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Gummere, who has stated that there is adequate evidence that expression of emotion in primitive man could have been collective and that it is in the festal throng rather than the author's solitude that poetry, and therefore song, is born. Schlegel laid down a theory of communal origins almost identical with that of the Grimms, at a time when Jacob was barely fifteen and Wilhelm fourteen years old. Schlegel,, Werke ed. VIII, pp. Grimm wrote in collaboration, Deutsche Sagen and Kinderund Hausmdrchen, became immensely popular in Germany, and it was through the writings of the Grimms, certainly, that the communal authorship theory became known.

Gummere; it simply restates what F. Bohme had recorded thirty years 8 George Lyman Kittredge also subscribed to the communal composition theory, but found it difficult to accept Grimm's declaration that das Volk dichtet; he could not figure out the actual production of a ballad without the agency of an individual He proceeded, instead, on what he termed just grounds of anthropological evidence. This is communal composition, though each verse, taken by itself, is the work of an individual.

A song made in this way is no man's property and has no individual author. The folk is the author" 9 Dr. Louise Pound opposes this theory of communal authorship, which she considers absurd. She asks, "Did primitive man sing, dance and compose in a throng, while he was unable to do so as an individual? John Meier, whose views were set forth early in the century. In his opposition to collective authorship he contends that not only have the so-called folk songs always come from the upper classes and been preserved by the peasant, but that they will continue to do so, in spite of our more complex civilization.

Hans transmitted by the lower strata of a civilized whose tastes lag far behind those of the higher strata. He does admit that uneducated authors Leute aus dem Volke can be creators as well; however, they write in the style of earlier periods. These folk songs derive from the art song, but from the art song of a past era. On this basis a unification of hostile points of view may be achieved. It is, then, a biogenetic law that folk poetry not the nation, communal poetry in its way recapitulates the stages of preceding art in this sense particularly that Hoffmann-Krayer's statement, Day Volk 18 produziert nicht, es reproduziert nur, may be applied, Naumann suggests.

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This view was elaborately enunciated by Moses Gaster in his presidential address primitive, poetry. It is to the Folk-Lore Society of 8 9 London in On the subject of the source of folk M. Bohme, Altdeutsches Liederbuch Leipzig, , p. Boston, , p. Gummere, op. Hans Naumann, Primitive Gemeinschaftskultur Jena, , pp. It might professional prejudice that goes far to explain indeed be embarrassing for a person who had spent a lifetime of concentrated and arduous study in the acquisition of the art of composition to discover that an uneducated peasant could create a beautiful melody without formal training.

Apparently having examined among them Ralph Vaughan the evidence, the leading British folklorists, 20 19 18 Williams, Cecil Sharp, and Sir Hubert Parry, all have arrived at the conclusion that somewhere a folk poet-singer composed a song and sang it to his fellow villagers. Others sang the song after him, changing what they did not like.

The changes which begin as soon as another singer performs the song are minor ones from individual to individual, yet in time they may alter the original so much that its inventor would not recognize it for his own. Nor is it, by that time, the property of any single author-composer, but rather a communal product which contains an indication of the soul and character of the folk who sing it and listen to it with pleasure.

This hypothesis takes into account the natural musical ability of untrained folk and reasons that any national art music must be based upon a previously existing body of folk music. Otherwise, it is believed, the resulting art music would be unconvincing for listeners and performers alike and destined to an early death. Unless, within the early history of a people, some natural demonstration of an instinct for music, pictorial art, or storytelling is present, the superstructure of 14 Moses Caster, "Presidential Address," Folk-Lore London , Vol.

XX , p. LI, No, OctoberDecember, , p. Some Conclusions London, Parry, The Evolution of the Art Introduction civilized art will practice, there is 5 be erected on an extremely shaky foundation. Thus, in actual no nation which does not possess the rudiments of its artistic The character of the people, the geographic, political, traceable in a nation's history, all affect the shape and civilized expression; just as the people are the foundation in mere future from the very start. That geographic conditions affect musical expression is probable.

An isolated and lonely people sings in plaintive fashion; a gregarious and neighborly one sings lively dance tunes; a coastal population echoes the music of the sea. In countries may be ascribed, at least in part, to differing of large area, regional differences topography. Political organization of the country's government is influential in a controls the level of learning among the masses. Where large numbers of people are peasants, farmers, and workers, folk song abounds and endures to ease the burden of uneventful living.

Economic conditions, which different manner, since it stem from the political, determine to a large extent the types of songs which will be found and the relative proportion of work, dance, and religious songs. All these factors can be seen to have affected Bulgarian folk music. Another prime factor which is especially noticeable in the history of folk song in Bulgaria is the impact of the country's history upon the nature of the folk song.

For five hundred years the Bulgarian people were ruled by the Turks, who destroyed every vestige of native learning, permitted no schools, and eliminated native intellectual leaders early in their occupation. And yet, as is amply demonstrated in the history of all oppressed peoples, tradition is the staff upon which people lean in time of need. Folk song offers, together with folk tales and ballads, a way of preserving national culture. Events of local importance, deeds of folk heroes, romances which seemed particularly appealing, were all recorded in song and thus remembered and transmitted to succeeding generations.

Inaccurate and nonfactual though the accounts thus preserved may be, they are one of the few ways of building a national tradition where written histories are denied. I was interested to observe during the Second World War that the French Resistance employed this method most effectively. For song, in a tongue unknown to the occupying army and with no strong emotional overtones of anger, sarcasm, or revolutionary feeling, seems an innocent pastime.

The singer from the next village who gathers a modest crowd in the village square presents no serious threat to armed guards. Nor can there be much danger from the songs of Closely related to this of scribe or native cleric working people in the fields, of small groups who gather in the evening for working bees, or of the wedding celebrants who sing throughout the festivities. Folk song as communication is an almost unnoticed weapon of a conquered people, because singing and music are invariably an important part of the daily life of the peasant.

It is almost inconceivable to find a small country village without singers, fiddlers, flutists, and others who perform on native instruments. Music is their theater, their nightclub, their double-feature movie. It is the emotional core of 6 Introduction their religion, the solace which makes hard labor bearable, the magic that leads their weary feet into dance patterns after a long day's work.

Bela Bartok, who follows the seepage theory of the origin of folk song, justifies it on the ground that peasants may be considered incapable of composing new tunes. One may wonder, then, where civilized man learned how to do what natural man is unable to accomplish. Must one suppose that the extensive theories of scales and harmony, for instance, were formulated from thin air before music of any kind could be created?

It is highly improbable that authorities on the origin of music would endorse a hypothesis which insists that a man must write before he can sing. This specific study of Bulgarian folk song would have been abandoned midway had evidence pointed to the music as being what I should like to call secondhand. In investigating what has held the popular imagination over long periods of time, one gains a definite respect for the taste of the peasant.

Setting aside some earthy crudities which may offend the delicate, one concludes that music which has survived and been sung many times over is certain to display intrinsic value. There is an unfailing dignity in the simplest of folk melodies that cannot help but be instructive to the schooled musician and especially appealing to the listener whose ears have been assailed with every novelty of auditory experience that the modern composer has been able to invent.

Although strict analysis is the prime object of this study, the lasting quality of the folk music included here is not the least rewarding discovery that has been made. The early history of the Slavs as a whole is rather obscure. Pliny the identification of Herodotus's was the first to identify the Slavs as Venedi in his Naturalis was not, however, until around A. It seems certain that sometime during the first century of the Christian Era, tribes which later proved to be Slavic crossed the present Carpathian Mountains and, moving gradually westward, settled eventually where now we find the three main Elder ca.

From ethnological and philological points of view the Bulgarians are one of the most interesting of all Slavic peoples, since their culture is a curious amalgamation of the Slav tongue with traits they do not share with the remaining members of the Slav family. From the first to the seventh century, the territory now kno'wn as the Balkan Peninsula was in a constant state of flux, politically, economically, and ethnologiWaves of nomadic invasions ebbed and flowed, tribes prospered and disBalkan Peninsula thus became alternately cradle and grave to the appeared; various cultures, religions, and races.

Because no static core of population existed, cally. The information we ever contradictory, serves to give a picture of even greater unrest do have, how- and instability usual in the forming of national boundaries. Among the tribes that came either to colonize or to pillage were the Goths, the Huns, the Ostrogoths, and, somewhat later, the Slavs. The Thraco-Illyrians, who had inhabited the territory through all the previous invasions, were totally absorbed by the Slavs. Historic Backgrounds 8 Some of the invaders were advanced in culture and peaceful in nature; others were crude and warlike.

