery begins. The maenads gather together and chant for Dionysos to appear. The whole mountain, and all the creatures of the woods, sway to the rhythms of their drunken song.

At this point the maenads spot some herdsmen nearby and succumb to a wild paranoia. They realize they are being hunted out by envoys of the city. In a furious rage the hunted become the huntresses. They rush after their persecutors, who, seeing the swarm come after them with murderous intent, flee for their lives. Possessed by Dionysos, the women attack a herd of cattle with their bare hands and rip the cows apart, limb from limb. Even the proud bull they wrestle to the ground and tear to pieces. The maenads had called for the god to appear, and now whatever they assault is the god himself, for at the moment of his revelation Dionysos is everything and everywhere.

He is the ancient, primordial matter behind the phenomena of the world. By dismembering their victims in a moment of ecstatic vision, the maenads merely destroy the illusions of formal integrity. All becomes indefinite in the Dionysian frenzy, for Dionysos, like Artemis, liquidates the boundaries of form. Forms maintain themselves in the world through a kind of restraint. Restraint is active resistance against the amorphous chaos of matter, which forever wants to draw phenomena back into the matrix oflife.

The hero of such resistance in The Bacchae is Pentheus, king of Thebes. As a champion of the social order, he cannot tolerate the mad upheavals caused by the arrival of an effeminate foreigner who claims to be the son of Zeus. Hence Pentheus resists Dionysos, denies his divinity. But he will pay for his denial, for like Actaeon he will be made to undergo a Dionysian dissolution in his person.

This comes about as Dionysos lures the naive king to the scene of the orgies on the mountain. Wasn't sure until important info came to light. Much better than sequel. I don't read much fiction but I do enjoy historical fiction, a lot. Big fan of Downton Abbey. Never before read any of Jessica Stirling's work, but I am so glad I picked this book up.

The twists and turns Jessica Stirling made throughout this book, were fantastic and I thoroughly enjoyed it. Set in late 's Glasgow, this story is about Clare Kelso, a seventeen year old mother in the Tollbooth for murdering her own child, which she denies. Then the story goes back a couple of years to where it I don't read much fiction but I do enjoy historical fiction, a lot. Then the story goes back a couple of years to where it all began.

The good people she meets who help her, and the bad ones who take advantage of her, add to the mystery of the story. Clare lives with her germane cousin and his wife and family, but due to the wife being highly jealous of the beautiful young girl, she is kept as a servant in the house, although is treated with more humility by her cousin, than his wife. She falls in love with someone whom she trusts and who promises her the world, which she'd never had as a child.

There is so much intrigue in this story I really don't wish to spoil it for others, but believe me, this book is a page turner. I have since found out there is a sequel to this book and I really want to read, entitled, Shadows On The Shore. However, all the places I have been have told me it is out of print, so I guess I will just have to keep looking.

Jessica Stirling has become one of my new favourite authors. Then the story goes back a couple of years to where i I don't read much fiction but I do enjoy historical fiction, a lot. Talk about a good mystery I'm usually rolling my eyes at the obvious outcome of most mysteries but I'll admit I wasn't so sure about this one as the story unfolded! Great book and I do plan to read the sequel! May 16, Charlotte Wallace added it. Very good story which has a sequel which I've just gotten out of the library. The author was unknown to me, I happened to peruse the book shelves and found this author.

Jan 11, Grecia Ramirez rated it really liked it. What a great story. Gripping from the first to the last. Definitely want to read the sequel now. I loved this book!

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It was the first of two books Shadows on the shore and was quite suspensful. Judy rated it liked it Nov 03, Alexandra rated it really liked it Jan 07, Holly rated it really liked it Mar 20, Ehss rated it it was amazing Mar 09, Clare rated it liked it May 19, Laurie Breen rated it it was amazing Oct 01, Jeka rated it it was amazing Sep 19, Ian Roberts rated it really liked it May 19, Catherine Mustread rated it really liked it Nov 14, Jana rated it it was amazing Jun 26, Eileen Smite rated it it was amazing Jun 27, Undela Uneeb rated it liked it Mar 28, They've got a pair of dried-up snake eyes with the power to turn you into a real animal.

