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But that would be perceived as panic, and it would also leave them with a porcelain middle order. Personally I would leave Buttler where he is, though I might open with Moeen. It was a poor review because Buttler was a long way down the pitch. Replays showed the ball hit him outside the line, which means Australia lose their review. The required rate 6. Stokes again runs down the track, this time to blast a fine boundary over mid-on. Stokes, on the charge, plays a spectacular swivel pull that races through midwicket for four.

This observation will doubtless end in tears, but so far Stokes has played with admirable intelligence and determination. I wonder if he was consulted? Never mind consulting him. Ask him if he fancies opening the batting on Sunday for my local team, England. They had improved, at least to my eyes, on awkward pitches. But I suppose that was in bilateral series. I was enjoying the hope; I was coping with it quite nicely. Buttler drives sweetly for four and then edges a looser drive in the air through gully. South Africa, I for one think The Hundred is going to be good!

Out of interest, how many Kalms have you taken in the last four hours? Are you basing that on TV pictures or are you at the ground? Have our brave bilateral boys been robbed? For the love of Vince Wells. England have lost another wicket. Bairstow swats a short ball from Behrendorff high towards deep midwicket, where Cummins takes his second excellent running catch. That was not the most judicious piece of batting. Stokes, surprised by the same nasty bounce that did for Warner, cuts the ball in the air through the vacant point region.

Then he plays a reverse sweep that is stopped by Smith at slip. Five from the over; three singles and a two. A modern, competent England has never sat well with me. Yes, but you have to embrace adulthood eventually. Four from the over. Then we can get on with a life that is dreadful enough without unrealistic hopes.

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For the second time in many overs he gets one to burst from a length at Stokes, which suggests a bit of uneven bounce. Stokes responds by running down the pitch to drive sweetly through extra cover for four. Those are the first runs of his innings from the 12th delivery. This is very foppin tense. This time, this time, will be different. Either we go into the World Cup off a fine run of form much good that does us now!

This time the disappointment just began even sooner than anyone was prepared for. And - horror of horrors! Just pile on the misery, will you! If England cock this up, the Ashes will be cancelled indefinitely, as will all cricket. That was a lovely shot. He has continued to attack; Stokes looks like he wants to play himself in. Key events Show 6.

England Archer c Warner b Behrendorff 1 5. England Ali c Carey b Behrendorff 6 5. In David Collins writes of the 'bones of small animals, such as opossums From s the word bandicoot has been used in various distinctively Australian phrases as an emblem of deprivation or desolation.

In H. Watson in Lecture on South Australia writes: 'The land here is generally good; there is a small proportion that is actually good for nothing; to use a colonial phrase, "a bandicoot an animal between a rat and a rabbit would starve upon it". Probably from the perception of the bandicoot's burrowing habits, a new Australian verb to bandicoot arose towards the end of the nineteenth century. It means 'to remove potatoes from the ground, leaving the tops undisturbed'.

Usually this activity is surreptitious. The bandicooter goes at night to a field of ripe potatoes and carefully extracts the tubers from the roots without disturbing the tops. Extremely unhappy. Bandicoots are small marsupials with long faces, and have been given a role in Australian English in similes that suggest unhappiness or some kind of deprivation see above. The expression miserable as a bandicoot was first recorded in the s.

The large woody cone of several Banksia species, originally as a character in children's stories. Banksia is the name of an Australian genus of shrubs and trees with about 60 species. It was named after the botanist Sir Joseph Banks, who was on the Endeavour with James Cook on his voyage of discovery in After flowering, many banksias form thick woody cones, often in strange shapes.

It was on such grotesque shapes that May Gibbs modelled her banksia men in Snugglepot and Cuddlepie of 'She could see the glistening, wicked eyes of Mrs. Snake and the bushy heads of the bad Banksia men'. Prichard Bid me to Love : Louise See what I've got in my pocket for you Bill : diving into a pocket of her coat and pulling out a banksia cone A banksia man. Oh Mum! Smith Saddle in the Kitchen : Hell was under the well near the cow paddock, deep and murky and peopled by gnarled and knobby banksia men who lurked there waiting for the unguarded to fall in. A topic of great public interest, especially a political one.

