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The south struggled under the legacies of Hispanic feudalism from Naples to Sicily. The highly centralized French model influenced the development of the Kingdom of Piedmont in the northwest. French general Napoleon Bonaparte's attempt at world conquest failed in the early s, bringing influences including nationalistic impulses and a chal- lenge to the aristocratic bases of feudal society.

After the defeat of Napoleon much of Italy remained under foreign control with the exception of the Kingdom of Piedmont, which retained a larger scope of political and military autonomy. The main ideologue of the Risorgimento resurgence or unification period was the republican revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini , the founder of La Giovane Italia Young Italy , an organization that sought to steer Italian youth to the cause of a republican and unified Italy.

Mazzini attempted to return Italy to the tradition of republican government that had served the peninsula well during the Roman republic and the Renaissance with the republican governments in vibrant city states such as Venice and Florence. The present system for electing a pope is, in fact, a vestige of Italy's republican traditions. Despite Mazzini's republican zeal, the most successful efforts to unify Italy were from the Kingdom of Piedmont under Victor Emmanuel II of Savoy and CamiUo Cavour , the prime minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont from until his death in Cavour was a brilliant tactician, able to play the larger continental powers in Europe Austia, France, Prussia against one another for the benefit of Piedmont.

By , Cavour had contracted a shaky alliance with Napoleon III of France, and had secured English acquiescence in case Piedmont was attacked by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, which controlled much of north central and northeastern Italy including the cities of Venice, Milan, and Trieste. War with Austro-Hungary broke out in April By January , a uni- fied kingdom of northern and central Italy was formed under the Piedmontese house of Savoy.

Garibaldi was a charismatic revolutionary leader who had fought in anticolonial causes in South America and was even reportedly offered a command in the Union Army by Abraham Lincoln. By June of the same year he had conquered Sicily enjoying the tacit support of segments of the population. By September the regions surrounding Naples were annexed to the Kingdom of Italy by a plebiscite vote. In October the regions of Umbria and the Marches in south central Italy also voted in favor of annexation to the Kingdom of Italy.

In March , a national parliament assembled in Turin, the capital of Piedmont and of the Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed Victor Emanuel II King of Italy with a constitution based upon the Albertine Statutes with rights such as freedom of assembly and the press but in which Catholicism was established as the official state religion and government ministers served at the discretion of the monarch rather than under parliamentary control.

Venice was annexed by Piedmont in , followed by Rome only in , after Garibaldi's attempts to expel the French troops protecting the pope. Italian patriot Massimo D'Azeglio reportedly remarked that after having made Italy, the Risorgimento now had to somehow make the Italians. The Risorgimento movement leading to Italian unification had actually been led by an idealistic elite and was never a true popular mass movement. Despite the romantic nationalist zeal that had swept across Europe during the nineteenth century, first in Napoleonic France and then in other countries, Italy's regional identities of dialects and cultural and artistic heritage were simply too strong to be swept away quickly.

Before unification only an esti- mated 2. After unification, educational reformers such as Francesco De Sanctis faced the monumental task of developing a national language and cul- ture. The process would not be complete until a standardized national Italian lan- guage adapted from the works of Tuscan literary figures of the thirteenth and fouteenth centuries such as Dante and Petrarch definitively became a daily presence in Italian homes first through radio and especially through television.

Among the most vexing issues facing the newly unified nation was the status of the Vatican and the Southern Question. Despite the armed conquest of Rome and its territory in , the Vatican remained under the influence of the pope, a situ- ation exacerbated by Pope Pius IX's non expedit decree forbidding Catholics from participating in national politics. Fearful of possible southern separatism, the 4 GUIDE TO ITALIAN CINEMA Piedmontese government attempted to impose a centralized administration on the southern provinces that faced the difficult task of incorporating local customs and interests reinforcing suspicions that the new Italian national state was more interested in maintaining advantages for the more industrialized north than in developing the mainly agrarian south.

Agrarian reforms, promised by the new national government, never materialized as economic efforts concentrated on furthering the country's progress toward industrialization. Eventually, Italy's northern rulers left the south under the control of the latifondisti landowners, often the descendents of Hispanic aristocrats, who maintained a feudal system. A term for the fatalistic politi- cal attitude regarding the difficulty to change Italy, trasformismo transformism was coined during the tenure of Prime Minister Agostino Depretis , whose liberal coalition displaced the destra storica, right-wing coalition, which had led the country to unification.

The term trasformismo initially used to describe the continuation by DePretis of the policies of the previous administrations has also come to describe how Italians were so used to external, foreign control that the essence of Italian political and social life was rarely altered despite outward appearances. The provinces of southern Italy in particular had been ruled from a series of distant capitals for centuries. Thus despite the fact that the new power center in Turin was in Italy, the national government led by a monarchy in Piedmont had difficulty breaking into local political reality.

Italian society of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries presented an uneasy mixture of a feudal, rural society and a rapidly expanding urban, industrial network. Other countries, such as Great Britain, had faced similar problems and avoided major political upheaval because of a tradition of parliamentary govern- ment, a large middle class that supported parliamentary democracy, and the out- let of colonies for its more adventurous or needy citizens.

Italy's parliamentary tradition was not well established and its middle class relatively small, so the divi- sion between urban and rural societies was more pronounced. The cultural and political tradition of the republican governments from ancient Rome and the Renaissance city states such as Venice and Florence had been largely erased over the centuries. As in most of Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, nationalism was a dominant political force in Italy and an integral part of the Risorgimento ideology that had unified Italy under the Piedmontese monarchy. After centuries of foreign domination and a late unification, the Italian ruling class spent the last decades of the nineteenth century yearning for international respect and prestige.

Emigration was a further problem with the departure of thousands of Italians yearly, mainly to destinations in the Americas and northern Europe. The Italian government in the late nineteenth century, like its counterparts in Europe, also faced increasing demands for social justice from workers. One solution was to copy the British model of exporting potential participants in social upheaval to colonies.

After tensions following the French colonization of Tunis, Italy joined Germany and Austria in a Triple Alliance in , in the hope of gaining colonial outlets. However, the results of Italy's foreign ambitions were largely unprofitable with the embarrassing defeat of an Italian army in the Horn of Africa at Adua in and other difficulties in adventures fi-om Albania to the Greek islands. These colonial ambitions were part of a worldwide political current that had long-lasting cultural ramifications in the development of attitudes of superior- ity and insufferance toward colonized peoples.

In Italy such attitudes were given spurious scientific legitimacy through the work of the sociologist Cesare Lombroso , the inventor of the concept of anthropological criminology. At the turn of the century, the reformist Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti attempted to increase democratiza- tion through expansion of voting rights and social legislation such as shortening work days and child labor laws. As long as the economy performed well, the reforms proposed by Giolitti were accepted, particularly among some of the entre- preneurial class of family corporations such as the Agnelli and Pirelli who made fortunes in the new automobile industry and emulated the capitalist models in northern Europe and the United States.

Between and , wages increased as did productivity, although the economic progress was largely limited to the north. Once the boom slowed after , and particularly after , so did support for reforms. Because of Giolitti's political dependence on southern landowners and northern industrialists, his government was reluctant to stop the suppression of strikes, which would also lead to one of the first splits in the Italian Socialist Party. By Mussolini joined writer Gabriele D'Annunzio in nationalist politics.

The nationalists, led by intellectuals such as Enrico Corradini , appealed to the revolutionary aspirations of disillusioned socialists and the status quo of industrial and landed interests who sought to restore public order and limit concessions to the working class. This political climate had already led Giolitti to declare war on the Ottoman Turkish Empire in and invade Libya, a decision that enjoyed large public support including Ernesto Teodoro, the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.

However, the war's success further polarized the Italian political situation. Giolitti became isolated from the nationalists who were emboldened by the Italian campaign in Libya and consequently favored entrance into WWI. On the other end, due to a deteriorating economic situation revolu- tionary socialist factions led strikes and protests in the summer of This destabilizing political climate was decisive in the public relations campaign led by D'Annunzio and Mussolini for Italy to enter into WWI.

Initially a coalition of liberals, reformist socialists, and Catholics successfully opposed intervention in WWI. In , D'Annunzio gave a series of public speeches, which were glowingly reported by Mussolini. The nationalists, freemasons, and futurists supported calls for immediate intervention in order to save national honor. Marinetti's Futurists saw the war as a Darwinistic "hygiene of the world" in which they were eager to participate. The Futurists were enamored with technology and mechanized dynamism. In his speeches, D'Annunzio suc- ceeded in communicating the Futurists' enthusiasm for modernity into neoclas- sical language about honor, duty, and virtue.