Maybe you'd like to buy a map of the lost gold mine. You could strike it rich. Or you could get attacked by a giant kid-eating spider! The choice is yours in this scary adventure that's packed with over 20 super-spooky endings. Along the road to Gundagai The words of this familiar song Australian song have inspired the illustrations to tell the story of young soldiers away fighting in World War I. When there is an opportunity to enter a talent contest, they just can't resist. But what will their act be? Will they shimmy and shake? Dance and prance? Whatever they choose it will surely be a performance to remember!

Please note: Alpacas with maracas is the National Simultaneous Storytime book, and all students regardless of challenge level can include this on their Student Reading Record this year. It will return to the K-2 booklist in Always Jack Jack's life is pretty good until things get complicated. Nanna is getting wobblier, his face goes red when he thinks about Anna and Mum and Rob's wedding is taking over the world. Then, his Mum gets breast cancer and the world starts spinning while his mum and family go through the whole experience of her illness. Amal unbound Twelve-year-old Amal loves learning and dreams of becoming a teacher.

Then something unimaginable happens. After an accidental run-in with the son of her village's corrupt landlord, she is forced to work as his family's servant to pay off her own family's debt. At the opulent and corrupt Khan estate, Amal realises she will have to find a way to work with others in order to bring about change, and to achieve her dreams.

Amazing and bizarre - ten wonderfully weird stories A collection of ten, strange stories, including one about a person who swam so much, he grew fins. Amazing animals of Australia's national parks The animals of Australia are amazing. Find out what some of them look like and where you might see them.

Whether you're on a trip to a national park or relaxing in a comfortable spot, you'll love dipping into this book. It includes 55 national parks and reserves and is full of up-to-date fascinating facts for more than animal species, large and small. Amazing bike ride, The This is the real life account of the seemingly impossible ride from Tamworth to Port Macquarie which Lorin undertook as a sixteen year old school student. With his father as backup, Lorin rode his trusty, old mountain bike km across the Great Dividing Range in just three days and with less than ten per cent vision.

Amazing facts about Australia's early explorers Australia's early explorers were an odd bunch. Some were incredibly brave, others extremely foolhardy. Some formed friendships with Aborigines and respected their rights and traditions, others treated them very badly. Some gained fame and fortune, others lost their lives. All had a thirst for discovery. Amazing facts about Australia's early settlers Australia is home to both an ancient, Indigenous culture and a young European influence.

While their coexistence has been far from peaceful, both groups have proven to be tenacious, resourceful and resilient. Australia is the only country founded solely to contain convicts. Amazing facts about Australian birds Australia is one of the best places to watch the unique bird families that share our natural and urban environments. Find out how they evolved, how they survive and adapt in the face of human progress, and how they interact with each other. Amazing facts about Australian wildlife conservation Australia has unique, ancient landscapes, plants and animals. Humans have not always realised how incredible the natural wealth is and have exploited the environments, greatly affecting the flora and fauna.

Australia has one of the worst extinction rates in the world but it's not too late to save our wild places. Amazing facts series Full of factual information about Australia's past and present. Amazing grace: an adventure at sea Imagine hearing a ship is about to sink? In 16 year old Grace Bussell hears the news of a ship that has run aground on the Australian coast near her home. She doesn't hesitate and leaps on her horse, riding for an hour to get to the sinking ship.

“Untroubling and untroubled”: Notes on a poem by John Clare

There, she and Sam, the family's stockman, gallop into the wild surf to save the remaining crew and passengers. Read about her courageous journey. Amazing Maurice and his educated rodents, The Maurice the cat and his friends, a motley group of rats, have gained super intelligence overnight and quickly start scamming human villages with a Pied Piper of Hamelin ruse.