After many decades the region gradually acquired a certain amount of prosperity. When the Bulgar hordes appeared at the end of the seventh century, they were attracted by what they saw between the Danube and the Aegean Sea, and decided to settle there. The origin of the primitive Bulgars has never been definitely stated to the satisfaction of modern historians. Other names given to were Ohogurs, Sanagurs, Kuturgurs, Hunugurs, Avars, Pet- believes they were their predecessors chenegs. Byzantine writers in the second half of the sixth century tell us that the primitive Bulgars were not Slavs, and from the numerous sources available we are able to more complete picture.

The Bulgars were a military tribe which "through perfect organization and iron discipline imposed its will upon tribes more numerous and more cultured than itself. Ivan Shishmanov who is the leading authority on the subject in Bulgaria seem piece together a no doubt that the Bulgars are of Turkish-Tartar origin, and that the name "Bulgar" comes from the river Volga on whose banks the Bulgars settled at one 8 time, calling themselves "Volga people.

Although their military strength and skill presented a continuous menace to the Byzantine emperors, the internal relations between victor and vanquished were somewhat more peaceable. Within the next two centuries, while waging wars that extended Bulgarian territory far beyond its early boundaries, the Bulgars adopted the language, customs, and cultural patterns of the Slavs and effected such a complete assimilation through intermarriage that only the Bulgarian name and political organization remained.

The first Bulgarian kingdom was founded in by Isperikh. Boris I, whose extended from to , introduced Christianity into Bulgaria; his people reign were evangelized by disciples of the Macedonian missionaries St. Cyril and St. Boris hesitated a long time in making his choice between the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Church, but finally chose the latter.

After his death, the Bogomil heresy, which denied the divinity of Christ, split Bulgaria disastrously. A separate western empire, including Albania and Macedonia, was founded at Ohrid under Shishman of Turnovo. Shishmanov, Kriticheski pregled Sofia, The Shade of the Balkans Historic Backgrounds 9 The division proved fatal, and distracting wars on the eastern borders made it possible for Greece to conquer the eastern empire in The western empire survived until , when the Greek Basil II known in Bulgarian history as Bulgaroktonos, or "Slayer of Bulgarians" committed one of the most barbaric atrocities of historic record.

He blinded 15, Bulgarian prisoners of war, leaving one soldier in five hundred with one eye to lead the men back to their own camps. A few years later the first Bulgarian empire collapsed completely and Bulgaria remained subject to Byzantium for more than a century and a half Ivan and Peter Asen of Turnovo led a combined insurrection of Vlachs4 and Bulgars to regain Bulgarian independence in The capitol of this second empire was at Turnovo, which the Bulgarians of today consider their traditional capitol.

Of the line of Asen emperors, who traced their origin to Shishman, Ivan Asen II was the greatest, and indeed perhaps the greatest of all Bulgarian monarchs in history. During his reign he brought Albania, Epirus, Macedonia, and Thrace into the Bulgarian empire; he governed justly and well and saw a flowering of the arts and of commerce and a prosperity hitherto unknown to his people.

With the dying out of the Asen line in the middle of the thirteenth century, the decadence of the country terminated in surrender to Serbian forces. The Bulgarian nobility never again recovered its former power, and in the last Bulgarian dynasty was annihilated by the Turks. For five centuries, under Turkish yoke, Bulgarian independence remained a memory and a myth to the Bulgarian peasantry.

This was the darkest epoch in Bulgarian history. Many of the nobles embraced the creed of Islam and were liberally rewarded for their apostasy; others, together with numbers of the priests and people, took refuge across the Danube. The Christian population was subjected to heavy imposts, the principal ones being the haratch, or capitation tax, paid to the imperial treasury, and the tithe on agricultural produce, which was collected by the feudal lord.

Among the most cruel forms of oppression was the requisitioning of young boys between the ages of ten and twelve, who were sent Constantinople as recruits for the corps of to 6 janissaries. The long era of subjection left the Bulgarian peasants without aristocracy or any kind. Because of this lack of literate spokesmen, the existence of the Bulgarian people was almost unknown in Europe as late as the beginning of the nineteenth century. Even students of Slavonic literature were unaware of the ethnic group which comprises the Bulgarian nation.

As a matter of fact, most of the peasants themselves did not know that they were Bulgarians; for intellectual leaders of centuries, kept in ignorance by the Turkish war lords and Greek clergy, they had Vlachs, or Ruman race, are a Latin people, the majority of whom live in Rumania. The Vlachs involved in the revolt of were settled in Thrace, Haemus, and the Moesian lands. New York, , Vol. In , Father Paisii, a Athos, wrote a history of the Bulgarian tsars and saints which volume of Bulgarian literature still extant, tematically burned by the Turks.

The works is monk of Mount actually the first writings having been sysof Father Paisii mark the awakening all earlier of national consciousness in Bulgaria. With the dawn of the nineteenth century, the national revival heralded by the writings of Father Paisii spread widely. Several works in modern Bulgarian appeared, and in the first Bulgarian school at Gabrovo began instruction in the native language. As consciousness of their national entity stirred among the a strong reaction against the Greek clergy set in. Although there were it was by the pen rather than by the sword that of was achieved.

In , perhaps as a sop to their recognition Bulgaria finally restless Turkish the slaves, increasingly government recognized an autonomous Bulgarians, scattered military uprisings, Bulgarian Church. Encouraged by this forward step, a premature revolution broke out in , and was savagely suppressed by the Turks. Word of the attendant atrocities reached western Europe and aroused the sympathy of the outside world.

Russian forces invaded Bulgaria in and liberation came last in At the Treaty of San Stefano March 3, , Bulgaria's fondest hopes were realized and an independent Bulgaria was established with generous boundaries. The triumph was brief, however. The role which Russia at had played in the turn of events caused uneasiness among the greater European powers who remapped the Balkan Peninsula in Berlin on July 13 of the same year.

Bulgaria was then divided into three sections, separating Eastern Rumelia and almost the whole of Macedonia from Bulgaria proper. In April, , the assembly at Turnovo elected, as the first sovereign of the third Bulgarian kingdom, Prince Alexander of Battenberg, member of the grand ducal house of Hesse and nephew of the Russian tsar. The monarchs who ruled Bulgaria from that date until the establishment of the Bulgarian National Republic in were related to all the major royal houses of Europe and in no way connected with the native Bulgarian dynasties, which became extinct in The boundaries no means final.

The country now conabout 40, square miles, -and is bounded by Rumania on the north, Yugoslavia on the west, Greece on the south, and the Black Sea on the east. With the end of the Second World War, Bulgaria has gradually been gathered into the group of Balkan nations now effectively contained behind the Iron Curtain. The ancient Slavic peoples, according to the information we have been able to piece together, had a superstitious faith in the power of sound. As a pagan race, they believed in powers superior to man who controlled the destiny of the universe and directed human affairs.

Music was a highly respected art, and talented members of the community were trained in its mysteries. The nymphs, wood sprites, and strange ritual. They sang gusla, a primitive instrument still in use in Bulgaria, supplied the musical accompaniment for the folk singer, who was thus known as a or guslar gaduldl Although Historic Backgrounds 1 1 his songs were never written and his music frequently stemmed from requests or suggestions of his fellow peasants, the guslar can be said to be the prehistoric predecessor of the Slavic composer.

The manner of performance of music exhibiting a distinctly spiritual tone is still popular among the Bulgarian peasants; in certain isolated parts of the country they still practice rituals which date from very early 7 centuries. The existence of pre-Christian folk music is barely discernible in the mass of Bulgarian folk songs still available for examination.

In the songs of ritual and legend, of 8 myth and fantasy, there are, however, certain faint echoes of ancient From the remaining examples we may assume that the music of the early Slavs was purely melodic, with strong diatonic foundations; the melodies were monotonous and void of wide intervals. They closely followed the text, forming times. Duple meter was the most frequent, although irregular five, and similar measure units which appear in later Bulgarian folk songs were seven, sometimes used. The unmistakably pagan was subjected flavor of the folk song was naturally censured by the Christian leaders who were attempting to bring the light of their own religion to the Bulgarian peasant.

And, since the records of all things Bulgarian were totally, destroyed in a later epoch, it not altogether clear how successful were these attempts to suppress the spontaneous musical expression of the natives. The Bulgarian clergy, perhaps as a countermeasure, began to sponsor and em- is ploy a Bulgarian liturgy which differed from the then-accepted Greek Orthodox or Roman liturgy in use elsewhere.

As late as the twelfth century, influences from the music literature of both churches are apparent, although the Greek Orthodox connections, always stronger than the Roman, were of greater importance in the formation of an independent Bulgarian church music. Bulgarian musicians in turn have played an important role in the establishing of church music in Russia. With Mihail were many bishops and priests, as well as many church singers and their assistants, all chosen from among the Bulgarian Slavs and sent to Russia in order that they might teach the newly Christianized Russian people the Christian liturgical songs according to the Eastern Church tradition.