A few liberal politicians favored intervention in the hopes that a national effort would aid the process of nation building for an Italy that had never fully accepted what they considered the "Piedmontese" unification of Some anarchists and communists sympa- thizers saw a cynical advantage to intervention in the hopes that protests against the war would make conditions ripe for a left-wing revolution, as was eventually the case in Czarist Russia. Together D'Annunzio and Mussolini's diverse coalition overcame the Catholics and reformist-liberals who favored neutrality.

In May of , Italy finally entered the war after negotiations leading to the Treaty of London. In exchange for entering the war on the British side, Italy could hope to gain the Adriatic port city of Trieste, Austrian possessions in the South Tyrol, German colonies in Africa, and former Venetian possessions on the Dalmatian coast. After the Italian army attacked Austrian lines in the Dolomite mountain range in places such as Cima Vezzena in , the war drew to a stalemate. There was a huge divide between the reality of war and pro-interventionist ideol- ogy and the enormous suffering by Italian soldiers including summary executions and decimations in order to force the Italian army to reform its lines.

By the time of the armistice in Italy had suffered nearly , casualties with a mobiliza- tion of nearly 5 million men. The protocols that the Italian government had signed with Great Britain before entry into the war were not recognized by American president Woodrow Wilson who brought ideas about national self-determination to the treaty negotiations. During the war D'Annunzio had enhanced his celebrity status by dropping patriotic tricolor leaflets on Vienna from his biplane and participating in well-publicized air raids against the Austrians.

D'Annunzio described the postwar agreements that allotted few territorial concessions to Italy as apace multilata a mutilated peace. D'Annunzio reacted in by occupying the port city of Fiume, the present Rjeka on the Istrian coast with a force of former shock troops the arditi , nationalists, and revolutionaries in a move unauthorized by the Italian government. He ruled Fiume for nearly a year before escaping due to mandates from the League of Nations backed by the real threat of Italian gunships. D'Annunzio's Fiume adventure would become important for development of Italian fascism.

Mussolini and the Fascist Party later parroted the style of D'Annunzio's rule at Fiume with its mixture of public theater and politics. In terms of style and rhetoric, the influence that D'Annunzio had over Fascism and later over Nazism should not be underestimated. The raised right-hand Roman salute, the skull and crossbones emblem, and black uniforms of the arditi shock troops at Fiume were later copied by Mussolini's Fascist black shirt squads and Hider's Nazi SS.

The Cultural Scene In the period prior to unification in to the end of the nineteenth century, Italian life underwent a process of political and economic transformation that also influenced its cultural make-up. The novel attracted film- makers very early as demonstrated by three silent era adaptations , , and an adaptation by Mario Camerini in Patriotic poet Giosue Carducci expressed many of the idealistic and nationalist impulses in the classical themes and romantic tinges of his poetry.

The underlying theme of the work is to instill a sense of moral consciousness in Italian youth in the spirit of the Italian Risorgimento movement. CoUodi Carlo Lorenzini had been a dedicated follower of Italian repub- lican revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini and a veteran of the Italian wars of unifica- tion. Many of the scientific discoveries that characterize the modern era: the telephone, cinema, radio, electricity, automobile, airplane were actually invented well before WWI including Italian contributions Antonio Meucci's invention of the telephone and Guglielmo Marconi's subsequent inven- tion of the radio.

French philosopher August Comte coined the term "positivism" to describe the enthusiasm over discoveries of figures such the English naturalist Charles Darwin and his Origin of the Species and The Origin of Man Discoveries in physics and the physical sciences brought further challenges to reli- gious teachings of cosmology. These new theories were appreciated in Italy by the burgeoning middle class, which sought to flourish in an economic system based on consumption and development of technological capability.

The influence of the new interest in science extended to the arts and literature. The verismo literary movement in Italy of authors such as Sicilian Giovanni Verga concentrated on replicating the scientific approach to social problems in literature through a portrayal of social ills with objective distance. Vera in Italian means "true. Verismo and Naturalism championed artistic styles that tried to observe reality accurately, and encourage scientific objectivity to stress the causal relation between the environment and characters' actions.

Another artistic current in Italy was the Scapigliatura, an Italian translation for the French word boheme, which took its name from a novel by Cletti Arrighi La scapigliatura e il 6 febbraio The most icon- oclastic application of the new scientific influences in Italy was by F. Marinetti whose Futurist movement arose before WWI. Marinetti's Futurists adapted sci- entific terminology to the arts by idealizing mechanized forms and questioning the relevance of Italy's centuries' old artistic traditions in a rapidly changing world.

In his hyperbolic enthusiasm for everything modern Marinetti rejected the past in his manifestos and free verse sound poems such as Zang Tumb Tub He called for the destruction of museums and the glorification of war as the "hygiene of the world"; in fact many of his Futurist followers would expire in WWI.

A most important and influential cultural figure remained Gabriele D'Annunzio whose reach extended from politics to literature, the theater, and even the cinema. D'Annunzio's charismatic political influence was fundamental in the campaign for Italy to enter WWI and later in his adventure at Fiume and influence over Mussolini and Italian fascism. D'Annunzio was also an exponent of Decadentism, a post-Romantic artistic movement, which exalted an individual artist's sense of refinement and, self-importance with an interest in exotic sensuality and mystery at times bordering on self-destruction.

D'Annunzio's flamboyant personality and his ability to adapt artistic currents like Decandentism into an Italian cultural context and beyond made him a pivotal Italian cultural figure in the first half of the twentieth century. As early as the s, the topic of animation had interested scientists and photographers.

British photographer Eadweard Muybridge's zoopraxiscope showed the sequential movements of a galloping horse. Ohio born inventor Thomas Edison developed his kinetoscope and made a sequential film of a sneeze in The Lumiere brothers in France invented their cinematographe and made short fihns that projected aspects of real life, linking film with reality. In , the Edison Kinetoscope made a presentation in Turin. A cinematographic machine had also been developed in Italy.

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Also in , a license for a cinematographic instrument for shooting, pro- jection, and developing film was issued for Filoteo Alberini's kinetografo. Alberini, however, did not have sufiBcient capital to develop his project, and the arrival of the Lumieres cinematographe in Italy halted his efforts. The cinematographe Lumiere made its first appearance in Italy in , when Lumiere's Italian representative, Vittorio Calcina, promoted an enthusiastically received show in Milan. By , permanent cinema halls opened in Rome and in Naples. In , Calcina opened the first successful public cinema hall in Turin.

Because of the brevity of the cinematographic shows — maximum minutes — the halls used for such shows integrated films with other performances. Thus, from its origins the Italian cinema shared space with vaudeville music-hall performances and comic sketches, a theatrical practice that would continue into the s. In the early s, Alberini opened more cinema halls in several Italian cities. Alberini also became one of the first Italian filmmakers. In , he directed The Taking of Rome , the first Italian feature film based on a final episode of Italian unification.

Italian cinematographers and projectionists also worked to perfect the documentary format that became a genre favored as a politi- cal tool by the Fascist regime and later during the post-WWII neorealist period. Between and , Italian films entered the world market with a variety of genres including slapstick starring Frenchman Andre Deed, known as Cretinetti in Italy, who appeared in over a hundred films pro- duced at the Itala studios in Turin.

Gione's incredible facial mimicry, later used to effect by Italian comedian Toto , was dramatized by a special use of light techniques that favored violent contrasts of black and white in order to accentuate the sharpness of his facial features. These performers and others appeared in shorts that were produced on an industrial scale tintil the outbreak of WWI. There were also melodramas and comedies and even films about everyday life inspired by Italian verismo.

By and , the cinema had become an accepted facet of the Itahan entertainment industry. In , the government instituted censorship standards and taxes on both films and tickets. In this period, filmmaking was conducted primarily inside studios with artificial lighting. Naples became particularly important because of the efforts of Gustavo Lombardo, later of the Titanus production com- pany, who began as a foreign film distributor who founded the magazine Lux in with the intention of increasing the cultural status of the cinema.

There were also futurist films such as A. Bragaglia's Thais in accordance with the publication of the Futurist Manifesto on Cinema of the same year, a declaration about experimental cinema in accordance with the futur- ists, desire to find forms of expression that reflected the mechanized and industrial changes in Italy and the world. The founding of the Cines studios in made Rome one of the centers of the Italian cinema industry.

Cines aimed to conquer international film markets with large investments producing about 50 titles per year beginning in One of the most important filmmakers working for Cines was Enrico Guazzoni whose adap- tation of the Henryk Sienkiewicz novel with strong Christian themes Quo Vadis?

Despite activity in Rome and even in Venice, Turin was the first capital of the Italian film industry during the silent period. Turin was the country's industrial cen- ter, home of the Italian automobile industry. A Turin-based production company, Pasquali and Tempo, was rim by Ernesto Maria Pasquali, a journalist and playwright who created the Polidor comic films.

