Download Article PDF. Share this article. The statistical uncertainties and variance reduction techniques for Monte Carlo simulation are also discussed. Keywords Electron transport, Monte Carlo, photon transport, radiotherapy. A case study. Med Dosim 23, Bielajew AF Cecen Y Monte Carlo Simulation in Radiotherapy. Thesis, Hacettepe University, 62 pp.
ICRU International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements.
Comput Meth Prog Bio 52, The mean dose to the brainstem was decreased from 9. The integral dose was 4.
Our results suggest that EMXRT has potential dosimetric benefits for the pediatric brain cancer patients. Although there are currently no technologies available to modulate photon energy, fast energy switching is possible as seen in some of the modern linear accelerators.
Furthermore, theoretically speaking, the EMXRT modality should provide increased flexibility as photon energy can be treated as a new variable in the planning optimization. Of course, the additional flexibility may increase the difficulty in the optimization and in quality assurance and quality control. With advanced intensity modulation technology, it has been shown that radiotherapy has become less restricted by the weak penetration power of lower energy [ 25 , 26 ].
Identical beam configuration and optimization constraints were used in all the three plans. As shown in Figure 10 , the target dose distributions were identical for all the plans. While it is possible to further improve the HE-EMXRT plan by adjusting the optimization constraints, we kept them identical in this study for the sake of comparison.
In addition, it has been demonstrated that lower energy mega-voltage photon beams can improve the image quality. Several studies have further shown that, with low-Z targets in linear accelerators producing photon beams as low as 1.
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Furthermore, with the actual treatment beam being the source for MV portal or MVCT image acquisition, the imaging isocenter is identical to the treatment isocenter, eliminating the need to perform a comprehensive calibration and registration procedure usually required if a kilo-voltage imaging system is installed perpendicular to the treatment beam axis [ 24 ]. The expanded beam energy range will not only increase the flexibility for personalized radiotherapy, but also provide more options for personalized imaging protocol [ 31 ]. The proposed EMXRT method indicated that photon beam energy may be considered as a technical parameter in current treatment approaches to increase the flexibility of radiotherapy and provide more possibility to perform personalized radiotherapy.
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. BioMed Research International. Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded. Journal Menu. Special Issues Menu. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Table of Contents Alerts. Material and Methods 2.
Figure 2: Diagram of energy selector correlation coefficient CC model. The PDD curves for high and low energy photon beams were shown with solid and dotted lines. A spherical tumor model was located and target entrance and exit points points 2 and 3 were marked by the arrows. In a real patient, the beam energy was determined by looking up the energy table for a certain effective path length and tumor size inset.
Table 1: Characteristics of Monte Carlo simulated percentage depth dose curves for various beam energies. The measured percentage depth dose data were shown in bold. Table 2: Monte Carlo simulated percentage doses at certain depths for various beam energies. The measured data were listed in the brackets in bold.
Table 3: Energy table determined by energy selector based on effective path length EP and tumor size TS in effective diameter.
Energies in MV were grouped and illustrated with different superscript letters. Table 4: Characteristics of the tumors and beam setup of six cases in this study. Figure 5: Comparison of dose distributions between EMXRT a and IMRT b plans for the lung cancer patient in the axial, coronal, and sagittal views through the center of the target region.
The planning target volume PTV , lung, and trachea were shown with pink, green, and blue regions, respectively. Figure 6: Comparison of dose distributions between EMXRT a and IMRT b plans for the prostate cancer patient in the axial, coronal, and sagittal views through the center of the target region. The PTV, rectum, bladder, and femur head were shown with pink, yellow, green, and blue regions, respectively. Figure 8: Relative differences of integral dose for the six cases investigated in this study. Table 7: Characteristics of the beam setup of the extra lung and brain case.
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Monte Carlo simulations in radiotherapy dosimetry
Zhang, Y. Feng, M. Ahmad et al. Malhotra, J. Avadhani, S. St-Hilaire, C. Beaulieu, L. Gingras, D. Tremblay, and L. Park, C. Choi, S. Ha, and S.