Mihail, himself a learned man and well versed in religious matters, converted many thousands, selected 10 church officials, and built new churches throughout Russia, 7 The most primitive of all rituals among the Bulgarians of today is the fire dance. The details vary with local customs. However, the many versions all have one theme in common: whether the customary fire dance takes place before sunrise, during the day, or late in the evening, the parand sickness. They will be immune to ticipants will be protected against evil powers, magic, and their avoid will snakes.

On this occasion old grudges are forgiven and friendships are renewed. The ceremony includes not only dancing but singing, shouting, by young and old alike.

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Radev, Obshta istoria na muzikata Sofia, , pp. Ivan musician, history twelfth-century music, contemporary Bulgarian musicologists place Kukuzel second only to St. John of Damascus d. Ivan Kukuzel was born in the village of Dzermentzi, Debur, in western Macedonia, in all probability toward the middle of the twelfth century. There is considerable disagreement about his exact dates. One source gives them as , and others place 'him even later. From various accounts of his life it is obvious that he lived in the time of the First Crusade, and that he was educated in the courts of Constantinople, where he remained for some time, composing and writing books on church music.

Emperor Alexius I commissioned him to create a new type of chant, "more impressive and more solemn than that of St. John of Damascus, a chant The result, notated in neumes own invention, is known as papadikai. Thus Ivan Kukuzel is reputed to have had much influence on Greek church music. In his church compositions Kukuzel employed folk-song melodies.

One of these, worthy of the splendor of the Byzantine Empire. With its unusual range almost two octaves , daring modulations, and developmental approach, Kukuzel's Polieleiat na Bulgarkata is an exceptionally advanced composition for the epoch in which it was composed. Other compositions of Kukuzel's which are sung in the Eastern Orthodox services are Pridvorna Heruvimska pesen, S'vishe prorotzi, and Vladiku i SviashtennonaPolieleiat chalnika nashego.

Example I E 1. Polieleiat J ei na Bulgarkata. Ivan Kukuzel. Transcribed by Peter Dinev. J'JJ JTJ'J po - ho - J J II di In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries a distinctive Bulgarian church singing, from that of the Greeks, and known as the Bulgarian chant, Three main influences played a part in the formation of this characteristically Bulgarian church music: the importation of bishops and priests from Rome, where the rise of the polyphonic style was already under way; the ascendancy of the Greek Orthodox Church in the political structure of the Bulgarian Church; and, last, the authentic Bulgarian chant, which undoubtedly flourished in the famous school at Turnovo and which was enriched by the cplorful folk songs of the times.

Unfortunately, except for music in Kukuzel notation, no other records of such early music have been uncovered in Bulgaria; together with other native cultural achievements, they were destroyed by the Greek clergy after the Bulgarian Church was placed by the Turks under Byzantine control. A few remnants of Bulgarian church music have been preserved in manuscript significantly different evolved. Historic Backgrounds 1 3 in Russia, whither fled the leaders of the Bulgarian Church during the fifteenth century.

Russian musicologists have thus had an opportunity to study the Bulgarian chant; it is from their research that characteristics, for they have praised we may its sketch even briefly its distinctive construction, originality of concept, and 12 beauty. Barsky, a traveler, author, and Russian authority on Eastern church music, writes that the Bulgarian chant of the seventeenth century was much more and melodious, and had a more religious, spiritual content than the Byzantine chant. The Greek clergy obtained permission from the Turkish conquerors to assume complete control over the Bulgarian Church.

From the time of the Turkish in- beautiful vasion, then, the written record of Bulgarian life is nonexistent. The spiritual and political conquerors undertook to wipe out every trace of whatever was Bulgarian and to keep the native population in ignorance and subjugation so abject that at no time would there be a threat to the power of the oppressor. There were no large gatherings of the people except in church; there were no schools, no village meetings, none of the usual group efforts through which a peculiarly national art or culture And is normally preserved.

It is due to this, in the first place, that they have remained Bulgars, yet, despite these difficult conditions, disappear, but for the it after suppressing every class distinction left them long to conjure up a soul, to Turkish overlords enough in peace and gave them ample opportunities 14 generate a body, to subdue themselves in circumstance. Without unduly laboring the point, it must be remembered that when the Turkish conquest had subdued all of Bulgaria, the Bulgarian people were without leaders, aristocracy, intellectuals.

Only peasants remained, and these fled from the plains and cities to the relative is therefore a mountain people, unlettered and isolated one community from another, that is responsible for the enormous body of Bulgarian folk music under consideration here. Most Macedonians and Bulgarians live in villages, away from the distractions, safety of the mountains.

It danger, and sophistication of the cities. The danger of living in big cities, in Bulgaria at least, has been actual and physical through the centuries of constant since the little country has always been strategically important for the pressure, Drang nach Osten.

Cut peasant has created a life off from commerce and the ruling which knows few of his own, a life class, the Bulgarian virtues, chief among A. Voznesenski, Bolgarskii rospev Kiev, , records this impression of the music. Among many use of Bulgarian chant, Tebe odeiushtagosia religious compositions of Russian composers making and Blagoobrazni losif of Bortnianski are among the best known. In song the peasant exposes his innermost feelings of sorrow and exaltation, of reverence and superstition. It is a catharsis for the experiences of a person, a community, a race. It is in the song that we find the spirit of the nation.

Macedonians and Bulgarians sing alone, in groups, in the fields, returning home from the harvest, at working bees during the winter months. For many centuries the social life of the Bulgarian has revolved around work, and dance. All musical forms have felt the influence of the rich cultural heritage of the various peoples who have crossed the tiny country of the Bulgars, leaving behind new and frequently strange ideas, customs, and skills.

In thirteen centuries, however, the Bulgarians have assimilated all foreign influences in a national tonal art which embraces the elegance, the tenderness, and the creative impulse of the Slav, his more Oriental pre-Slav historic preparation an and the angular, the daring, the harsh qualities of from this type of predecessors.

It is inevitable that art should evolve that is tremendously complex despite its primitive appearance. Systematic collection of national folklore in Bulgaria is a comparatively recent accomplishment. In fact, there was no serious effort on the part of Bulgarian scholars to assemble the folk song of their native land until the Ukrainian historian lurii Venelin stimulated interest in that direction.

Thus between and alone, more than 2, songs containing 74, verses were collected. The excellent collections of Vasil Stoin contain several thousand The younger generation of musicologists and composers is aware of the of such importance preservation of the national song. As a result, most of the in the musical life of Bulgaria have collections which people prominent they themsongs. Of pesni 15 Venelin Venelovich , who was born Georgi Hutza, studied religion, history, and medicine. Delayed by the Greek revolution of , while on a trip through eastern Europe, he was so impressed with Bulgarian folk art that he immediately commenced the study of their language, history, and culture.

Upon completion of his study of medicine in Moscow, Venelin published his Drevnie i nineshnie bolgare. Bulgarians , far-reaching highly respected in Bulgaria for having thus resurrected the hopes of her people. It is difficult because in the which are not found in Western elements must introduce to be as logical at metric the because patterns will prove music, and fascinating the end as they would appear strange at the beginning.

Following are the metric schemes which appear in Bulgarian folk songs: regular; asymmetric; unmeasured; that of is as'pectTof Bulgarian discussion of meter we combinations of regular, asymmetric, and unmeasured. The groups groups 4 -f 5 4- 5 , Example 2 uses 3 -i- 4 , and many many others. The metric patterns 1 Example M. At measure eight, where the final cadence would ordinarily fall, a new metric pattern is introduced to retard the motion and make a twomeasure extension more graceful. In all quotations from the where otherwise indicated. Sofia, , p. Played on the kavdl by Marko Dim.

Djonov, 35, of Stakevtzi, Belogradchlk, 2 September, Notated by P. Example 3. The very few Instances of triple metric signatures date from the latter part of the nineteenth century, when the Balkan people began to establish contact with western Europe.

The song Tzvete milo, tzvete krdsno example 4 , favorite of thousands of school children, provides a good illustration of Occidental influence on more recent Bulgarian folk music. Example 4. The double period of sixteen measures calls for repetition of each eight-measure period. The second period is constructed by contrasting motion. The last five measures are an exact repetition of measures four to nine.

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The melody implies harmonies and has a compass of an octave. Sequences are conspicuous. Each phrase of the period strictly follows the antecedent-consequent relationship. The melody is without question a product of a schooled musician, since it follows all academic rules of melody writing. The genuine Bulgarian folk song is altogether definite dissimilar in construction.

In Bulgarian folk trochaic, music there are no dance songs in regular triple meter. Examples 5 is through 10 2 Vasil Stoin, Ot Timok do 8 illustrate various methods of obtaining such combinations. Narodni pesnt ot Timok do Vita Examples where source or notation of the author. Hereafter cited as Vita. Example 7. They will cross 2 The Balkan mountains. They will cross 2 The Thracian plains. They will cross 2 idat, shte iotidat 2 svetata gora. Shte preminat 2 Starata planina. Shte preminat 2 Trakisko ravno p61e.