The term derives from the notion that a topic is so interesting that it could halt proceedings at a barbecue - and anything that could interrupt an Aussie barbecue would have to be very significant indeed! The term was coined by Australian prime minister John Howard in in the context of balancing work pressures with family responsibilities. Barbecue stopper is now used in a wide range of contexts.

For an earlier discussion of the term see our Word of the Month article from August The name of the Barcoo River in western Queensland has been used since the s as a shorthand reference for the hardships, privations, and living conditions of the outback. Poor diets were common in remote areas, with little access to fresh vegetables or fruit, and as a result diseases caused by dietary deficiencies, such Barcoo rot —a form of scurvy characterised by chronic sores—were common.

Another illness probably caused by poor diet was Barcoo sickness also called Barcoo vomit , Barcoo spew , or just Barcoo , a condition characterised by vomiting. Barcoo can also typify the laconic bush wit. To give support or encouragement to a person, team, etc. Some claim barrack comes from Australian pidgin to poke borak at 'to deride', but its origin is probably from Northern Irish barrack 'to brag; to be boastful'. By itself barrack meant 'to jeer' and still does in British English , but the form barrack for transformed the jeering into cheering in Australian English.

The opening of the starting gates to begin a horserace. In horseracing the barrier is a starting gate at the racecourse. The word barrier is found in a number of horseracing terms in Australian English including barrier blanket a heavy blanket placed over the flanks of a racehorse to calm it when entering a barrier stall at the start of a race , barrier trial a practice race for young, inexperienced, or resuming racehorses , and barrier rogue a racehorse that regularly misbehaves when being placed into a starting gate.

Barrier rise is first recorded in the s. For a more detailed discussion of this term see our Word of the Month article from October Wilson's colt Merman, who, like Hova, was comparatively friendless at barrier rise. The word battler has been in the English language for a long time. The word is a borrowing from French in the Middle English period, and meant, literally, 'a person who battles or fights', and figuratively 'a person who fights against the odds or does not give up easily'.

The corresponding English word was feohtan which gives us modern English 'to fight'.

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English also borrowed the word war from the French in the twelfth century; it's the same word as modern French guerre. But the word battler , at the end of the nineteenth century, starts to acquire some distinctively Australian connotations. For this reason, it gets a guernsey in the Australian National Dictionary.

It describes the person with few natural advantages, who works doggedly and with little reward, who struggles for a livelihood and who displays courage in so doing. In Kylie Tennant writes: 'She was a battler, Snow admitted; impudent, hardy, cool, and she could take a "knock-back" as though it didn't matter, and come up to meet the next blow'. In this tradition, K. Roughly speaking, there are three kinds of people in this country: the rich, the middle class and the battlers'. In the 21st century the term has been used in various political contests as this quotation in the Australian from 1 July demonstrates: 'The Prime Minister, who has built his success on an appeal to Australia's battlers, is about to meet thousands more of them in his northern Sydney seat of Bennelong'.

This sense is first recorded in the Bulletin in 'I found patch after patch destroyed. Almost everyone I met blamed the unfortunate "battler", and I put it down to some of the Sydney "talent" until I caught two Chows vigorously destroying melon-vines'. Again in the Bulletin in we find: 'They were old, white-bearded, travel-stained battlers of the track'. A person who frequents racecourses in search of a living, esp. The word is used in Australia with this sense from the end of the nineteenth century. Cornelius Crowe in his Australian Slang Dictionary gives: ' Battlers broken-down backers of horses still sticking to the game'.

In A. Wright in The Boy from Bullarah notes: 'He betook himself with his few remaining shillings to the home of the battler - Randwick [a racecourse in Sydney]'. In we find in the Bulletin : 'A bludger is about the lowest grade of human thing, and is a brothel bully A battler is the feminine'.

Chandler in Darkest Adelaide c. Meanings 2.