Amazing mind of Alice Makin, The Twelve year old Alice Makin is living in a tiny flat in post-war London where many people's homes have been destroyed. Reggie and the man he calls his grandfather come to live upstairs. Alice and Reggie become friends and realise that they share a special talent for making things that they think happen. This is not their only connection and as the story unfolds Alice learns about who she really is.

Amazing plants Learn about some of the world's wonderful and different plants. Some are amazing in the way they look, others are extraordinary in the way they have adapted to their environment. Easy to access information includes unusual or amazing facts, photographs, charts and maps. His mates are going to be so jealous. Going up is awesome, but when disaster strikes, Spencer will need to be nothing short of amazing.

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Amazing story of Adolphus Tips, The Set in wartime Devon, this is the diary of plucky young Lily Tregenza whose town is invaded by escaping evacuees and American soldiers. When Lily enlists the help of two young, black American soldiers to find her missing cat, there are surprising results. Amber amulet, The Twelve-year-old Liam McKenzie patrols his suburban neighbourhood as the Masked Avenger - a superhero with powers so potent not even he can fully comprehend their extent. Along with his sidekick, Richie the Powerbeagle, he protects the people of Franklin Street from chaos, mayhem, evil and low tyre pressure - but can he save them from sadness?

Amber spyglass, The In the third of the Dark Materials trilogy, Lyra and Will, whose fates are bound together, are separated. They must find each other for ahead of them lies the greatest war that has ever been. This text includes representations that may be contrary to some religious beliefs. Amelia Dee and the peacock lamp The large old house where Amelia, a young and talented writer lives, holds a secret that is linked to the origins of a rare brass lamp, decorated with animals and peacocks.

Amelia Earhart: a life in flight Amelia Earhart's sense of daring was evident from a very young age. She knew the risks of flying but was eager to promote women's abilities and to contribute to the world around her. She became the first female to fly solo across the Atlantic. Her sudden disappearance over the Pacific remains one of aviation's most haunting, unsolved mysteries.

Amelia Westlake Harriet and Wilhelmina couldn't be more dissimilar. Harriet has the perfect life - she's dating the perfect girl, has been elected prefect, is the apple of her teachers' eye, and is an overachiever. Will, on the other hand, has gained the ire of her teachers and lands more detentions than she does accolades. But when both girls witness a teacher harass a fellow student, the two form an unlikely partnership to shed light on the many problems of the exclusive Rosemead Grammar.

To protect their identities, they create Amelia Westlake, and as they work together they begin to question their distance from each other He just wants to be an all-American boy. Danny is popular and great at basketball but his obnoxious Chinese cousin's annual visits are a disaster, ruining his reputation at school. The Monkey King is the most powerful monkey on earth and his story is one of the greatest Chinese fables. These three apparently unrelated characters come together with an unexpected twist. Graphic novel. Amina's voice Amina and her best friend are starting year six and changes are happening around Amina which worry her.

Her best friend now wants to change her Korean name to an English name and wants to hang out with one of the popular girls. Amina feels like she is losing her closest friend and wonders if she must also change to keep her friend. Events happening around her cause her to see both the challenges and rewards of being Pakistan American. Amina: through my eyes Amina lives with her family in Somalia, a country that has endured drought and civil war for decades.

Amina's father is betrayed and arrested. His artwork is seen as 'un-Islamic' and Amina no longer knows who she can trust. Food is scarce, her mother is pregnant and her grandmother ill.

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Amina must find a way to survive. Among ants, between bees An anthology covering a wide range of human experiences. Among believers: Pictorial journey, A Among Believers explores the richness and diversity of the world's mainstream religions: Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism and Sikhism. More than remarkable photographs document worship and the rites of passage rooted in a country's culture, religious festivals, feasts and fasts, meditation, education, sacred foods and places of pilgrimage. Amulet of Samarkand, The The magicians rule London, not altogether harmoniously.