Tarn shte kupiat, Sre"burni kambani. They will purchase there Church bells made of silver. Narodni pesni ot Sredna Severna Bulgaria Ibid. Tzveta Ivanova Drambozova, M. Examples 11, 12, 13, and 14 are, in fact, very unusual. Sung by lona Mar. Krustevska, Sheitanova, 26, of Troian. Sto ta - Golema Zelezna, Troian. For complete text see p. No, JO J6id v p. Meter Stoian had departed already, his long journey had gone, When backward he turned of a sudden Upon And knocked at the gates of his home, Example Furchele mi The Gray Doves Flew.

Notated by R. Example Sung by Ninka K. Rampelska, 58, of Staliiska-Mahaia, Lorn, January, Notated by Christo Iliev. These tunes are by far the most interesting, since the combinations of seven, nine, and fifteen in these instances are not septuple, compound triple, and compound quintuple time, respectively, but are, instead, measures which contain three, four, and seven asymmetrically combined beats, each beat containing two or three sixteenth notes. Whether this conception of metric grouping is of purely Slav origin has not been established. Further research into the history of Bulgaria before the seventh century might uncover data on the possible influence of Tartars, Thraco-Illyrians, and Petchenegs all of pre-Slav origin.

Greek writers have emphasized the fact that the origin of their music is chiefly Asiatic. It is possible, therefore, that centuries ago both Slavs and Greeks drew from the same source Arabs, Persians, and 14 other races. The theory of Hindu music acknowledges metric patterns, or angas, with one, two, three, four, and nine units of time.

Bulgarian musicologists in recent years have written extensively on the unique rhythmic and metric patterns of their native music. Professor Dobri Christov, Dr. Dobri Christov assumes that in Bulgarian music the sixteenth note is a basic time unit the chronos protos of Greek theorists and as such is indivisible. The relationship between the 0 and the elongated measure unit JX is therefore Irrational relationship. The elongation is mathematical and not agogic.

Christov refers to the theory of Aristoxenus, and speculates on the origin of these metric groups as possibly being of Dorian, Phrygian, ordinary measure unit 18 Thracian, or Hindu derivation. Stoian Djudjev also takes as a point of departure the Greek theorists and philosophers. He maintains, however, that Dobri Christov's theory In regard to Irregular Bulgarian and Macedonian meters is based on a misinterpretation of the Greek terminology.

Since the prime unit chronos protos Is a unit of measurement, It cannot possibly be altered from regular to elongated and so have different values within the same measure. This would be as impractical and as illogical as, for instance, stating the dimensions of an object partly In centimeters and partly We may measure by either system, but never by both at once. Thereof regular and elongated measure units, but only of regular and elongated beats.

The basic unit of measurement remains the same, while the beat might change so that two or three measures in simpler meter make one measure of higher order, as ritmo di ire battute and ritmo di quattro battute e. And since even the most metrically complex measures may be broken in inches. Sofia, Stoian Djudjev, Rhythme et mesure dans la musique populaire bulgare Paris, But these units ordinary unit, and a group of three sixteenths cannot be used as measures of time duration, since they are not equal. Stoian Djudjev, Bulgarska narodna horeografia Sofia, , p.

Viewed in this light, Djudjev concludes, Bulgarian meters would be easily understandable and there would be nothing irregular, irrational, abnormal, or mysterious about them. Vasil Stoin , who 20 has compiled several of the most remarkable colby far the most reasonable explana- lections of Bulgarian folk songs, believes that tion of the of the elongated metric unit found in Bulgarian folk phenomenon that Bulgarians naturally think in terms of phrases which are a combination of duple and triple meter.

From the many examples in his Bulgarskata narodna music is muzika, only four are given here examples to illustrate his point. See also example Each section 3. I I indications show, are sung rather slowly. Examples that But let us suppose, Stoin continues, they are sung much faster. Because of forced to group the various the difficulty in following the changes, the ear will be two different patterns. The quarter note which was the basic unit of the measure would thus have been reduced by half.

If we continue this procedure still further, we may reduce the note value will be the denominator which is most popular in Bulgarian again, and the result folk dances, the sixteenth note. These three theories on the nature of the asymmetric meters in Bulgarian folk music should be borne in mind while examining the music itself.

It is also imporfrom tant to realize that the already noted have resulted partially complications the dynamic rhythms of the poetic text in Bulgarian and Macedonian folk verse. The language lends itself to irregular poetic scansions, and the relation of vocal to one another is naturally reflected in the musical notation.

This is of syllables course quite contrary to the prevalent Occidental practice, where metric structure is a much more is based on the whole note and divisions thereof. Measure, then, natural the from derived in fluid concept phraseology of Bulgaria, unity being and multidivision on built unit a from than the text rather plication. The principle of hemiolia, of lengthening the note value by one and one-half times the original time unit, was known to the Greeks and used in their paeonic meters. They borrowed this irrational relationship from their method of octave fifth resulted from the relationship of division, where the interval of the perfect and so on.

Thus, pitch and time relations were founded on the identical printonal theory. There 22 which seems Dr. Manfred Bukofzer has referred to such meters as "additive," an accurate and descriptive terminology. Bulgarian musicologists frequently call them "Bulgarian" meters, since Bulgaria is the only European country where these , 22 Statement made to the author by Dr. Bukofzer, Los Angeles, California, April, Meter 24 23 metric and rhythmic forms are an integral part of a national art.

Not only are the problems of definitive descriptive phraseology involved, but difficulties of accurate notation. In a muchthe are further complicated by they has Alfred observed, "The map is not the territory statement, Korzybski quoted 24 it represents. When the folk song is notated on paper, the several processes through which it must pass before it arrives between the lines of the music staffs make the agreement between symbol and even less accurate.

Melodies with the elongated note at the end of the measure. Melodies with the elongated note at the beginning of the measure. Melodies in which the first and last notes are elongated. Melodies in which the elongated note appears within the measure. Melodies with more than one irregularly distributed elongated note within the measure. There are. A rainstick is a long, hollow tube partially filled with small pebbles or beans that has small pins or thorns arranged helically on its inside surface. When the stick is upended, the pebbles fall to the other end of the tube, making a sound reminiscent of rain falling.

It is designated The rainstick is believed to have been invented in Chile or Peru and was played in the belief it could bring about rainstorms. Rainsticks are usually made from any of several species of cactus. The cacti, which are hollow, are dried in the sun. The spines are removed, then driven into the cactus like nails.

Pebbles or other small objects are placed inside the rainstick, and the ends are sealed. A sound like falling water is made when the rainstick has its direction changed to a vertical position. Rainsticks may also be made with other common materials like paper towel rolls instead of cactus, and nails or toothpicks instead of thorns and are often sold to tourists visiting parts of Latin America, including the Southern United States.

An electric violin is a violin equipped with an electronic output of its sound. The term most properly refers to an instrument purposely made to be electrified with built-in pickups, usually with a solid body. It can also refer to a violin fitted with an electric pickup of some type, although "amplified violin" or "electro-acoustic violin" are more accurate in that case. Electrically amplified violins have been used in one form or another since the s; jazz and blues artist Stuff Smith is generally credited as being one of the first performers to adapt pickups and amplifiers to violins.

The Electro Stringed Instrument Corporation, National and Vega sold electric violins in the s and s; Fender produced a small number of electric violins in the late s. There has been a great deal more commercial success of well known manufacturers of electric violins since the s for both well known, established companies and new makers too. Acoustic violins may be used with an add-on piezoelectric bridge or body pickup, or a magnetic pickup attached to the fingerboard end. Alternatively, a magnetic String pickup can be installed under an acoustic violin's fingerboard avoiding.

A mandolin Italian: mandolino is a musical instrument in the lute family plucked, or strummed. It descends from the mandore, a soprano member of the lute family. The mandolin soundboard the top comes in many shapes—but generally round or teardrop-shaped, sometimes with scrolls or other projections. A mandolin may have f-holes, or a single round or oval sound hole. A round or oval sound hole may be bordered with decorative rosettes or purfling. Early mandolins had six double courses of gut strings, tuned similarly to lutes, and plucked with the fingertips.

Modern mandolins—which originated in Naples, Italy in the late 18th century—commonly have four double courses four pairs of metal strings, which are plucked with a plectrum. Many variants of the mandolin have existed. These include Milanese, Lombard, Brescian and other six-course types, as well as four-string one string per course , twelve-string three strings per course , and sixteen-string four strings per course. A mandolin typically has a hollow wooden body with a tailpiece that holds one end of the strings, a floating bridge, a neck with a flat or slight radius fretted fingerboard, a nut, and mechanical tuning.