Other pro- duction companies in Turin included Ambrosio and Itala Film. Ambrosio succeeded in attracting important directors such as Luigi Maggi, who made the first version of The Last Days of Pompeii , a meter-long film, which became one of the first Italian films to break into the American market. The Itala studios featured Giovanni Pastrone a director who started his career with comic films and then moved into the historical genre. Cabiria opened with a full orchestra led by respected conductor Manilo Mazza perform- ing the Symphony of Fire theme composed by renowned composer Ildebrando Pizzetti.

Instead Cabiria has a hero, Fulvio Axilla, and his shaved-headed, barrel-chested Mussolini-like African servant, Maciste, in a story of a republican-era Rome fighting a rival Mediterranean empire Carthage and a foreign religion Baal or Moloch. Producers correctly expected Italian audiences in to read the similarities between the Roman victory in the second Punic War over the Baalite Carthaginians and the Italian defeat of an Islamic Turkish empire during the invasion of Libya.

Thus besides being a technical and artistic achievement, Cabiria anticipates the political and ideological currents that culminated in the efforts of pro-WWI interventionists such as D'Annunzio and Mussolini, who were instrumental in the decision of the Italian government to enter the War in Casa Ambrosio, a main competitor of Pastrone's Itala studios in Turin, bought the rights to many of D'Annunzio's novels and plays.

Between and at least 21 films of D'Annunzian derivation were produced in Italy. Indeed Pastrone's name does not appear in the open- ing title sequences, giving the impression that the film is entirely D'Annunzio's work. Due to D'Annunzio's influence everything in the film became more florid and bombastic. D'Annunzio derived the name Maciste from the Greek superlative for "Large. The sequences involving Sophonisba are made more exotic by the fact that her death symbolizes the disappearance of an entire civilization. Carthage is destroyed because Cabiria was not sacrificed to the fire god Moloch.

This plot fit into a decadentist discourse where self-annihilation is a culminating erotic experience. Sophonisba's exotic drawing room, smoking incense pots, and statuettes seem like the decorating catalogue for D'Annunzio's home on Lake Garda, the Vittoriale, with an art nouveau or liberty emphasis on rarity, extravagance, luxury, and oriental motifs. It is an atmosphere that has often been equated with illicit sex, decadence, drugs, and illness, especially in authors such as Andre Huysmans, a source for D'Annunzio.

The film's decor and plot exploited the transgressive elements implicit in such a setting and behavior, which was part of D'Annunzio's appeal and mirrored his lifestyle and reputation. But technology and the marvel of machines and inventions, the flash of Futurist propaganda, make an entrance in Cabiria. D'Annunzian culture was fascinated with light, explosions, and the machine aes- thetics likely borrowed from F.

T Marinetti's futurist excitement about mechanized glory. As a pilot during WWI, D'Annunzio had dropped heroic poems over Vienna, a feat that became well documented for it was one of the few examples of individual heroism that could be celebrated in that war. One scene in Cabiria that appealed to the turn-of-the century romantic fascination with technology is the burning of the Roman fleet at Syracuse by Archimedes's sun-reflecting mirrors. Archimedes's ecstatic joy at his technological genius recalls the later commonplace of the mad scientist who pushes the limits of nature.

Besides the technical achievements in portraying Moloch with thousands of extras and the use of high wattage flood-lights to simulate the escaping heat, the Moloch flesh furnace is a voyeuristic marvel, which plays on the primal fears of the specta- tor. Another of D'Annunzio's screenwriting contributions. In Metropolis , German director Fritz Lang adopted a similar theme when the workers' children are threatened by the break- down of the giant machine also called Moloch that powers the futuristic city.

The true star of Cabiria is Maciste, the strong man slave and the brawn to Fulvio's brains. The direct source of the character is the good giant, Ursus, who protects the Christian slave girl, Licia, in the novel Quo vadis? Turin, the city where Cabiria was produced and largely filmed, was also the epicenter of the Italian automobile industry with its Fordist manufacturing methods.

In the pro-machine, futurist-romanticized culture and in the industrial and technological reality of the twentieth century, the physical body had lost power, particularly in warfare. Ironically, one of the most popular films in the Maciste film series ten such films were produced between and was The Warrior In the film an Itala film troupe is caught behind Austrian lines at the outbreak of the war, providing Bartolomeo Pagano, who plays Maciste, with an opportunity to manhandle extras in Austrian military uniforms.

This image of Maciste defeating the enemy in physical combat is emblematic of the divide between official and popular culture and the technological reality of the war. The Maciste figure has been one of the most enduring in film history from the Italian peplum epics of the s starring Steve Reeves as Hercules to the Hollywood films with Arnold Schwarzenegger as muscular robot in the Terminator series.

In the Maciste cycle it was common for Maciste not only to remain removed from any long-term love interest but also to work to reunite young lovers. Cabiria ends with Maciste playing the lute on a honeymoon yacht of Fixlvio and Cabiria with angles flying around the young lovers as they kiss.

The most enduring legacy of Cabiria is the apparent influence that the figure of Maciste had over Benito Mussolini, who would rule Italy as Fascist dictator from to Between and , Mussolini transformed his public image from an anticlerical Socialist revolutionary into the Fascist icon of a naturally powerful tyrant dedicated to the memory and traditions of Roman glory. The physical similarities between the Duce and the personality cult developed in the s around Mussolini and Maciste cannot be casual.

As Maciste, Bartolomeo Pagano devel- oped a signature gait, with eyes glaring with arms folded and head thrown back, later adopted by Mussolini see figure 1. It is not clear who was the source of 14 ip33? Istituto LUCE newsreels in the s feature MussoUni with a bare chest and shaved head helping farmers to collect grain looking like an aged stunt double for Bartolomeo Pagano's Maciste in Cabiria. The public image cultivated by Mussolini during the Fascist period as the all powerful Duce could be read as a Maciste-like figure speaking the language of D'Annunzio.

Cabiria expressed another potential foxmdational narrative for the newly unified Italian nation of a pre-Christian romanita Romaness , particularly important for the later nationalist cxilture espoused by Mussolini's Fascist regime , which attempted to identify the newly imited Italy with the past glories of ancient Rome. The film now lost was remade in by CamUlo Mastrocinque with Vittorio De Sica in the role of a blind gentleman who helps an unfortunate girl. Another Neapolitan, Elvira Notari, made approximately 60 films between and Notari was inspired by themes of the everyday life of the common peo- ple of Naples, especially of women, dealing with their passions and unhappiness.

An important diva was Francesca Bertini, who began her career in the theater and then moved on to the cinema to work for the Film d'Arte Production Company in Naples. Bertini's best-known work is Assunta Spina , an adaptation of a play by Neapolitan poet and dramatist Salvatore Di Giacomo The film, which Bertini codirected with Gustavo Serena, has been praised for the manner in which the details of everyday life in Naples are presented in an unadorned fashion.

These include her violent tempered fiance Michele, his jealous rival the ne'er-do-well Raffaele, and the corrupt court official Federico who convinces Assunta to accept his sexual advances in exchange for the chance to see Michele in prison. The turning point of the drama occurs when Michele slashes Assunta's face and is sentenced to two years in prison despite Assunta's attempt during his trial to accept blame for his actions. When Michele is released and kills Federico, Assunta takes the blame for the murder, her tragedy complete. The character of the long-suffering female was well established in the operatic tra- dition in works such as La traviata, Manon Lescalt, or La Bohenie to mention only a few nineteenth-century operas that feature doomed female protagonists.

Films such as Bertini's Assunta Spina established the cinema as a venue for what would become the strappalacrime weepie or tearjerker melodrama. Pastrone's Cabiria had provided Maciste, a character who may be interpreted as a metaphor for Italian nationalistic impulses. The suicidal princess Sophonisba in Cabiria is emblematic of the influence of trends such as decadentism and European high art in Italian consciousness see figure 1. In contrast, Assunta Spina represents a more humble sphere in everyday Italian society. Assunta is identified with the bare streets of Naples often appearing under a portrait of the Madonna with child in her room.

She is deceived and brutalized by the immature males in her life and responds with self-sacrificial fatalism. In , just before Italy's entry into WWI the Italian film industry produced 90 feature-length films and penetrated world markets, including the United States, where films such as Pastrone's Cabiria enjoyed long runs and wide distribution.

After WWI the Italian film industry lost its position in world markets, a fate shared in countries like France, which also had vibrant prewar film industries. The political and economic situation was extremely tense with strikes, demonstrations, and the reduction of the value of middle-class savings between and When universal male suffrage was granted in Italy in and competition began for the new voters. Catholic forces entered into politics with Don Sturzo's Partita Popolare after the lifting of the reruni novarum, the papal encyclical prohibiting Catholic participation in politics.