One magician's plot to take power, the hint of a resistance movement and a young apprentice magician's first magical exploits have this book moving at a fast pace. Anacaona, golden flower, Haiti Beginning in , Anacaona keeps a record of her life as a possible successor to the supreme chief of Xaragua, as wife of the chief of Maguana and as a warrior battling the first white men to arrive in the West Indies, ravenous for gold.

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Anaconda ambush Sam Fox is on a field trip with his uncle in the Amazon when he's swept over a waterfall into an underground lake and discovers a fortune in gold. But, there's an enormous anaconda lurking in the cave and the snake is just the first obstacle Sam will have to overcome if he's to get out of the Amazon alive. Anastasia on her own When Anastasia and her father are left on their own, they find out just how hard housekeeping really is.

Anastasia, the last Grand Duchess, Russia A novel in diary form in which the youngest daughter of Czar Nicholas II describes the privileged life her family led up until the time of World War I and the tragic events that befell them. They wore the same uniform and experienced the same conditions and hardships. For many, wartime service gave them the equality that was not available in Australian society, either before or after the war. Ancient and Medieval people series Profiles some of the most fearsome warriors in history.

See Series lists for individual titles. Ancient Australia Well-organised under clear headings and well-presented information about ancient Australia with contents, websites, a glossary and ideas for related things to do. Ancient China Discover why tombs were filled with pottery figures, what was carried along the Silk Road,who invented paper and what kinds of weapons were used in early battles. An informative guide to Chinese history, with stunning photographs and life-like models.

Ancient Egypt Well-documented, factual material supported by photographs, maps and a timeline of Ancient Egypt. Each two-page spread treats one particular aspect of the civilisation such as architecture, religion, agriculture or recreational activities. The light writing style is very accessible for young students. Ancient Egypt: tales of gods and pharaohs Full of mystery and adventure, the stories of the Egyptian pharaohs and their ancient gods are steeped in thousands of years of history.

Ancient Greece Watch the past come to life. Explore the history, daily life, beliefs, and achievements of this ancient civilisation whose influence can still be seen today. Includes stunning photographs, charts, maps, web links and a glossary of terms. Ancient hero, The When Zelder translates three ancient spells she becomes the target of the sinister swordsman called the stalker.

She and her brother, would-be swordsman Corram, must cheat death to stop the whole world being destroyed. Ancient machine, The Georgie and Thomas are summoned to Allegoria to stop a machine that is ticking down to the end of the world. They enlist the help of a troupe of travelling daredevils.

Ancient Rome Find out why Roman baths were so popular and how sea battles were staged in the Colosseum. Meet the remarkable people whose conquests, achievements and way of life made Ancient Rome one of history's greatest civilisations. Ancient Rome: a guide to the glory of imperial Rome An illustrated guide to the wonders of the civilisation of Ancient Rome. Ancient starship, The When an ancient starship has been discovered in the Egyptian desert, Amelia's dad is whisked away to help.

Meanwhile, the first human guests have arrived at the hotel and they're turning out to be the strangest visitors yet. Are the spaceship and the odd guests connected? Amelia and Charlie may be the only ones who can solve this puzzle And the band played Waltzing Matilda Eric Bogle's famous but depressing anti-war song about the Battle of Gallipoli was written in , inspired by the Vietnam War and the lukewarm response of the Australian public to the returning soldiers.

It explores the futility of war with haunting power. The accompanying illustrations are graphic and certainly do not glorify war. A timely story for every generation. And the ocean was our sky "Call me Bathsheba. Led by the formidable Captain Alexandra, they fight a never-ending war against men. Then the whales attack a man ship, and instead of easy prey they find the trail of a myth, a monster, perhaps the devil himself With their relentless Captain leading the chase, they embark on the final hunt, one that will forever change the worlds of whales and men.

Android, The When Marco runs into his old friend, Erek, he doesn't think too much of it. He's got a couple of more important things to do. Like helping to save the world. But, when Marco finds out Erek's been hanging with some of the kids at The Sharing, he starts to think that something just a little weird is going on. Angel creek There are only two things that Jelly likes about the new house on Rosemary Street, the old apricot tree and the creek over the back fence. One night, Jelly and her cousins spot something in the creek's dark waters. At first, they think it's a bird but it's a baby angel with a broken wing.