The harmonica, also called French harp, blues harp, and mouth organ, is a free reed wind instrument used primarily in blues and American folk music, jazz, country, and rock and roll. It is played by blowing air into it or drawing air out by placing lips over individual holes reed chambers or multiple holes. The pressure caused by blowing or drawing air into the reed chambers causes a reed or multiple reeds to vibrate creating sound. Each chamber has multiple, variable-tuned brass or bronze reeds, which are secured at one end only, leaving the other free to vibrate.

Reeds are pre-tuned to individual tones, and each tone is determined according to the size of reed. Longer reeds make deep, low sounds and short reeds make higher-pitched sounds. On certain types of harmonica the pre-tuned reed can be changed bending a note to another note by redirecting air flow into the chamber. There are many types of harmonicas, including diatonic, chromatic, tremolo, octave, orchestral, and bass versions. There are three types of harmonicas: the diatonic, the choromatic, and the tremolo. The basic parts of the harmonica are the comb, reed-plates and cover-plates.

The comb is the term for the. In English, the word is used to refer specifically to a variety of small Irish and Scottish harps. The use of this word in English, and the varieties of harps that it describes, is very complex and is a cause of arguments or disagreements between different groups of harp-lovers. The less specific term Celtic harp has also come into use since the mid 20th century but is not preferred by Irish or Scottish natives to refer to their instruments.

The Gaelic triangular, wire-strung harp has always been known by the feminine term cruit. There is evidence that the term may have originally been used to describe a different stringed instrument once common throughout the British Isles, and still extant and known in Wales as a Crwth.

By , however, it was. The koto is the national instrument of Japan. They have 13 strings that are strung over 13 movable bridges along the width of the instrument. Players can adjust the string pitches by moving these bridges before playing, and use three finger picks on thumb, index finger, and middle finger to pluck the strings. The ancestor of the koto was the Chinese zheng and was first introduced to Japan from China in the 7th and 8th century. The first known version had five strings, which eventually increased to seven strings.

It had twelve strings when it was introduced to Japan in the early Nara Period — and increased to thirteen strings. This particular instrument is known throughout Asia but in different forms: the Japanese koto, which is a distant relative to the. Sound is produced by blowing into the reed and vibrating a column of air. The distinctive oboe tone is versatile, and has been described as "bright". In English, prior to , the instrument was called "hautbois" French compound word made of haut "high, loud" and bois "wood, woodwind" , "hoboy", or "French hoboy".

The spelling "oboe" was adopted into English ca. A musician who plays the oboe is called an oboist. In comparison to other modern woodwind instruments, the oboe has a clear and penetrating voice. The Sprightly Companion, an instruction book published by Henry Playford in , describes the oboe as "Majestical and Stately, and not much Inferior to the Trumpet. The timbre of the oboe is derived from the oboe's conical bore. The baritone saxophone is one of the largest members of the saxophone family. It is the lowest-pitched saxophone in common use. The tenor, alto, and the soprano saxophone are the other commonly found members of the family.

It is one octave lower than the alto saxophone. Modern baritones with a low A key and high F key have a range from C2 to A4. Adolphe Sax also produced a baritone saxophone in F intended for orchestral use, but these fell into disuse. As with all saxophones, music is written in treble clef. The baritone saxophone is used as a standard member of concert bands and saxophone quartets. It has also been occasionally called for in orchestral music. It has a comparatively small solo repertoire although an increasing number of concertos have appeared. The baritone sax is also an important part of military bands, jazz.

The cuatro is any of several Latin American instruments of the guitar or lute family. The cuatro is smaller than a guitar. Cuatro means four in Spanish, although current instruments may have more than four strings. Its 15th century predecessor was the Portuguese Cavaquinho, which, like the cuatro had four strings. The cuatro is widely used in ensembles in Colombia, Jamaica, Mexico, and Surinam to accompany singing and dancing. In Puerto Rico and Venezuela, the cuatro is used as an ensemble instrument for both secular and religious music.

It is similar in shape and tuning to the ukulele, but their character and playing technique are vastly different. It is tuned in a similar fashion to the traditional D tuning of the ukulele, but the A and B are an octave lower. Consequently, the same fingering can be used to shape the chords, but it produces a different inversion of each chord.

The cuatro is the national instrument of. Alternate spellings are "gudulka" and "g'dulka". Its name comes from a root meaning "to make noise, hum or buzz". The gadulka is an integral part of Bulgarian traditional instrumental ensembles, commonly played in the context of dance music.

The gadulka commonly has three occasionally four main strings with up to ten sympathetic resonating strings underneath, although there is a smaller variant of the instrument in the Dobrudja region with no sympathetic strings at all. Only the main melodic strings are touched by the player's fingers and the strings are never pressed all the way down to touch the neck. The gadulka is held vertically, with the bow held perpendicular in an under-hand hold. Gadulka is related to Russian gudok.

Another possible origin of the Gadulka may be the lira, the bowed Byzantine instrument of the 9th century AD and ancestor of most European bowed instruments. Similar bowed instruments and lira descendants have continued to be played in the Mediterranean and the Balkans until the present day, for example the Lira Calabrese of Calabria, Italy; the lyra of Crete and the.

A woodwind instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound when the player blows air against a sharp edge or through a reed, causing the air within its resonator usually a column of air to vibrate. Most of these instruments are made of wood but can be made of other materials, such as metal or plastic.

Woodwind instruments can further be divided into two groups: flutes and reed instruments. The modern symphony orchestra's woodwinds section typically includes: 1 piccolo, 3 flutes, 3 oboes, 1 English horn, 3 clarinets, 1 bass clarinet, 3 bassoons, and 1 contrabassoon. The section may also on occasion be expanded by the addition of saxophones. A sound synthesizer often abbreviated as "synthesizer" or "synth" is an electronic instrument capable of producing a wide range of sounds.

Synthesizers may either imitate other instruments "imitative synthesis" or generate new timbres. They can be played controlled via a variety of different input devices including keyboards, music sequencers and instrument controllers. Synthesizers generate electric signals waveforms , and can finally be converted to sound through the loudspeakers or headphones.

Synthesizers use a number of different technologies or programmed algorithms to generate signal, each with their own strengths and weaknesses. Among the most popular waveform synthesis techniques are subtractive synthesis, additive synthesis, wavetable synthesis, frequency modulation synthesis, phase distortion synthesis, physical modeling synthesis and sample-based synthesis. Also other sound synthesis methods including subharmonic synthesis used on mixture trautonium, granular synthesis resulting Soundscape or Cloud, are rarely used.

See Types of synthesis Synthesizers are often controlled with a piano-style keyboard, leading such instruments to be referred to simply as. A calliope see below for pronunciation is a musical instrument that produces sound by sending a gas, originally steam or more recently compressed air, through large whistles, originally locomotive whistles. A calliope is typically very loud.

Even some small calliopes are audible for miles around. There is no provision for varying the tone or loudness. The only expression possible is the timing and duration of the notes. The steam calliope is also known as a steam organ or steam piano. The air-driven calliope is sometimes called a calliaphone, the name given it by its inventor, but the "Calliaphone" name is registered by the Miner Company for instruments produced under the Tangley name.

In the age of steam, the steam calliope was particularly employed on riverboats and in circuses. In both cases, a steam supply was already available for other purposes. Riverboats supplied steam from their propulsion boilers. Circus calliopes were sometimes installed in steam-drive carousels, or supplied with steam from a traction engine, which may also supply electric power for lighting and tow the calliope in the circus parade, in which it traditionally came last.

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Other circus calliopes were. A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument which is played using a musical keyboard. The most common of these is the piano. Other widely used keyboard instruments include organs of various types as well as other mechanical, electromechanical and electronic instruments. Today, the term "keyboard" is mostly commonly used to refer to keyboard-style synthesizers. Among the very earliest keyboard instruments are the pipe organ, hurdy gurdy, clavichord and harpsichord.

The organ is without doubt the oldest of these, appearing in the 3rd century BC, though this early instrument—called hydraulis—did not use a keyboard in the modern sense. From its invention until the 14th century, the organ remained the only keyboard instrument. Often, the organ did not feature a keyboard at all, rather buttons or large levers which were operated by a whole hand. Almost every keyboard until the 15th century had naturals to each octave.

The clavichord and the harpsichord appeared during the 14th century, the clavichord probably being the earlier. The harpsichord and the clavichord were both very common until the widespread adoption of the piano in the 18th century, after which their popularity decreased. A keytar is a relatively lightweight keyboard with or without a built-in synthesizer that is supported by a strap around the neck and shoulders, similar to the way a guitar is supported by a strap. Keytars allow players a greater range of movement compared to conventional keyboards, which are placed on stands.

The instrument has a musical keyboard for triggering musical notes and sounds. Controls for pitch bends, vibrato, portamento, and sustain are placed on the instrument's "neck". The term "keytar" is a portmanteau of the words "keyboard" and "guitar". The term "keytar" might be considered slang or taken from pop culture, as none of the major manufacturers of this style of keyboard has ever referred to them as a "keytar" in any printed reference to this type of product. Keytars may either contain their own synthesis engines, or simply be controllers, triggering notes on a MIDI capable synthesizer.