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This is still the person of the Henry Lawson tradition, who, 'with few natural advantages, works doggedly and with little reward, struggles for a livelihood and displays courage in so doing '. But perhaps the battler of contemporary Australia is more likely to be paying down a large mortgage rather than working hard to put food on the table! Berley is ground-bait scattered by an angler in the water to attract fish to a line or lure. Anglers use a variety of baits for berley, such as bread, or fish heads and guts. Poultry mash and tinned cat food make more unusual berleying material, although this pales beside a Bulletin article in suggesting 'a kerosene-tinful of rabbit carcasses boiled to a pulp' as the best berley for Murray cod.

The first evidence for the noun occurs in the s. The origin of the word is unknown. To display or boast of one's wealth; to exaggerate one's own importance, achievements, etc. In pre-decimal currency days the larger the denomination, the bigger the banknote. Big-noting arose from the connection between flashing large sums of money about and showing off. He had admitted producing it to 'big note' himself in the eyes of the young woman and her parents.

Foster Man of Letters : He's never been one to big-note himself. A member of a gang of motorcyclists. Bikie follows a very common pattern in Australian English by incorporating the -ie or -y suffix. This suffix works as an informal marker in the language. In early use bikie often referred to any member of a motorcycle motorbike gang or club - often associated with youth culture. In more recent times the term is often associated with gangs of motorcylists operating on the fringes of legality. Bikie is first recorded in the s.

For a more detailied discussion of the term see our Word of the Month article from March Some bikies procure, distribute and sell drugs through their 'associates', who in turn sell them to kids. The bilby is either of two Australian bandicoots, especially the rabbit-eared bandicoot Macrotis lagotis , a burrowing marsupial of woodlands and plains of drier parts of mainland Australia. The word is a borrowing from Yuwaalaraay an Aboriginal language of northern New South Wales and neighbouring languages.

The bilby is also known as dalgyte in Western Australia and pinky in South Australia. Since the early s there have been attempts to replace the Easter bunny with the Easter bilby. At Easter it is now possible to buy chocolate bilbies. Bilby is first recorded in the s. An arm of a river, made by water flowing from the main stream usually only in time of flood to form a backwater, blind creek, anabranch, or, when the water level falls, a pool or lagoon often of considerable extent ; the dry bed of such a formation. Billabongs are often formed when floodwaters recede. A vessel for the boiling of water, making of tea, etc.

It is not, as popularly thought, related to the Aboriginal word billabong. Billy is first recorded in the s. Burrows Adventures of a Mounted Trooper in the Australain Constabulary : A 'billy' is a tin vessel, something between a saucepan and a kettle, always black outside from being constantly on the fire, and looking brown inside from the quantity of tea that is generally to be seen in it. Billycart is a shortened form of the Australian term billy-goat cart which dates back to the s. In earlier times the term applied to a small cart, often two-wheeled, that was pulled by a goat. These billycarts were used for such purposes as home deliveries, and they were also used in races.

The term was then applied to any homemade go-cart. Billycart is recorded in the first decade of the 20th century. Winton Cloudstreet : Bits of busted billycarts and boxes litter the place beneath the sagging clothesline. Any of several plants bearing barbed fruits, especially herbs of the widespread genus Calotis ; the fruit of these plants.

Bindi-eye is oftened shortened to bindi , and can be spelt in several ways including bindy-eye and bindii. Bindi-eye is usually considered a weed when found in one's lawn. Many a child's play has been painfully interrupted by the sharp barbs of the plant which have a habit of sticking into the sole of one's foot. Bindy-eye is first recorded in the s. A fight or skirmish; a collision. Bingle is perhaps from Cornish dialect bing 'a thump or blow'. Most other words derived from Cornish dialect in Australian English were originally related to mining, including fossick.

The word is frequently used to refer to a car collision. Bingle is first recorded in the s. Carr Surfie : There was this clang of metal on metal and both cars lurched over to the shoulder and we nearly went for a bingle. A mongrel. A dog or other animal which is made up of a bit of this and a bit of that.