Jelly decides to keep it. But, she soon discovers that you can't just take something from where it belongs and expect that it won't be missed. Angel fever In Quentaris, a beautiful, young man is saved from attack by Eely who everyone thinks is unattractive and simple-minded. The young man has lost something and Eely helps him find it and begins to realise the importance of inner beauty.

Angel fish Historical novel based on the medieval Children's Crusades. Stefan, a charismatic, religious leader, has convinced Gabriel that only children will be able to liberate the Holy Land from the Infidel. Together, they raise an army and make the arduous journey over the Alps. The power of Stefan's promises dim as they suffer many misadventures. Angel of Kokoda Kari knows a lot about his jungle home but he doesn't know why there is fighting in the village of Kokoda. When Kari finds a wounded Australian soldier, he knows he cannot leave him.

They must retreat along the Kokoda Track with the enemy following. Angel with a mouth-organ, The Two children listen to their mother's memories of wartime. Angel: through my eyes The gripping tale of a teenage girl who has been separated from her family in the typhoon ravaged city of Tacloban in the Philippines. Battling looters, rubble, water damage, and the underlying fear that her family has been lost to the typhoon, Angel is desperate to find them again.

Angela and Diabola Angela is the angelic twin and Diabola is the opposite, a pair of twins who can drive their normal parents, the Cuthbertson-Joneses, to distraction. Angela is perfect but, that Diabola, she could just be wicked or she may be a genius. Angelmonster Mary and her sister, Jane, always longed to be carried off by a handsome poet. The reality of life with Percy Shelley and Lord Byron is a combination of romance and tragedy. Adult themes around their liberated behaviour may offend some readers. Anila's journey Menace and mystery lie in wait for Anila Tandy who secures a job drawing birds for an English naturalist, travelling on a river boat up the Ganges River.

Anila will use this journey to search for her father, missing for years and presumed dead. Anila must test herself in the man's world of India, in the late s. Animal architects An illustrated, factual book about shells, nests, mounds, bowers, galleries, dens and lodges. These are homes that animals around the world build to shelter themselves and their young. Animal eco-warriors Meet the super dogs, hero rats and cyborg bees keeping our environment safe. Come on an action-packed adventure with an amazing mob of animal eco-warriors as they use their special talents to help solve our planet's environmental problems!

From the nosy noses of biosecurity beagles at airports to rats learning to sniff out landmines in war-torn landscapes, animals are using their unique abilities to help make the world a better and safer place. With fantastic colour photos of animal eco-warriors at work, this book is full of fun facts on how animals are helping humanity work towards a more sustainable future.

There are also plenty of tips on how you can make a difference to the planet. Join the animals eco-warrior team today! Animal farm A classic allegory in which the animals take over Manor Farm from their drunken master and all seems to be perfect as everyone is equal under the Seven Commandments.

Circumstances change as the pigs become more equal than the others. Animal heroes Short stories about animals involved in Australian armed conflicts, from WWI to more recent times. The animals display bravery under fire, mateship and loyalty, the same attributes shown by the ANZACs. Animal planet Colt Lawless is on the run, suddenly famous, and more than a little superhuman.

But can he save the last animals on earth? The deadly rat flu virus has changed - humans are catching it and nobody is sure why. But he and Birdy are trapped in the sewers, and the man who holds the key to it all is being held prisoner at DoRFE Headquarters. Is this the end of the road - not just for the circus, but for all of humankind?

AniMalcolm Malcolm doesn't like animals. Which is a problem because his family loves them. Their house is full of pets. What the house is not full of is stuff Malcolm likes. Such as the laptop he wanted for his birthday. The only bright spot on the horizon is the Year 6 school trip, to A farm! Over the next few days, Malcolm changes. He learns what it's really like to be an animal. A whole series of animals, in fact. It does make him think differently. And speak differently. And, um, smell differently. But will he end up the same as before? Animalium Welcome to the virtual museum.