In early s, Edgar Winter often performed with keyboards slung around his neck, but they were not technically keytars because they had no "neck"; he actually used an ARP keyboard and a lightweight Univox electronic piano with shoulder straps added. In late s and early. Piccolo trumpets in G, F, and even high C are also manufactured, but are rarer.

The soprano trumpet in D is also known as the Bach trumpet and was invented in about by the Belgian instrument maker Victor Mahillon to play the high trumpet parts in music by Bach and Handel. The modern piccolo trumpet enables players to play the difficult trumpet parts of Baroque music, such as Bach's second Brandenburg concerto and B-minor Mass. Adolf Scherbaum was the first to specialize in the piccolo trumpet repertoire and to discover new baroque works, doing original transcriptions.

The sound production technique is basically the same as that used on the larger B-flat trumpet. Air pressure and tonguing are different, and players use a shallower mouthpiece for the piccolo trumpet. Almost all. The term percussionist applies to a musician who performs struck musical instruments of numerous diverse shapes, sizes and applications. Said ensembles may also include melodic based mallet percussion including but not limited to:. The term requinto is used in both Spanish and Portuguese to mean a smaller, higher-pitched version of another instrument.

Thus, there are requinto guitars, drums, and several wind instruments. Requinto was 19th century Spanish for "little clarinet". Today, the word requinto, when used in relation to a clarinet, refers to the E-flat clarinet, also known as requint in Valencian language. Requinto can also mean a high-pitched flute akin to a piccolo , or the person who plays it. In Galicia, the word may refer to a wooden fife-like instrument held sideways. The requinto guitar has six nylon strings with a scale length of to millimetres Requintos made in Mexico have a deeper body than a standard classical guitar millimetres 4.

Requintos made in Spain tend to be of the same depth as the standard classical. Requinto guitars are also used throughout Latin America. The requinto drum is used in the Puerto Rican folk genre plena, wherein it is a small conical hand. It has a hardwood soundbox covered on the playing end with python skin.

It is held vertically and has two silk strings that are played with a bow. Like the saw u, the bow is between the strings so the player has to tilt the bow to switch strings. It is very lightweight and played on the lap. The saw duang produces a bright and crisp tone unlike its mellow version the saw u. It can be played as a solo instrument and in an ensemble. An electronic keyboard also called digital keyboard, portable keyboard and home keyboard is an electronic or digital keyboard instrument. The major components of a typical modern electronic keyboard are: Electronic keyboard is combination of processes of pressing mechanical keys and producing sounds by means of electric circuitry.

In the 12th century clavichord and harpsichord were developed. As technology got developed more sophisticated and standard keyboard got developed with tone keyboard. In the 18 century, the piano was adopted which allowed a new way of controlling volume by varying the force of the press.

The next step was to develop electronic sound technology. The first musical instrument was Denis d'or which was built by Vaclav Prokop Dovis in It was incorporated with strings temporarily electrified to enhance their sonic qualities. In Jean Baptiste Thillaie de Laborde developed clavecin electrique.

This was keyboard instrument incorporated with plectra and activated by electricity. But both instruments were not using electricity to produce sound. Elisha Gray invented one of first electric musical instrument called musical telegraph. It was making. The contrabass flute is one of the rarer members of the flute family. It is used mostly in flute ensembles.

Its range is similar to that of the regular concert flute, except that it is pitched two octaves lower; the lowest performable note is two octaves below middle C the lowest C on the cello. Many contrabass flutes in C are also equipped with a low B, in the same manner as many modern standard sized flutes are. Contrabass flutes are only available from select flute makers. Sometimes referred to as the "gentle giant" of the flute family, the contrabass retains the facility for trills and flautando, as found elsewhere in the flute world.

Ease of arpeggiation is moderate and thus equivalent to the rest of the flute family. The upper registers middle C and above lack the strength of tone found in its cousins; the strongest register is arguably that between G1 and G2. Though the upper register can lack strength, its sensitivity and lyricism can be used to great effect; and a good instrument can readily reach the high A or B above middle C.

The 'haunting' low register below G1 has similar qualities to the bassoon, and the low B three octaves below middle C can carry well. The frame is usually made of hardwood with many metal ringlets attached, and the membrane is usually goatskin. Daf is mostly used in the Middle East, Kurdistan, Iran, Armenia, Pakistan, Turkey, Tajikistan and Azerbaijan, and usually accompanies singers and players of the tambura, violin, oud, saz and other Middle Eastern instruments.

Some dafs are equipped with small cymbals, making them analogous to a large tambourine. The defi sometimes called daire in other areas is a fairly large frame drum with metal bangles. Similar to a tambourine in construction, the defi is made with a metal screw system so that the head can be tightened and tuned. It is popular in many forms all over Greece, especially in the mainland klarino music. The defi is particularly popular in the Epirus region of northwestern Greece, where they are still handmade today.

They have a beautiful low tone, and the bangles are low pitched as well. A virtuoso defi player can decorate the rhythm of the songs in many exciting ways. The term Tef in Turkish is. A guitarist or a guitar player is a person who plays the guitar. Guitarists may play a variety of guitar family instruments such as classical guitars, acoustic guitars, electric guitars, and bass guitars.

Some guitarists accompany themselves on the guitar by singing or playing the harmonica. The guitarist controls an extremely versatile instrument. By using techniques such as bending and vibrato, the guitarist can make the guitar express a near vocal quality. While with an ensemble, a guitarist can take the role of rhythm playing with bass in the ensemble or lead playing on top of the bass in the ensemble guitar.

A guitarist can also play along with a harmonica as a second instrument. Examples include Bob Dylan and Neil Young. Other instruments can be played successfully by a guitarist, i. Many guitarists also can sing or whistle. Some guitarists are also adept at other instruments, such as the piano, hammer dulcimer, tuba, xylophone and tympani. The guitarist has several ways of playing the guitar depending on the type of strings see Nylon-string guitar or Steel-string acoustic guitar and including the guitar. The classical guitar also called the Spanish guitar, the concert guitar or the nylon-string guitar is a 6-stringed plucked string instrument from the family of instruments called chordophones.

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In addition to the instrument, the phrase "classical guitar" can refer to two other concepts: The shape, construction, and material of classical guitars vary, but typically they have a modern classical guitar shape, or historic classical guitar shape e. Strings are usually of nylon or other synthetic material, or fine wire wrapped around a nylon or other synthetic core. Historic guitars may have strings made of gut sheep or pig intestine. A guitar family tree can be identified. The flamenco guitar derives from the modern classical, but has differences in material, construction and sound.

The term modern classical guitar is sometimes used to distinguish the classical guitar from older forms of guitar, which are in their broadest sense also called classical, or more descriptively: early guitars. Examples of early guitars include the 6-string early romantic guitar ca. The pedal steel guitar is a type of electric guitar that uses a metal bar to "fret" or shorten the length of the strings, rather than fingers on strings as with a conventional guitar.

Unlike other types of steel guitar, it also uses pedals and knee levers to affect the pitch, hence the name "pedal" steel guitar. The word "steel" in the name comes from the metal tone bar, which is called a "steel", and which acts as a moveable fret, shortening the effective length of the string or strings being plucked as the player moves it up and down the neck with one hand. The instrument is horizontal with the strings face up, and is typically plucked with thumbpick and fingers or two or three fingerpicks. The pedals are mounted on a cross bar below the body and the knee levers extend from the bottom of the guitar's body and are used to stretch or slacken the strings and thus change the pitch in the process of the guitar being played; the action of the pedals may either be fixed, or may be configurable by the player to select which strings are affected by the pedals.

The pedal steel, with its smooth portamenti, bending chords and complex riffs, is one of the most recognizable and. The bass oboe or baritone oboe is a double reed instrument in the woodwind family. It is about twice the size of a regular soprano oboe and sounds an octave lower; it has a deep, full tone not unlike that of its higher-pitched cousin, the English horn.

The bass oboe is notated in the treble clef, sounding one octave lower than written. The bass oboe uses its own double reed, similar to but larger than that of the English horn. Early bass oboes were either like bassoons, in that they had a boot joint and bocal such as Triebert's instruments, which still had a bulb bell and some holes drilled obliquely, or they were enlarged English horns.

It is most commonly used to refer to a plectrum-plucked chordophone from Spain. It belongs to the cittern family of instruments. It has six double courses i. Traditionally it is used folk string musical groups, together with the guitar and the bandurria. Like the bandurria, it is tuned in fifths, but its range is 1 octave lower. It has the same appearance and use as the Spanish version, only the tuning is different.