However the events that would bring Italy under Fascist totalitarian rule were already in motion. He resigned as editor of the chief Socialist newspaper Avanti out of frustration at the Socialist Party's refusal to support Italian intervention in WWI. Through out our episodes Ema has to go and help Gui. During this adventures Ema discovers how wonderful Gui's world is and becomes fascinated with the idea of moving to Gui's world. The Briefcase is a short movie born to tell one of the most important article of the Italian Constitution, through the ingenuous vision that a child has of his father.

More than 40 years after the first step on the moon and almost 50 years after the first manned space flight - finally an answer to the question why boys love rockets. Il robot postino Io e X-Mo consegnano pacchi in giro per la galassia con la loro navetta-posta squallida. Un giorno improvvisamente si imbattono in un pacco non identificato che contiene un orso di peluche polveroso. Robot mailmen Io and X-Mo deliver parcels around the galaxy with their shabby mail shuttle. One day they suddenly bump into an unidentified parcel containing a dusty teddy bear. An animated shortfilm about Huuhaa, who lives on his island floating in the emptiness.

Huuhaa is childlike and lives only in the moment, always curious about his environment. This morning he accidentally sets off a surprising chain of events. What's up? Con la sua astuzia e un pizzico di magia, supera tutti gli ostacoli che incontra sulla sua strada. Emozionante narrazione visiva combinata con immagini intriganti e musica. With no possessions to tie her down, young vagabond Bo is light enough to take off - to the big city, the desert and the jungle.

With her street-smarts and a touch of magic, she overcomes any obstacles she encounters. Exciting visual storytelling combined with intriguing shadow imagery and music make The Weightless Traveller a delight to watch! Pierre non ama gli spinaci e oggi se li ritriva di nuovo nel piatto. Qualcosa di sospetto si muove nel suo piatto Un drago di spinaci verde e arrabbiato!

Nella sua fantasia, Pierre diventa un cavaliere coraggioso. Something suspicious moves in his plate A green, angry spinach dragon! In his fantasy, Pierre becomes a brave knight. But to beat this dragon, he will need a special ruse. Bruxa is looking for love, at all costs. Alcune bambine immaginano, sognano il loro lavoro futuro.

Some little girls imagine their future job, they dream about it. Their reverie is so realistic that they empathize with the women they want to become, asking themselves a key question: what would happen without them? Basato su una filastrocca tradizionale inglese. Jack and Jill have to look for water on a hill. This simplest task will turn into a true adventure… Based on a traditional English nursery rhyme.

The tale about courage and sense of friendship and also about the fact that being with somebody is the best way to be in the world. The living of a merry-go-round child in a fair of a small italian village. Madalena ha l'aiuto dei suoi mostri, che non la lasciano mai durante. Un giorno, riceve una brutta notizia dal suo migliore amico mostro.

Madalena is a six year-old child, and as any other child of her age, she loves to draw, play and get in trouble, but most of all, not to obey her parents. Madalena has the help of her monsters, that never leaves her during the day. Una squadra. Eppure non gioca mai. A soccer camp. A team. Antonio is the number ten.

Yet he never plays. Until the day that the goal looks a bit different. Cunha Musiche: Fernando Mota www. Un padre dalle buone intenzioni cerca di insegnare al figlio una preziosa lezione. Raccontando una storia che si sviluppa in oltre mille anni di storia danese e innumerevoli generazioni della famiglia Andersen. A well-meaning but ultimately accidental Father tries to teach his artistic and troubled young son a valuable lesson. Telling a story that spans over one thousand years of Danish history and countless generations of the family Andersen. Ogni volta che Dodu graffia la superficie del cartone, crea mondi straordinari abitati da creature singolari che lo aiutano ad affrontare le sue emozioni e a crescere.

Dodu is a very sensitive boy. He lives on a hostile city for children and he is forced to spend many hours indoors. Therefore he makes believe inside an empty cardboard box. Insieme al suo nuovo amico, un pinguino in esilio, trova il suo posto nel nuovo mondo. A little polar bear migrates to a Europe that has by now become tropical.

A misguided attempt at integration into the local brown bear culture turns him pink. Together with his new friend, a stranded penguin in exile, he finds his place in the new world. La maggior parte degli abitanti sono bambini. Un ragazzino si confronta a scuola con un esame di geometria. Ma la sua immaginazione non gli permette di concentrarsi. Ho sempre avuto le braccia robuste.

El Poshte is a small village in Guatemala. It is not so far from the town, but the only way to get there is a narrow and steep lane. There are many children living in El Poshte. Rarely they leave it. Ayuko is a young Japanese girl sharing a flat in Barcelona with a Catalan guy. Litlle by little Ayuko feels atracted by her flat mate until she cannot hide it any longer and declares her feelings to him. They have to become such if you are born with lame legs, without bones. Per lui esistevano solo le storie. Ognuna con un suo percorso, le sue regole e un suo modo di essere raccontata.

All it existed for him was stories. Each with its own path, rules and way of being told. Intimo amico di Alberto Sordi ha scritto per lui e addosso a lui decine di film che sono diventati poi capisaldi del cinema italiano. Rodolfo Sonego knew how to tell stories. These films later became milestone films in the history of Italian cinema. He managed to absorb stories and make them his own. Stories, talks and tales he could transform into socio-anthropological essays to give graphic, functional portraits of the Italy he knew and he lived in.

This festival section is dedicated to him and to all of whom feel the need of telling stories by living them deeply and fearlessly. Ogni storia nasce da un soggetto. Every short film begins with a storyline. Every storyline begins with a synopsis. A synopsis is therefore the very core of a story, in that it defines the base points which are to be developed by the narration. This section is an invitation to bring to light these stories-to-be — these narrative skeletons. Dannate caramelle di Alessio Angelico Come delle caramelle possono incredibilmente segnare le tappe della vita di una persona.

Many stories into one only. In his last moments of life, Fabio - through a path of reflections and resemblances between him, his deceased mother and Ilaria, the nurse - comes full circle. Nostalgia and desires find their beginning and their end in the open sea. Racial prejudice, however, comes in the form of two policemen, spoiling their evening games and diverging their paths.

Una donna vive con frustrazione il rapporto impossibile con il figlio, chiuso in un mondo distante in cui i suoni prevalgono e i rumori diventano magicamente delle sinfonie. Anger, though, cannot destroy their bond : in noise itself, the threads of their love are woven again. A scruffy old man, oblivious and absorbed, waltzes alone to no music in the middle of a square, while sweetly reminiscing about his deceased wife and making a bunch of kids laugh.

From finding a drawing made as a child, Ester begins a deep confrontation with herself. At the end of an almost fairy-tale journey inside herself, she finds the strenght to report her abusive husband, keeping a promise she made to her mother, and to the little Ester as well. Passo dopo passo, la mente del Vecchio si perde in ricordi lontani. I due si dirigono verso la discarica abusiva, per mantenere fede ad una tradizione oscura e millenaria della loro Sardegna. The two head toward an illegal landfill, following an obscure, millenary sardinian tradition.

There, between rusted appliances and burnt tires, a mutual doom will reconcile their different natures. Andrea, an unsospiciously cynic and clear-headed fifteen-year-old, wants to accomodate a future he foresees as hopeless by becoming disabled. But his plan, which involves the unknowing school bully, takes and unexpected twist. Il barbiere che gli taglia i capelli diventa teneramente complice di questo sogno. From watching the sea for the first time, Valerio, a seven-year-old orphan, gives shape to an image of his mother.

His barber tenderly supports him in his dream. Il compagno scompare. La donna si interroga dalla stanza di un ospedale psichiatrico. Vive col chiodo fisso di recuperare una vecchia armonica rimasta sotto le macerie della sua abitazione, impresa che agli occhi degli altri appare impossibile e frutto di una mente ormai poco lucida.

While in her new, ever-increasingly claustrophobic apartment, a young ballerina suddenly plunges into an unfamiliar dimension, made of noises and disquieting presences, losing herself in the anguish of her own inner self. Her partner disappears. The woman retrace the facts from inside of a mental asylum. An ordinary afternoon chat between tho old ladies gives rise to a jumble of witty though resigned reflections about time and everyday life, in an atmosphere of surreal stagnation.

Una ha un neo molto pronunciato sul ventre. Martino, while playing hide and seek, finds recovery in a canteen. There, from a crack, he spots two young women making love in an adjoinig room. One of them has a big beauty spot on her belly. Lao wants to recovery an old harmonica lost under the rubble of his house, but no one pay attention to his mad stunt.