Wander the six galleries, which present the animal kingdom - Invertebrates, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals. Each chapter features a different branch of the tree of life, from the simple sponge to the enormous elephant. Animals at war A collection of true stories about animals that have been involved in war. The book looks at how horses, dogs, birds and other animals have contributed to war efforts. Moving stories and great photos to match. Animals at work It's not only people who work.

Many animals also have jobs. This is the incredible story of Scott's adventures and the animals he saw along the way. Animals talk back Animals have their own form of language. Full of fascinating facts and stories from around the world about animals, this book will change the way you look at animals.

Animasaurus: Incredible animals that roamed the Earth From gigantic sharks to giant sloths, meet the beasts of the past. Find out about the fascinating prehistoric creatures that once walked, swam and hunted our planet. Compare these with living animals, to discover creatures from throughout Earth's history. Animorphs series Any two titles read from this series can be included as official Challenge books; up to five more titles can be included as your personal choice books.

Anna and the swallow man On 6 November , Anna's father had to go away for a few hours. He left shortly after eleven o'clock and did not come back again. Seven year old Anna is locked out of the apartment and alone. She is hungry and scared, and unsure who she can trust or who she can turn to. Anna the goanna and other poems A colourful, engaging picture book containing a collection of poems about living in an Aboriginal community.

Anne and her family are forced to take refuge in a small annexe for two years. Anne of Avonlea Anne Shirley, the spirited red-haired orphan know as Anne of Green Gables, is now half past sixteen and has returned ready to start in her first teaching position, at her old school. Anne discovers the joys and tribulations of teaching, helps raise twins and has a vision for Avonlea.

Anne of Green Gables Adopted by an elderly brother and his spinster sister who live on a Canadian island, Anne delights in her new life and friends in this enduring classic. Anne of Green Gables series Any two titles read from this series can be included as official Challenge books; up to five more titles can be included as your personal choice books. Anne of Ingleside Ingleside is a busy and contented place, home for Anne, Gilbert and their six children. But then Gilbert's maiden aunt comes to stay and for a while the peace is sadly strained. Anne of the island Anne is off to college with her childhood friends, Gilbert and Charlie.

New friends and adventures, including a marriage proposal, await Anne who remains as spirited and irrepressible as ever. This book is also known as Anne of Windy Willows. Anne's house of dreams Anne has become the wife of Dr Gilbert Blythe. She must adjust to married life in the white cottage on the harbor shore. Another night in Mullet Town Life for Jonah and Manx means fishing for mullet at the lake, watching their school mates party on Friday night and wishing they had the courage to talk to Ella and Rachel.

But, their lakeside town is being sold off and, now, life doesn't seem so simple. Manx holds a grudge against the wealthy blow-ins from the city and Jonah just wants his parents to stop arguing. One memorable night at the lake will change everything. A verse novel. Ant colony, The A strange assortment of misfits and losers live at number Runaway Sam has disappeared there, Bohemia's mum is between boyfriends again and Old Isabel acts like she owns the place.

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The owner, Sleezy Steve, is always trying to squeeze in one more tenant. Maybe their concern for Bohemia, the most caring of them all, can teach these people to care. Strong language used in context and adult themes. Antarctica This book contains a vast amount of information about the environment and life in Antarctica. Antarctica book: living in the freezer, The Antarctica is at the bottom of our planet and the coldest place on earth. Find out about the animals that live there and how these clever creatures survive. Includes detailed information, beautiful colour photos and a scale to measure each animal against humans.

Antarctica series Any two books from this series may be read as Challenge books; up to five more can be read as personal choice books. Antarctica: ecosystems Each book in this series deals with a different aspect of Antarctica using photographs and frozen facts. Each book contains a glossary and relevant web sites. Antarctica: exploration Each book in this series deals with a different aspect of Antarctica using photographs and frozen facts. Each book contains a glossary and web site references.