Sometimes the Cuban variety has a different body shape, with two points instead of the lute-style or wavy shapes used for the traditional Spanish variety. Bagpipes are a class of musical instrument, aerophones, using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. Though the Scottish Great Highland Bagpipe and Irish uilleann pipes have the greatest international visibility, bagpipes have been played for centuries throughout large parts of Europe, the Caucasus, around the Persian Gulf and in Northern Africa.

The term "bagpipe" is equally correct in the singular or plural, although in the English language, pipers most commonly talk of "the pipes", "a set of pipes", or "a stand of pipes". A set of bagpipes minimally consists of an air supply, a bag, a chanter, and, usually, at least one drone. Most bagpipes have more than one drone and, sometimes, more than one chanter in various combinations, held in place in stocks — sockets that fasten the various pipes to the bag.

The most common method of supplying air to the bag is by blowing into a blowpipe, or blowstick. In some pipes the player must cover the tip of the blowpipe with his tongue while inhaling, but most blowpipes have a non-return valve that eliminates this need. An innovation, dating from the 16th or 17th centuries, is the use of a bellows to supply. It combines elements of a box zither and lute, as well as its lute-like predecessor, the kobza. It typically has 30 to 68 strings The term is also occasionally used when referring to a number of other Eastern European string instruments such as the hurdy gurdy and the 5 string guitar commonly referred to by the diminutive bandurka.

Musicians who play the bandura are referred to as bandurists. Some traditional bandura players, often blind, were referred to as kobzars. The earliest mention of the term bandura dates back to a Polish chronicle of , which states that the Polish King Sigismund III had a court bandurist known as Taraszko who was of Ukrainian ethnicity and was also the king's companion in chess.

A number of other court bandurists of Ukrainian ethnicity have also been recorded in medieval Polish documents. The term bandura is generally thought to have entered the Ukrainian language via Polish, either from Latin or from the Greek pandora or pandura, although some scholars feel that the term was introduced into Ukraine directly from the Greek language. The term kobza was often used as a.

Its exact history is unknown, but it may have derived from a Byzantine form of the Greek kythare, which in turn derived from the ancient lyre. Furthermore, we can find kanun in Arabic countries and the autoharp in the USA. It is also related to such ancient instruments as Chinese gu zheng which has a thousand year history and its Japanese relative koto. In the times of Kievan Rus', the term gusli is thought to simply refer to any generic stringed instrument.

The root of the term comes from the word to make sound in the wind. The term was eventually associated with the trapezoidal gusli-psaltyry which may have originated in Byzantium. The gusli is one of the oldest musical instruments that have played an important role in the Russian music culture. The Greek historians Theophylact Simocatta and Theophan were the first to mention the gusli: Under the war in the end of the 6th Century, the Greeks took Slavonic prisoners and found a musical instrument named the.

Rate The twelve-string guitar is an acoustic or electric guitar with 12 strings in 6 courses, which produces a richer, more ringing tone than a standard six-string guitar. Essentially, it is a type of guitar with a natural chorus effect due to the subtle differences in the frequencies produced by each of the two strings on each course. The strings are placed in courses of two strings each that are usually played together. The two strings in each bass course are normally tuned an octave apart, while each pair of strings in the treble courses are tuned in unison.

The tuning of the second string in the third course G varies: some players use a unison string while others prefer the distinctive high-pitched, bell-like quality an octave string makes in this position. Some players, either in search of distinctive tone or for ease of playing, will remove some of the doubled strings. For example, removing the higher octave from the three bass courses simplifies playing running bass lines, but keeps the extra treble strings for the full strums.

The strings are generally arranged such that the first string of each pair to be struck on a downward strum is the higher octave string; however, this. A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips. Brass instruments are also called labrosones, literally meaning "lip-vibrated instruments".

There are several factors involved in producing different pitches on a brass instrument: One is alteration of the player's lip tension or "embouchure" , and another is air flow. Also, slides or valves are used to change the length of the tubing, thus changing the harmonic series presented by the instrument to the player. The view of most scholars see organology is that the term "brass instrument" should be defined by the way the sound is made, as above, and not by whether the instrument is actually made of brass. Thus one finds brass instruments made of wood, like the alphorn, the cornett, the serpent and the didgeridoo, while some woodwind instruments are made of brass, like the saxophone.

Modern brass instruments generally come in one of two families: There are two other families that have, in general, become functionally obsolete for practical purposes. Instruments of both types, however, are sometimes used for. The double contrabass flute sometimes also called the octobass flute or subcontrabass flute is the largest and lowest pitched metal flute in the world the hyperbass flute has an even lower range, though it is made out of PVC pipes and wood.

It is pitched in the key of C, three octaves below the concert flute two octaves below the bass flute and one octave below the contrabass flute. Its lowest note is C1, one octave below the cello's lowest C. This note is relatively easy to play in comparison to most other large flutes. Despite the tendency of the larger sizes of flute to be softer than their higher pitched relatives, the double contrabass flute has a relatively powerful tone, although it usually benefits from amplification in ensembles. Their main use has been in large flute choirs and occasionally in film scores.

A double contrabass flute constructed of PVC, called a subcontrabass flute by its maker, the Dutch instrument maker Jelle Hogenhuis, has the tubing in a notably different arrangement from its metal counterpart. Although the PVC instrument was designed to be an ensemble.

The Turkish settlement of Anatolia from the late tenth century onward saw the introduction of a two-string Turkmen dutar, which was played in some areas of Turkey until recent times. The most commonly used string folk instrument in. The lap steel guitar is a type of steel guitar, an instrument derived from and similar to the guitar. The player changes pitch by pressing a metal or glass bar against the strings instead of by pressing strings against the fretboard. There are three main types of lap steel guitar: Lap slide and resonator guitars may also be fitted with pickups, but do not depend on electrical amplification to produce sound.

A lap steel guitar's strings are raised at both the nut and bridge ends of the fingerboard, typically to about half an inch. The strings are too high to contact the surface of the neck, so frets, if present, are only for reference and are often replaced by markers. Some lap steel guitars can be converted between lap and fretted playing, or are modified versions of conventional guitars—the only difference is usually string height. Round-necked resonator guitars set up for steel playing fall into this category. Instruments designed exclusively as lap steel guitars typically have modified necks that make fretted playing impossible.

The hollow neck acoustic lap steel, developed by Chris Knutsen and popularized by Weissenborn, extends the body cavity behind the neck all the way to. The trumpet is the musical instrument with the highest register in the brass family. Actress: Hubble The xx: Fantasy Rebel Yell - 2. Hot in the City - 3. White Wedding - 4. Catch My Fall - 6. Jones - 8. Sweet Sixteen - 9. Flesh for Fantasy Idol, Stevens - Don't Need a Gun - Daytime Drama - 3. Eyes Without A Face - 4. Blue Highway - Seite B 1. Flesh For Fantasy - 2.

Catch My Fall Idol - 3. Crank Call - 4. Rebel Yell [Session Take] - 2. Motorbikin' [Session Take] Spedding - 3. Flesh for Fantasy [Session Take] - 5. You May Be Right - 2. Sometimes a Fantasy - 3. Don't Ask Me Why - 4. All for Leyna - Seite B 1. I Don't Want to Be Alone - 2. Sleeping With the Television On - 3. Close to the Borderline - 5. Everybody Everybody - 2. I Don't Know Anybody Else - 3. Open Your Eyes - 4. Dreamland - 6. Hold On - 8. Ghost Box - 9. Lover - 2. Hater - 3. Business - 4. Pleasure - 5. Wine - 6. Water - 7. Gold - 8. Lover Dungeon Acid Remix - 3.

Business John Roberts Remix - 5. Pleasure Andy Stott Remix - 6. Pleasure Robert Miles Remix Bonustrack 7. Wine Teengirl Fantasy Remix - 8. Water Bicep Remix - 9. Gold Laurel Halo Chains Remix - Premonitions - The Fantasy - 2. The World I Left Behind - 4. Armour Of The Shroud - 5. Take Me Home Vienna - 2. Paralyzed - 5. Galilean Boy Demon Version - 3. Breakbot: Break Of Dawn - 2. Breakbot feat. Ruckazoid: Fantasy - 3. Irfane: One Out Of Two - 4. Ruckazoid: You Should Know - 7. Breakbot: Programme - 9. Breakbot: Easy Fraction - Irfane: Baby I'm Yours - Irfane: Another Dawn - Ruckazoid: Why - Irfane: A Mile Away - Another Fantasy 2.