Even with no power comes great responsibility. Collecting films from 86 countries and cutting our way through them is tricky: doubts inevitably survive the selection. Extrafest is a brand new section lead and sponsored by Doubt. Cargo vuole rendere testimonianza non solo del lavoro svolto a bordo da ufficiali e marinai, ma vuole anche sentire le loro storie, le loro solitudini e i momenti di aggregazione, il tempo libero e i contatti con la terraferma. Una tranquilla domenica mattina, Jean nota una rottura su un vaso prezioso. Accusa Maurice, suo marito. Lui nega.

Utilizzando diverse tattiche, Jean cerca di andare a fondo su quanto accaduto. The lives and words of the crew, their free times, the relations with landbase and families, the frustrations and the hard work. One sleepy Sunday morning, Jean notices a chip on a treasured vase. She accuses Maurice, her husband since whenever. He denies it. Employing a variety of tactics, Jean attempts to get to the bottom of the situation.

Communism fell but the bunkers remained; what to do with this concrete mushrooms now? A small village is in big trouble. Lui dice: "Tu sarai madre presto". Basata su una storia indigena della foresta Amazzonica. Based on an indigenous tale from the Amazon Forest. Regia: Adriyanto W. Dewo Sceneggiatura: Adriyanto W. Rodolfo Valentino, primo grande divo del cinema muto, nacque a Castellaneta, piccolo centro rurale pugliese. Nel suo paese natale, ancora oggi, sono in molti a rendergli omaggio. Ciascuno a suo modo. Wati e Sri sono due collaboratrici domestiche Indonesiane a Hong Kong.

Al porto, giocano un gioco semplice. Il popolo Intha e il canottaggio a gamba viene praticato unicamente qui nel Lago Inle Myanmar. Rodolfo Valentino, first great star of silent cinema, was born in Castellaneta, small rural town in Puglia Region. He died thirty years old in , at the top of the success. In his native country, even today, many people respect and remember him. Each in his way. Wati and Sri are Indonesian domestic helpers in Hong Kong.

At the port, they play a simple game. Whoever wins, can take whatever inside their employer's groceries. But then Strangely, the game became an absurdity of their existence. When one thinks of Inle Lake, the first thought that comes to mind is that of the Intha leg rowing. The Intha people and the leg rowing they practice are unique to Inle Lake Myanmar.

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Tomatoes are the primary cash crop of Inle's floating gardens and are known as Inn Thee in Myanmar. Appena arriviamo, incontriamo Saliou un bambino somalo di otto anni che sembra si sia perduto. Ha appena incontrato una pattuglia delle Nazioni Unite. As soon as we get there, we meet Saliou an eight years old Somalian kid who seems lost.

He has just met a UN Patrol. Is this his lucky day? In un idilliaco villaggio gli abitanti allevano galline, impasta il pane, si prendono cura dei raccolti In an idyllic village the inhabitants raise hens, knead bread, take care of his crops Bosnia ed Erzegovina. Guerre secolari devastano un territorio. Gli uomini, risucchiati dal loro egoismo, lasciano il testimone alle donne. Le loro mogli, figlie e nipoti lo raccolgono e lottano per ricostruire un paese.

Bosnia and Herzegovina. La sua famiglia ha cercato di tutto per curarlo, ma invano. Mentre aspettano il medico, le sorelle combattono per prodotti farmaceutici della loro madre, si lanciano insulti a vicenda, ricordano e cercano disperatamente di aggrapparsi alle ultime vestigia della loro infanzia. Four Sisters is a black comedy that looks at the relationship of four sisters as they deal with the death of their mother. Anthony had a terrible flaw: he only tells the truth, nothing but the truth. His family tried everything to cure him, but in vain.

At grown up, he looks for a watchmaker who gives him a cardboard head to replace his own, while he tries to fix it. With the new head, nothing will be the same anymore. Zebu, un bambino di dieci anni, sta lottando per estingure un debito di suo padre con il pescivendolo. Confusa, guidata dal senso di colpa e ansia, cerca di capire. Combattuto tra la sua etica personale e il desiderio di rispettare le regole del suo ambiente professionale, un giovane dirigente cerca di riconquistare il suo libero arbitrio Torn between his personal ethics and desire to comply with the rules of his professional environment, a young executive tries to regain his free will Ten years old Zebu is struggling to look up to his fisherman father as his hero after he stopped bringing fish home in order to pay for a big debt to a village businessman who bailed him from being locked up in jail.

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  • Confused, ridden by guilt and anxiety, she tries to understand. Here you are only a docile body. La forte presa di questo partito-movimento trova le sue motivazioni in aspetti antropologici e culturali, piuttosto che politici. The documentary is about "Lega Nord" young militants. The strong grip of this party-movement finds its motivation in anthropological and cultural aspects, rather than political. Lui arriva prima e insieme vanno in camera. Mentre guarda la TV, Mircea sente dei rumori dalla sua camera.

    Mircea has a 15 year old daughter whose boyfriend is invited to dinner with the family. He arrives earlier and they go to her bedroom. While watching TV, Mircea can hear his daughter moaning from her room. Chi andava al cinema? Quanti ne sono rimasti e quanti sono scomparsi? Quali film si ricordano in special modo?

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    • How did people go the movies about 50 years ago in Bologna? Who did go? How many cinemas were opened? How many are still there? How many are not working anymore and where were they? Which films we still remember? Un luogo incantevole. Una splendida giornata.

      Un incubo perfetto. A conventional family. A wonderful place. A nice day. A perfect nightmare. Le tre dimensioni del video:. Why does everybody want to work for Lago Fest? LagoFest is not an event. LagoFest is a starting point, an idea foundry, a stage, a window to present and get together; a workgroup that makes your dreams come true.

      These are the three dimensions of the video:. Diciottoocchi cerca di essere un racconto spontaneo di esperienze leggere. If you have a good idea but you are not able to express it, is the counterpart of someone who is muddle - headed and wants to be involved in a debate. Dicioottocchi the title of the film wants to be a natural account, based on light weight experiences.

      The first year began thanks to the contribution of illustrators, photographers and videomakers. At the beginning of the second year, this plan will be also extended to sound designers. Anche in caso di maltempo lo spettacolo continua Artistic quality and commitment are, indeed, the distinctive elements of a demonstration that always confirms its solid relation with local community, a relation that represents a basic instrument that describes this de- monstration as a cultural forge, a formative laboratory, a moment in which people, art, technique, environment, territory, landscape, tradition and history of our region meet themselves.

      Both thanks to the quality of the films in the competition and for the breathtaking natural setting to the short film screening: the splendid lakes of Revine Lago, I assume. Giuliano Mestre - Venezia North East Department for Arts and Community is a contact and exchange network; it was created in to focus on the most interesting and fresh creative proposals of the emerging regional scene, with the clear and strong aim to create a situation in which the ideas, the plans and experiences are shared.

      Gathering the experiences of many ar- Laverna tists hanging around their crew, Laverna Net Label will introduce the concept behind the project of a short film on the sounds of Venice lagoon. The directors asked the children to put themselves to the task and use their fantasy, their body language, voice and hands to work with materials. Vince alcuni concorsi creativi e poi si vota al digitale, togliendosi la soddisfazione di lavorare per aziende per cui mai avrebbe creduto Alessandro Cappellotto is a creative copywriter and web consultant. He conceives and produces radio formats which he experiments with his students at a local radio.

      Un broker viene sequestrato da due risparmiatori arrabbiati… A broker is kidnapped by two angry savers… What's the worst that could happen to you on your anniversary day? A father is resting with his son under a tree while the mother walks with her baby in her arms… Una commedia sui denti smarriti, un amore irrequieto e un cane speciale. The experiment was almost a succes: protomatter exists. Siamo la feccia! Siamo i barbari! We are scum! We are barbarians! A film about love inside a film about war.

      A pocket movie in a train between stations in Berlin. Una volta in gioco, seguire le istruzioni. Another 20 reported dead and thrown at sea during crossing. The migrant was among a group of eight who were transferred to Mater Dei Hospital. Three of the migrants were in critical condition.

      A spokesperson for the health ministry has also confirmed that ebola tests carried on three migrants at Mater Dei Hospital came back negative. The third result was confirmed late in the evening. A dinghy carrying 87 subSaharan migrants arrived at Haywharf this morning at around 10am after it was intercepted by the Armed Forces of Malta off the coast of Malta.

      The migrants who are claiming to be from Burkina Faso Mali the Ivory Coast and Guinea are all male and are believed to have departed from Libya before being intercepted off the east coast of Malta. According to information relayed by the migrants the dinghy had originally been carrying around people on board but 20 are feared dead. In a tweet Prime Minister Joseph Muscat said that the dead are said to have been thrown at sea during the crossing.