Antarctica: human impacts Each book in this series deals with a different aspect of Antarctica using photographs and frozen facts. Each book contains a glossary and refers to web sites. Antarctica: the frozen continent Each book in this series deals with a different aspect of Antarctica using photographs and frozen facts. Antarctica: the heart of the world Take a journey to Antarctica with this comprehensive and highly illustrated guide. Learn about Antarctica's unique geography, its rare beauty, the captivating animal and plant life, human exploration and scientific research.

Discover what it's like to live in an Antarctic station and how to survive on the ice. Anthony Mundine Aussie stars Anthony Mundine's biography shows how he wanted to follow in his sporting father's footsteps. Anton rocks on Anton might only be little in stature but he has a great talent. By the time he reaches high school, Anton has heard all the size jokes. His resourcefulness and music save the day and the Rock Eisteddfod. Antonio S and the mystery of Theodore Guzman Antonio lives with his parents in the tower of an old house. In the same area lives a recluse actor called Theodore Guzman.

Antonio draws him out by presenting a play. In turn, Guzman leads Antonio into the magical world of theatre. This series gives young readers the chance to discover Shakespeare for themselves. Also included are useful notes on the themes within the stories and a background to the Globe Theatre. This is the story five brothers who served, compiled from over five hundred letters and postcards, written from the battle front. From the training grounds of Victoria, Egypt and England, to the Western Front battlefields, this compelling, true story was compiled by the granddaughter of a surviving brother.

This is a story of mateship, bravery and sacrifice, and a heartbreaking account of a family torn apart by war. Anzac tale, An What the friends first thought would be an adventure soon turns to disaster. The day after landing at Anzac Cove on 25 April , more than Anzacs are dead. As the campaign drags on, life for Wally and Roy becomes a battle of endurance against a plucky enemy, a hostile landscape, flies, fleas, cold and disease.

Anzacs at Gallipoli, The: a story for Anzac Day A simply written, moving account of Australian and New Zealand soldiers' dramatic experiences at Gallipoli, which includes extracts from their letters and diaries, along with graphic photographs. Apache: girl warrior Siki rises to the rare position of girl-warrior in an Apache tribe. She witnesses the horrors of the Indian wars against the Mexicans and the invading White Eyes.

A sometimes violent and very honest story of courage, integrity, betrayal, love, hope and despair as Siki struggles to belong and learns the truth of her own story. Apostle bird, The Set in the Western Australian goldfields in the s, Neil describes the sometimes violent life on the diggings. Apothecary, The In , after her parents are identified as communists, Janie must move from Los Angeles to the safety of London.

The war has ended but it's a tense time, and Janie is uncomfortable at her new school. She notices Benjamin, a curiously defiant boy, who dreams of becoming a spy. When his father, an apothecary, is kidnapped, Benjamin and Janie are embroiled in a plot involving real espionage and nuclear threats. Apple tart of hope, The Oscar Dunleavy, who used to make the world's most perfect apple tarts, is missing, presumed dead.

No one seems too surprised, except for Meg, his best friend, and his little brother Stevie. Surrounded by grief and confusion, Meg and Stevie are determined to find out what happened to Oscar, and together they learn about loyalty and friendship and the power of never giving up hope. Applesauce weather When the first apple falls from the tree, siblings Faith and Peter know that it is applesauce weather. And that means that Uncle Arthur should be here. It seems like he needs a little more time to grieve. This is the first year without Aunt Lucy after all.

This is a heartfelt tale about the strength and love of family and the power of a good story. Apprentice witch, The Arianwyn fails her witch's assessment. To the delight of her arch-rival, Gimma, Arianwyn is awarded the dull bronze disc of an apprentice and, in disgrace, sent to protect the remote, dreary town of Lull. But, Arianwyn's new life is far from boring. Dark spirits and strange creatures creep out of the wood. And just as Arianwynn starts to get her feet under her, shadows start to creep into her own magic. Apprentices, The It's two years since Janie Scott last saw Benjamin Burrows, the mysterious apothecary's defiant son who stole her heart.