Heart to Beat 3. Slow Emotion 4. I Want More 5. Freefall Bardens - 2. Supertwister Bardens - 3. Earthrise Latimer, Bardens - 2. Foxworthy - 2. Deep in the Dark Toni Tennille - 4. White Keys - 2. Kenaston - 3. Minor Fantasy - 4. Escher - 5. Rideaux Lunaires - 6. Nero's Nocturne - 7. Venetian Blinds - 8. Evolving Doors - 9. Epigram In E - Othello - Train Of Thought - Wintermezzo - La Bulle - Spring But Dark - 2. Butterfly Prowler - 3. Peak Magnetic - 4. Hoova - 5. Slap Drones - 6. Aftermath - 7. Catastrophe Anthem - 8. Living Fantasy - 9. Caledonia - 2. Ritual Feast Of The Libido - 3.

Organic Sundown - 4. Fantasy - Seite B 1. Crow Of The Back Tree - 2. Genitalia - 3. Toth, Scribe I - 4. You Don't Have To Cry - 4. David Crosby: Guinevere Early Demo - 6. Marrakesh Express - 7. Long Time Gone - 8. Blackbird Unreleased Live Studio Version - 9. Lady Of The Island - David Crosby: Laughing - David Crosby: Music Is Love - 8. Graham Nash: Military Madness - Stephen Stills: Change Partners - Stephen Stills: Word Game - Manassas: Johnny's Garden - Manassas: So Begins The Task - Manassas: It Doesn't Matter - 3.

Graham Nash: Prison Song - Graham Nash: Another Sleep Song - In My Dreams - Shadow Captain - Dark Star - Cathedral - CD 4 1. Wasted On The Way - 2. Southern Cross - 4. Stephen Stills: Thoroughfare Gap - 6. Graham Nash: Wild Tales Live - 7. Fantasy - 8. Cold Rain - 9. As I Come Of Age - David Crosby: Drive My Car - Delta - Yours And Mine - Haven't We Lost Enough? After The Dolphin - Stevens - logo ; Stephen Stills - organ, guitar acoustic , banjo, bass guitar, guitar, percussion, piano, conga, drums, guitar electric , keyboards, piano electric , vocals, drums steel , producer, slide guitar, vibraphone, performer, photography, logo ; Chip Stone - photography ; Doc Storch - assistant engineer ; Dallas Taylor - drums, producer ; James Taylor - guitar acoustic , vocals ; Gerry Tolman - producer, mixing ; Efrain Toro - percussion ; Joe Vitale - organ, flute, percussion, drums, keyboards, guitar synthesizer, producer, vibraphone, bass synthesizer ; Jeff Whittaker - conga ; Neil Young - guitar acoustic , bass, guitar, harmonica, piano, guitar electric , vocals, producer, vibraphone ; Tubby Ziegler - drums.

Fragment 17 Phase 1 Proximian Mythos Cycle - 2. Archaeoptryx - 3. Cyber Jesus Tales of the Dtrexian Mytros - 4. Fragment 17 Phase 3 Proximian Mythos Cycle - 5. Nazca - 6. Final Fantasy - 7. Life After Defo - 2. Bronze Age - 3. Feel Real - 4. Guts No Glory - 5.

Objects Objects - 6. Particles - 7. Union - 8. Lions - 9. Years - Deepest - Bloody Lip - Bonustrack 1. Sodann brachte es bzw. Juli Trackliste : CD 1 1. Nonstop Graham Brytavious Chambers Wilson - 3. Talk Up feat. Peak Graham Shebib - 2. Jaded Graham Cadastre - 4. Finesse Graham Cadastre James Fauntleroy - 6.

Don't Matter to Me" feat. After Dark feat. Shebib Musze Melvin Ragin - Bergman M. Bergman - Introduction by Duke - 5. Take the 'A' Train Billy Strayhorn - 8. Festival Junction, Pt. Blues to Be There, Pt. Newport Up, Pt. Announcement by Duke - Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blue - Announcements, Pandemonium - Introduction by Duke - 2. Riot Prevention - 7. Skin Deep Louie Bellson - 8. Festival Junction 2.

Blues To Be There 3. Newport Up Seite B 1. Jeep's Blues 2. Genretags: Jazz - Swing - Bigbandswing Trackliste : 1. East St. Jack the Bear Duke Ellington - 7. Johnny Hodges 8. Take the 'A' Train Billy Strayhorn - 9. Perdido Ervin Drake, H. Lengsfelder, Juan Tizol - Work Song Duke Ellington - The Minor Goes Muggin' feat. Long, Long Journey Leonard Feather - feat.

Esquire All-Americans Come Sunday Duke Ellington - Isfahan Duke Ellington, Billy Strayhorn - Moon Mist - 5. Jumpin' Punkins - Seite B 1. A Portrait of Bert Williams - 2. Bojangles - 3. Portrait of Florence Mills Black Beauty - 4. Ko Ko - 5. Dirge Billy Strayhorn - 6.

Stomp Johnny Come Lately Strayhorn - 7. Are You Sticking? Bakiff Ellington, Juan Tizol - 2. Jack the Bear - 3. Blue Belles of Harlem - 4. Cotton Tail - 5. Going Up - 5. Louis Toodle-o 1st Version - 2. Birmingham Breakdown 1st Version - 3. Immigration Blues - 4. The Creeper 1st Take - 5.

The Creeper 2nd Take - 6. New Orleans Low-Down - 7. Song Of The Cotton Field - 8. Birmingham Breakdown 2nd Version - 9. Louis Toodle-o 2nd Version - Black And Tan Fantasy - Soliloquy - Red Hot Band - Doin' The Frog - Take It Easy - Jubilee Stomp - Black Beauty 1st Take - Black Beauty 2nd Take - Yellow Dog Blues - Tishomingo Blues - Awful Sad - The Mooche - Louisiana - CD 2 : 1.

Doin' The Voom Voom - 2. Tiger Rag - Part II - 5. Rent Party Blues - 6. Paducah - 7. Harlem Flat Blues - 8. Jungle Jamboree - Ain't Misbehavin' - Doin' The New Low Down - Jolly Wog - Jazz Convulsions - Goin' Nuts - Oklahoma Stomp Take A - Oklahoma Stomp Take B - Sweet Mama - Wall Street Wail Take A - Wall Street Wail Take B - Cincinnati Daddy - CD 2 : 1. Maori A Samoan Dance 1st Version - 2. Admiration - 7. Double Check Stomp - 8.

Accordion Joe Take A - 9. Accordion Joe Take B - Cotton Club Stomp Take A - Cotton Club Stomp Take B - Runnin' Wild! Mood Indigo - Home Again Blues - Wang-Wang Blues - Rockin' Chair - Rockin' In Rhythm - Twelfth Street Rag - The Peanut Vendor - Creole Rhapsody - Part 1 - Creole Rhapsody - Part 2 Take A - Is That Religion? Shining Star Bailey, Dunn, White - 2. September McKay, White, Willis - 4. Can't Hide Love Scarborough - 5.

Sing a Song McKay, White - 7. Gratitude Bailey, Dunn, White, White - 8. Serpentine Fire Burke, White, White - 9. Kalimba Story White, White - Mighty Mighty White, White - Reasons Bailey, Mazzarella, Stepney, White - Let's Groove Vaughn, White - Boogie Wonderland Lind, Willis - Fantasy M. White, V. White, Eduardo DelBarrio - 3. White - , b Jupiter M. White, Larry Dunn, Phillip Bailey - 4. Magic Mind M. Be Ever Wonderful M. I [F] Act-Comp. Can't Hide Love Scarborough - 4. Love Music Scarborough - 5. September McKay, White, Willis - 3.

Shining Star Bailey, Dunn, White - 4. Reasons Bailey, Mazzarella, Stepney, White - 5.

Honolulu, Calcutta Tomoyuki Tanaka - 4. He Became a Beatnik Tomoyuki Tanaka - 6. Satellite Beats Tomoyuki Tanaka - Why Don't U feat. Lanes - 3. Slide Thru feat. Big Emblem Benz - 5. Fuck Up the Sheraton feat. Archibald Slim - 6. Slow Dance 2 - 7. Party on Me feat. Tommy Genesis - 9. Spit or Swallow feat. Micah Freeman - Up Still - Oh Canyon - 2. Fantasy II - 3. White to Red - 4. Blue to White - 5. Gravediggers - 6. The Hunter - 7. Fisherman - 8. Spring Break - Killer Surf Walker - Golden Boy - And After Cork Marcheschi - 2. Opus Cork Marcheschi - 4. Opus 11 Cork Marcheschi - 6.

Roswicky - 7. For Paula Cork Marcheschi - 8. Rose David Blossom - Seite B 1. Ebooks and Manuals

Fantasy David Blossom - 2. If Not This Time [Demo] - 2. Red the Sign Post [Demo] - 3. Microbes - 2. Red Lady Too - 3. Tabla and Pakavaj - 4. In the Park - 5. Drilling a Home - 6. Guru Vandana - 7. Greasy Legs - 8. Ski-ing - 9. Gat Kirwani - Dream Scene - Seite B 1. Party Seacombe - 2. Love Scene - 3. Crying - 4. Cowboy Music - 5.