      Addressing a press briefing this afternoon at Mater Dei Hospital Charles Mallia Azzopardi who heads the Ebola Response Unit explained that even though the risk of Ebola is extremely low all precautionary measures were taken. Azzopardi explained that 84 migrants have been quarantined at Hal Far detention centre to be treated for Ebola. An additional three migrants have been hospitalised where they were certified to be suffering in critical condition due to severe dehydration. They were also tested for Ebola. Mallia Azzopardi explained that Ebola screening was carried out after one of the migrants declared that he is from Guinea.

      In addition he explained that authorities could ignore claims by the migrants that 20 others had perished.

      Letteratura coreana

      The migrants who arrived this morning at around 10am after spending an unspecified amount of days crossing the Mediterranean Sea appeared weak as they disembarked off the AFM vessel. Despite arriving at Haywharf at around 10am safety precuatons meant that the disembarkation had to wait until 30pm. For the first time since the deadly Ebola outbreak across West and Central Africa the migrants were screened by health authorities. AFM personnel wore full Ebola protective suits while a decontamination tent was also set up. A spokeswoman for the home affairs ministry underlined that these were only precautionary measures and that there was no cause for alarm.

      Members of the media are also being kept away from the ordinary safety distance as a precaution. Migrants were provided with blankets and water while on board the AFM vessel. An AFM vessel has towed the migrants' dinghy to shore while additional vessels have been deployed in search for any bodies in the area. AFM personnel remained in constant contact with the Italian military and the health authorities on safe distance procedure.

      The AFM had been monitoring the situation for the past hours and after ongoing communication with their Italian counterparts it was decided that due to their safety the migrants should be brought to Malta. A migrant has died at Mater Dei Hospital hours after being rescued this morning. The man was in a group of 87 migrants picked up from a drifting dinghy some miles off Mellieha.

      Three were found to be in critical condition having swallowed sea water after suffering dehydration. They were rushed to hospital where one of them passed away. Another five migrants were also taken to hospital for urgent medical care. The migrants all men said their group had originally consisted of people but 20 perished during the voyage. No bodies were found on the boat or at sea. They said they started their trip from Libya and had been at sea for days. After rescue by a patrol boat the migrants were taken to Haywharf the AFM maritime base where they were received by AFM personnel in biohazard suits because of the risk of Ebola.

      Disembarkation started about three hours after the patrol boat arrived with officials having awaited the arrival from Mater Dei Hospital of a decontamination tent which was set up purely as a precaution. A Health Ministry spokeswoman insisted that there was no cause for alarm. The migrants have now been moved to Safi Detention Centre where they are being held in quarantine monitored by the AFM and public health authorities.

      Those in hospital were immediately tested for Ebola. The tests were negative. Ebola has a threeweek incubation period and the risk that the migrants carry the disease is low especially considering that the migrants spent time in Libya before heading over to Malta the spokeswoman said. The rescue was the first in several months and came at a time when the number of migrants in detention had slipped to a low of just At one time there were over Concern on petrol prices increases by 10 points Despite a lull in migrant arrivals before last Thursday concern on immigration has risen by four points since November.

      Despite decreasing numbers immigration has overtaken traffic which was the top concern in the November survey. Respondents were asked to mention the two main problems facing the country. The biggest percentage point increase over November was registered by respondents mentioning petrol prices as a major concern. Concern on petrol prices is just two points lower than that on the cost of living. Despite the absence of any boat arrivals in the past months concern on migration has gone up by eight points since March The survey shows that concern on traffic has gone down from the record levels registered in November but remains substantially higher than in March.

      This suggests that most Maltese do not consider unemployment much of a problem reflecting statistics showing an increase in employment figures. Concern on the environment mostly on development issues has remained stable at five points slightly higher than in November but three points lower than in March Labour voters are more likely to be concerned about traffic and immigration but are less likely as PN voters to be concerned with petrol prices.

      Immigration tops the concern list of both PN and PL voters. Concern on traffic is also six points higher among PL voters. One reason for this could be that PL voters are less likely to mention problems which can be blamed on the government of the day. Problems like roads traffic and to a certain extent migration are not directly attributable to the present government. But the percentage rises to 18 points among PN voters. This suggests that PN voters are more susceptible to PN propaganda on this issue.

      Respondents with a post secondary level of education those who continued studies after secondary level but did not go to university are the most likely to be concerned by rising petrol prices. Disgruntlement among this category may be bad news for the government. For it was within this category that a major shift towards the PL occurred before the general election. Methodology respondents were contacted by telephone between Wednesday 7 and Tuesday 13 January. The survey was stopped when a quota sample was reached.

      Respondents were told that MaltaToday was conducting the survey. Its results were weighted to reflect the age and gender balance of the population. Respondents were asked how they voted in the and elections. The minister referred to the recent terrorist attack on the Corinthia Hotel in Tripoli and said that instability in the Mediterranean led to a threat to European security. The ministers also discussed migration flows particularly in view of the challenges posed by the emerging trend of smugglers using larger vessels to transport migrants.

      Mr Abela emphasised Malta's role on the issue of irregular migration starting from search and rescue and stressed the need for EU states to work together including in the return of irregular migrants. He also underlined the need for relocation of beneficiaries of protection. The ministers agreed to intensify the implementation of already agreed measures while also identifying additional measures that would contribute to the fight against terrorism. The training is aimed at facilitating social inclusion and employability and it will focus on teaching residents how to use the internet prepare a CV and look for jobs.

      Education projects within the Open Centre had started over four years ago and they included courses in Cultural Orientation English Language First Aid and Food Handling and Hygiene which aimed to provide migrants with the necessary skills to enter the workforce. Dr Ahmed Bugri Managing Director of FSM said: The Marsa Open Centre is a transitory place for asylum seekers and refugees needing temporary assistance until they are able to move in the community and access mainstream services.

      Bugri said that the centre which has a bed capacity of residents is focusing on offering residents with the necessary support including educational courses and health and psychological support to be able to integrate with society. The FSM believes that education is an important tool for the personal development empowerment and social inclusion of migrants into Maltese society and in Europe at large he added. Parliamentary Secretary for Competitiveness and Economic Growth Jose Herrera said that integration for good quality of life is "essential".

      He added that it is a two way struggle with society and the government being obliged to do their best to integrate migrants into society and migrants needing to try their best to follow courses to enter society. We need to look into the respective niches of our society and address these on a case by case basis in order to address their individual requirements. Our immigrants are but one niche which we are targeting. Italy's Mare Nostrum operation which ended some weeks ago had served as a deterrent to terrorists wanting to enter Europe by posing as irregular migrants Italy's under secretary responsible for intelligence Marco Minniti told a parliamentary committee yesterday.

      Mare Nostrum had been blamed by critics in Italy for encouraging the flows of migrants from North Africa and increasing the risk of Islamist terrorist being among them. Ansa however also quotes a report appearing in unidentified Libyan media saying ISIS is focusing on Libya as a means to get to Europe among irregular immigrants. ISIS is reported to have said If we can take advantage of this channel the situation in these countries will turn into a living hell. The report has yet to be verified as authentic. Executive Director Kenneth Roth urged governments to recognize that human rights offer an effective moral guide in turbulent times and that violating rights can spark or aggravate serious security challenges.

      The shortterm gains of undermining core values of freedom and nondiscrimination are rarely worth the longterm price Roth said. The horrific attacks of January 7 to 9 in Paris on the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo police officers and people in a Kosher supermarket that left 17 people dead heightened concerns about terrorist attacks in Europe as well as new counterterrorism measures that restrict freedom of movement association and expression.

      The antiSemitic nature of the supermarket attack a subsequent wave of Islamophobic violence in France and rampedup rhetoric from rightwing parties in a number of EU countries underscored rising intolerance in Europe and its manifestation in violence and discrimination against Muslims Jews and other minorities Human Rights Watch said. A May gun attack at a Jewish museum in Brussels that killed four people was part of a disturbing pattern of antiSemitic violence and hate speech in the EU in Other EU member states criticized Italy for rescuing tens of thousands of boat migrants in the Mediterranean.

      Its massive naval operation was replaced by a much more limited operation by the EU external borders agency Frontex at the end of the year. This raises concerns that the death toll in will surpass the estimated people who perished in the Mediterranean in HRW said. While the EU is a key humanitarian donor to the Syrian crisis with the exception of Germany it showed little willingness to resettle significant numbers of refugees from Syria.

      Asylum seekers generally faced significant gaps in protection including substandard reception conditions in Italy Greece France and Bulgaria and routine detention of migrants and asylum seekers including children in some cases. There were reports throughout the year of summary returns and excessive use of force by border guards in Bulgaria Greece and Spain.