Benjamin has been experimenting with a new formula, allowing him to communicate with Janie across the globe. When a mystery threatens them all, Janie, Benjamin and their friend, Pip, are thrown into a desperate chase around the world to find one another, while trying to unravel the mystery. Aquatica: a beginner's field guide Welcome to future Earth. Despite repeated warnings, the environment has become polluted to such an extent that many areas of the globe have become uninhabitable and wildlife is now extinct. From the ashes, a new style of 'wildlife' is created.

Wildlife that will not remain harnessed by humankind. Lizzie Imp is just perfectly naughty. They don't like each other until Archie's arrow and Lizzie's spitball miss their targets and everything changes. Archie Greene and the magician's secret On his twelfth birthday, Archie Greene receives a mysterious present, an old book, written in a language he doesn't recognise. But, the magical book under Archie's protection is dangerous, and dark spirits hunt it out. In this magical world, bookshelves are enchanted, librarians are sorcerers and spells come to life.

It tells how he dealt with his wartime experiences, how, at the age of ninety one, he agreed to meet a group of elderly Japanese women interested in world peace, and how he could never forget the young men who were with him during the war and who didn't come back. Archie's war Archie's first hand experience of being in London during the Great War of is told through his scrapbook. Are trees alive Although trees are plants and humans are animals, we have many similar characteristics.

This book describes those characteristics, and celebrates some of the magnificent trees that grow on our planet, along with the diversity of life that surrounds them. Perry has a brain condition that can cause him to become distressed and behave in inappropriate ways, and after the death of their father, Justine has become his sole carer. This trip will mark a shift in their relationship, towards independence, and an opportunity for their absent mother to atone for past mistakes.

Ariel, Zed and the secret of life Ariel's writer mother sends misbehaving characters to an island school for Rebellious Characters. This summer, she sends Ariel and Zed. A cast of eccentric characters includes an insomniac Sleeping Beauty. A tale of action and self-discovery. Ariki and the giant shark Ariki is not like the other children on Turtle Island.

She belongs heart and soul to the sea, where she plays all day with the dolphins and turtles. One day, a giant shark appears and the fishermen are too afraid to go out. Without fish the people will starve - and only Ariki can save the day! Aristotle and Dante discover the secrets of the universe Aristotle is angry and self-doubting, with a brother in prison.

Dante is self-assured, with an unusual way of viewing the world. They would seem to have nothing in common. But, as the loners spend time together, a special bond develops. Through their friendship, Ari and Dante learn the most important truths about themselves and the kind of people they want to be. Adult themes and language. Ark angel Alex Rider is in hospital, recovering from a rifle shot that had been aimed at his heart. The complications begin when a fellow patient is targeted for an abduction. Arnie Avery Lately, nothing is going right for thirteen year old Arnie.

Ever since it happened, his family, especially his mother, has been behaving strangely. At school, he is accused of cheating and now Jacko has challenged him to a fight. He has to get his life sorted out and deal with what happened. Around the world in 80 days One evening, while relaxing at his gentleman's club, Phileas Fogg rashly bets that he can travel the entire globe in 80 days. The unflappable Englishman is determined not to lose this extraordinary wager as he sets off for Dover with his not so cool-headed, French manservant, Passepartout.

Arrival, The The Arrival gives us great insight into the process of leaving your homeland and trying to find a new place in the world. The journey can be frightening, inspiring and emotional for all displaced persons. Many stories are told through Tan's illustrations. Art fraud detective The security guard at the Town Hall Gallery has a big problem. Some of the priceless masterpieces have been stolen and replaced with cunning forgeries.

The guard needs your sharp eyes and patience to identify the fake paintings. Art of taxidermy, The Lottie collects dead creatures and lovingly cares for them, hoping to preserve them, to save them from disintegration. Her father understands - Lottie has a scientific mind, he thinks.