      Computer literacy courses are being offered to migrants living at the Marsa Open Centre in a bid to help them enter the local job market. The courses are being coordinated by the Malta Communications Authority in collaboration with the Foundation for Shelter and Support of Migrants which runs the Marsa centre. Ahmed Bugri who heads the foundation said some students were currently participating in ICT courses which ranged from a basic introduction to IT skills to advanced ecommerce.

      Computer literacy Dr Bugri said was an essential tool for helping migrants enter the Maltese work force and improve their quality of life. This he added would ultimately benefit Maltese society at large. Educational programmes at the Marsa centre started four years ago and include courses in cultural orientation food handling which is aimed at helping migrants enter the tourism sector and English language. We all have the responsibility to help migrants form part of our society. This needs to be reinforced if the situation is to improve he said. Dr Herrera was making a call for renewed efforts to educate migrants on what it means to be Maltese in an attempt to bridge the gap between Maltese society and the migrant population.

      I am sure that if we teach migrants about Maltese culture — what it means to be Maltese who our forefathers were what a festa is how our political system works and so on — we will bridge the gap that is stopping many migrants from integrating he said. Dr Herrera was speaking during a press conference unveiling new computer literacy courses being offered to migrants at the Marsa Open Centre. Home Affairs Minister calls for integrated approach to counter terrorism. Abela emphasized the need for more information exchange between member states and the better use of existing tools to rapidly trace firearms.

      He also referred to the recent terrorist attack that occurred at the Corinthia Hotel in Tripoli Libya highlighting the need for an integrated approach to counter terrorism. Instability in the Mediterranean leads to a threat for European security he said. Abela said Malta was open to discuss necessary actions on the Schengen Code but no rushed decision should be taken. Over lunch ministers discussed migration flows particularly in view of the challenges posed by the emerging trend of smugglers using larger vessels such as ships to transport migrants.

      The recent terrorist attack on the Corinthia hotel in Libya reminds us of the fragile situation in this neighbouring country. The Maltese ownership of the hotel marks an additional level of proximity Agius said. Above all he pointed out how this would undoubtedly have an adverse effect on Malta. El Senussi also pointed out that Malta is a sincere friend to the Libyan cause and can promote solutions thanks to its credibility Agius said.

      The issue of terrorism within and outside of our borders has also been tackled by the Maltese MEPs. PN MEP Robert Metsola suggested that a new passenger name record system would help increase citizen safety since this would lead to a higher degree of harmonisation and sharing of information between Member States. During the January debates of the European Parliament plenary session Dalli said that whilst the EU has at times focused a lot of energy on its Eastern borders such focus came at the detriment of relations with its Southern neighbours.

      She said that it was is time to reverse these trends to promote a better wellbeing for the Libyan citizens. Some people are believed to have been displaced as a result of the ongoing conflict. With particular reference to Libya MEPs commended the UNchaired Geneva conferences as a positive first step that would hopefully lead to the reconciliation between the different factions present in Libya. Whilst political debates are of outmost importance the peacekeeping initiative led by the United Nations is also highly significant with Italy agreeing to spearhead such an initiative under the guidance of the United Nations.

      The Maltese EP office said that improved conditions in Libya would also impact Malta Italy and other Mediterranean countries due to the relevance that this crisis has on immigration. A strong government and legal enforcement force is necessary to nip the rising of a new phenomenon that of ghost ships. With ghost ships hundreds of migrants are being forced on boats which are no longer seaworthy and are allowed to drift in the Mediterranean without any crew present to guide these boats towards a safe port. Lebanon reinforces restrictions with new visa rules Today marks the day where new restrictions come into force for Syrian refugees.

      The unprecedented move by the Lebanese government means that Syrian refugees will have to fulfil certain criteria in order to be given a visa and enter the country. Before this move Syrians were automatically allowed to stay in Lebanon for up to six monthsThis step is aimed to curb the influx of refugees into the country with the registered refugee population standing at a whopping 1. There are a further unregistered refugees who will be greatly effected by these measures. It is in fact unclear exactly what these new restrictions will mean for Syrians already in the country and for unregistered refugees.

      The United Nations High Commissioner for refugees has expressed concern at the lack of clarity of these new rules. Groups supporting and opposing the antiIslam group have held rival rallies across Germany The Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamization of the West" or Pegida have held protests throughout the country since back in October and their rallies have gained both popularity and supporters over time.

      The group has been condemned by senior German politicians and it has also garnered counter demonstrators who favour a message of peace and tolerance. The Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel has condemned the group however the group seems to be gaining in popularity as time goes by. A poll of just over people carried out by German magazine Stern revealed that a shocking one in eight Germans would join an antiIslam march if Pegida organized one near their homes.

      The organiser for Pegida Kathrin Oertel has said that the country has once again been plunged into an era of political repression: "Or how would you see it when we are insulted or called racists or Nazis openly by all the political mainstream parties and media for our justified criticism of Germany's asylum seeker policies and the nonexistent immigration policy? Photo: Reuters Chancellor Angela Merkel said yesterday she had a duty to protect the right to demonstrate in Germany regardless of the issue and offered federal security support after an antiIslam march was cancelled because of a terrorist threat.

      Police in the eastern city of Dresden banned all outdoor public gatherings yesterday including one by the Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamisation of the West Pegida a group that attracted people to its rally last week. The weekly Pegida demonstrations began last October as a local protest against the building of new shelters for refugees and have been growing in size.

      However countermarches have taken place across Germany with far larger numbers and Merkel has condemned the group in unusually strong language as racists with hatred in their hearts. But at a press conference yesterday she defended the right to protest: Such a precious principle has to be protected. That is why everything will be done German Chancellor makes statement after antiIslam march was cancelled following threat She offered federal help if requested to the regional state authorities who are responsible for policing.

      Pegida leaders said yesterday they would not allow themselves to be muzzled and would plan a rally for next week in conjunction with security officials. Security authorities said last Friday they had specific warnings of a risk of militant attacks on central railway stations in Berlin and Dresden. The leader of a German organisation against the perceived "Islamisation" of Europe stepped down after online posts surfaced in which he used derogatory language to refer to refugees and posed looking like Adolf Hitler. It followed German media publishing the comments where he called refugees "cattle" and "filthy" and a photo showing him with a Hitler moustache and hair combed over like the Nazi Fuehrer.

      Mr Bachmann did not comment directly on the picture but apologised for the antirefugee comments which he made online in September a month before the group staged its first protest. The group has staged weekly demonstrations in the eastern city of Dresden that reached their peak last week drawing people. This week's planned rally was cancelled after police said authorities had monitored a Tweet calling for one of the organisers to be killed.

      PEGIDA's spokeswoman Kathrin Oertel said the Hitler picture had been satire but Mr Bachmann's comments about refugees and others he made about German politicians had not "contributed to the trustworthiness" of the group. Bild newspaper quoted Mr Bachmann as saying he had posted the Hitler picture on his Facebook page apparently some time ago as a joke. If it was a joke nobody was laughing. A protest staged by a separate group in the eastern city of Leipzig met violent counterdemonstrations yesterday. Police said some among the counterprotesters tried to break through barriers protecting the route where about supporters of the group calling itself LEGIDA were marching.

      Sulla nave ci sono circa persone. A bordo ha riferito la voce ci sono circa persone tra cui bambini e donne incinta. Anche stavolta gli inquirenti dovranno verificare se gli scafisti di turno siano realmente fuggiti o se come avvenuto sul cargo sbarcato a Gallipoli si siano solo nascosti tra i profughi sperando di farla franca. Hanno cercato di confondersi tra centinaia di disperati. Ma gli investigatori del pool antiimmigrazione clandestina della provincia di Lecce sono riusciti ugualmente a identificarli: il comandante e tre membri dell'equipaggio della Blu Sky M nave moldava che il 30 dicembre stava andando a schiantarsi contro le scogliere del Capo di Leuca con il suo carico di migranti.

      See a Problem?

      In un inutile tentativo degli scafisti di confondersi con gli altri. Affermazione a cui gli investigatori non hanno evidentemente creduto riuscendo infine a scovare gli scafisti compreso il comandante e ad arrestarli con le accuse di favoreggiamento e sfruttamento dell'immigrazione clandestina.

      Tutti e quattro sono stati trasferiti nel carcere di Lecce mentre la Blu Sky M si trova tuttora sotto sequestro nel porto di Gallipoli. A bordo sono state trovate molte derrate alimentari ed elementi considerati utili all'indagine coordinata dal sostituto procuratore Antonio Negro ma non armi. Resta da chiarire il motivo per cui gli scafisti abbiano improvvisamente invertito la rotta del cargo che fino alla tarda mattinata del 30 navigava vicino le coste greche anche se dai registri navali la destinazione ufficiale risultava la Croazia.

      La virata verso la Puglia meridionale insieme alla manomissione dei comandi ha messo in atto un piano suicida che nell'arco di poche ore avrebbe potuto trasformarsi in un'altra strage del mare. Oggi i migranti sono stati in gran parte trasferiti nei centri di accoglienza salentini delle province di Bari Foggia Taranto Bat e in Lombardia Veneto Piemonte e Toscana regioni individuate dal piano di riparto del ministero dell'Interno.

      Sono pronti a chiedere i danni. Ci sono ovviamente i familiari di coloro che hanno perso la vita come i due camionisti napoletani Giovanni Liccardo e Michele Liccardo. Le famiglie sono molto provate e aspettano di poter riportare a casa le salme dei propri congiunti spiega Davide Bellomo. Gli accertamenti medicolegali sulle nove salme delle vittime della Norman Atlantic potrebbero cominciare in mattinata.

      Stando alla Guardia costiera le persone salvate dal relitto in fiamme sono Questo significa rispetto ai complessivi stimati dai magistrati baresi che ci sarebbero ancora 11 dispersi. Le operazioni di recupero affidate a due rimorchiatori grazie anche a un miglioramento delle condizioni meteo stanno per concludersi. Quello che vedevamo noi era orribile racconta Luca Zizzi il comandante del rimorchiatore Tenax che ha scortato il Norman Atlantic in arrivo a Brindisi. Il fumo la gente ammassata le fiamme.

      Era orribile una lotta contro il tempo per salvare delle vite. Come lui lo sono stati anche i membri dell'equipaggio. Noi ascoltavamo le conversazioni via radio. Continuava a infondere calma a tutti. E intanto Antonio Brizzi segretario generale del sindacato dei vigili del fuoco Conapo solleva il caso degli otto vigili del fuoco partiti domenica mattina da Brindisi a bordo dei rimorchiatori.

      Le nostre istanze di recupero dei colleghi evidenzia Brizzi hanno trovato immediata risposta al Viminale con una riunione permanente nonostante i particolari giorni di festa. I trafficanti trovano nuove rotte per l'Europa e impiegano nuovi metodi per sfruttare i disperati. Andremo avanti con impegno e determinazione. Gli scafisti stanno trovando nuove rotte verso l'Europa e stanno impiegando nuovi metodi per sfruttare persone disperate che cercano di sfuggire a un conflitto o alla guerra.

      Pertanto abbiamo bisogno di agire contro queste spietate organizzazioni criminali. Non dobbiamo permettere ai contrabbandieri di mettere a rischio la vita delle persone in vecchie navi abbandonate. Questi ultimi 8 sono stati temporaneamente affidati alle cure di una casa famiglia di Corigliano in attesa di decidere dove trasferirli FOTO. Le condizioni dei migranti sono complessivamente buone e non sono stati necessari ricoveri in ospedale. Una volta a terra i migranti sono stati nutriti e visitati dai medici del Dalle prime indicazioni e dallo stato complessivo delle persone che erano a bordole forze dell'ordine ritengono che la nave abbia viaggiato per pochi giorni prima di essere intercettata al largo della Calabria.

      Dopo lo sbarco i migranti sono stati trasferiti in centri di accoglienza di varie regioni. Le operazioni sono state coordinate dalla Prefettura di Cosenza. Nessuno dei migranti presenta problemi di carattere sanitario. Questi ultimi 8 sono stati temporaneamente affidati alle cure di una casa famiglia di Corigliano in attesa di decidere dove trasferirli.

      Un vero business milionario quello dei migranti in rotta verso l'Europa: secondo l'Organizzazione internazionale per l'immigrazione che ha sede a Ginevra gli immigrati sono costretti a pagare tra 1. Due navi da carico sono state intercettate nei giorni scorsi dalla Marina Militare Italiana cariche di immigrati soprattutto siriani.

      L'Italia si trova ad affrontare da diversi anni un afflusso crescente di immigrati clandestini che cercano di raggiungere l'Europa dal Mediterraneo a rischio della loro vita. Dobbiamo agire contro i trafficanti scrive in una nota Avramopoulos. Non possiamo permettere loro di porre a rischio vite su navi abbandonate in condizioni meteo pericolose.

      I business mimetizzati nel sociale. Colangelo parla anche di Terra dei fuochi. E ovviamente guarda a Napoli al degrado delle sue periferie. Dalla capitale del sud dal cuore nero di un distretto giudiziario che spesso ha anticipato emergenze nazionali dal business dei rifiuti alla corruzione negli appalti stiamo focalizzando la massima attenzione anche su altri fronti che non sono nati ieri. Dove restano comunque calde le emergenze su cui costruire avanzate azioni di contrasto: il crimine predatorio il sistema delle cosche le collusioni tra boss imprenditori e Palazzi.

      Procuratore Colangelo tra boss in carcere e padrini pentiti i clan sembravano diventati una minaccia meno eclatante. Eppure da un lato si spara solo poche ore fa al Pallonetto Santa Lucia. Difatti la camorra ha solo cambiato pelle e non da ora. Partiamo dal dato che anche se molti padrini sono ormai rinchiusi in carcere al 41 bis e alcuni capiclan si sono pentiti nessuno si illude che i clan siano meno attivi nel territorio del distretto.

      Fuochi e altre storie by Lorenzo Mattotti (4 star ratings)

      Tuttavia i fenomeni che ci preoccupano ovviamente non riguardano solo le aggressioni. Chi sono per essere sintetici i nuovi nemici? La camorra che non fa rumore e alleva oltre a spacciatori estorsori killer i quali costituiscono comunque un esercito sia chiaro anche imprenditori e mediatori. Ma in una lista quali sono i nuovi business? Ma non direi che si trat ta di un nuovo fenomeno: pensiamo alle nostre zone a Castel Volturno.

      Parliamo di Terra dei fuochi. Difatti: un fondato pericolo. Ma prima mi faccia dire una cosa: su Terra dei Fuochi vedo tanto sdegno tanti blog. Penso ad esempio ai nostri svincoli autostradali: inondati di rifiuti. Ai roghi che continuano. Io sono favorevole anche al sequestro immediato del veicolo che ha fatto sversamenti in loco. Sarebbe un buon deterrente.

      Non credo proprio. Noi stiamo solo custodendo quei luoghi da eventuali e ulteriori peggioramenti. Noi facciamo un passo indietro appena le istituzioni mettono finalmente mano alla bonifica. Come Procura siete intervenuti nei campi rom degrado e pericoli. Anche nel palazzo della giustizia avete limiti e inefficienze. Processi lunghissimi detenuti che escono. I tempi della giustizia sono troppo lunghi abbiamo processi che non finiscono mai. Immagine tratta dalla pagina Facebook Hanno nomi espliciti su Facebook i trafficanti di profughi: Taharib taiaran contrabbando aereo o ancora Tahrib bialbar traffico via terra.

      Nel profilo appaiono foto rassicuranti di navi enormi e il linguaggio di qualsiasi agenzia viaggi che ti venderebbe una crociera da sogno. A soli euro partenza da Mersin per sbarcare in Italia sei giorni dopo pagamento all'arrivo tutto garantito: alloggio in attesa della partenza viaggio con tutti i comfort cibo acqua e comunicazioni. Tra i post ecco anche qualche video pubblicitario fatto in casa. Una vita nuova col timbro sopra. Basta chiedere. Hanno base soprattutto in Turchia ma anche Svezia Germania Italia e scrivono e parlano tutti in arabo.

      Alcuni di loro accettano la nostra amicizia Ciao a tutti chiamo Faisal vorrei sapere come arrivare in Germania basta scorrere i commenti ed ecco un numero di telefono da chiamare. Dall'altra parte risponde un uomo siriano dall'accento probabilmente di Aleppo. Non fa troppe domande non chiede dove abbiamo preso il numero e chi siamo. Sembra recitare una storia ripetuta mille volte l'ennesima telefonata. Un passaporto valido per 2 anni 1. Una nave di metri che parte da Mersin. Il posto costa 6. Quella prima costava meno tra i 5. Al telefono il trafficante di uomini che organizza le traversate sui mercantili lanciati contro le coste italiane senza equipaggio ha la voce gentile premurosa.

      Se dio vuole ripete la voce a ogni frase. Se dio vuole il viaggio in nave dura sei giorni. Il bambino non paga. Depositano i soldi qui in un'agenzia ndr all'arrivo in Italia ci invieranno il codice per poterli ritirare. Bisogna portare qualcosa per la traversata? Il suo.