This meaning is common today, but when bitser first appeared in the s it referred to any contraption or vehicle that was made of spare parts, or had odd bits and pieces added. The small girl pondered. My friends call him a "bitzer"', she replied. My favourite was a bitser named Sheila. The black stump of Australian legend first appears in the late 19th century, and is an imaginary marker at the limits of settlement. Anywhere beyond the black stump is beyond civilisation, deep in the outback, whereas something this side of the black stump belongs to the known world.

Although the towns of Blackall, Coolah and Merriwagga each claim to possess the original black stump , a single stump is unlikely to be the origin of this term. It is more probable that the burnt and blackened tree stumps, ubiquitous in the outback, and used as markers when giving directions to travellers is the origin - this sense of black stump is recorded from Tracks have been made, commencing nowhere and ending the same, roads have been constructed haphazard, bridges have been built that had no roads leading either to or from them, railways have terminated at the proverbial black stump.

Beyond the Black Stump. Not shown on the petrol station maps, even. A very unperceptive person; such a person as a type. This term often appears in the phrase even blind Freddy could see that. Although the term may not derive from an actual person, early commentators associate it with a blind Sydney character or characters. Australian lexicographer Sidney Baker wrote in that 'Legend has it that there was a blind hawker in Sydney in the s, named Freddy, whose blindness did not prevent his moving freely about the central city area'.

Other commentators suggest a character who frequented various Sydney sporting venues in the first decades of the 20th century could be the original Freddy. The term itself is first recorded in It applied to a person of great heart, who displayed courage, loyalty, and mateship. To defeat a competitor by a very small margin; to win narrowly. This verb derives from the noun blouse meaning 'the silk jacket worn by a jockey'. As the origin of this word would indicate, much of the evidence is from the sport of horseracing.

For a detailed discussion of blouse see our Word of the Month article from November This word is a survival of British slang bludger , meaning 'a prostitute's pimp'. The word is ultimately a shortening of bludgeoner. A bludgeoner not surprisingly was a person who carried a bludgeon 'a short stout stick or club'.

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It appears in a mid-nineteenth century English slang dictionary as a term for 'a low thief, who does not hesitate to use violence'. By the s the 'prostitute's pimp' sense of bludger is found in Australian sources. In the Sydney Slang Dictionary of bludgers are defined as 'plunderers in company with prostitutes'. Cornelius Crowe, in his Australian Slang Dictionary , defines a bludger as 'a thief who will use his bludgeon and lives on the gains of immoral women'.

Thus bludger came to mean 'one who lives on the earnings of a prostitute'. It retained this meaning until the midth century. From the early twentieth century it moved out to be a more general term of abuse, especially as applied to a person who appears to live off the efforts of others as a pimp lives on the earnings of a prostitute. It was then used to refer to a person engaged in non-manual labour - a white-collar worker.

This sense appears as early as , but its typical use is represented by this passage from D. Whitington's Treasure Upon Earth : '"Bludgers" he dubbed them early, because in his language anyone who did not work with his hands at a laboring job was a bludger'. And so it came to mean 'an idler, one who makes little effort'. In the war newspaper Ack Ack News in we find: 'Who said our sappers are bludgers? Cleary in Just let me be writes: 'Everything I backed ran like a no-hoper. Four certs I had, and the bludgers were so far back the ambulance nearly had to bring 'em home'.

And thence to 'a person who does not make a fair contribution to a cost, enterprise etc. Niland writes in The Shiralee : 'Put the nips into me for tea and sugar and tobacco in his usual style. The biggest bludger in the country'. In J. O'Grady writes: 'When it comes to your turn, return the "shout". Otherwise the word will spread that you are a "bludger", and there is no worse thing to be'. The term dole bludger i. From the following year we have a citation indicating a reaction to the use of the term: Cattleman Rockhampton 'Young people are being forced from their country homes because of a lack of work opportunities and the only response from these so-called political protectors is to label them as dole bludgers'.

Throughout the history of the word, most bludgers appear to have been male. The term bludgeress made a brief appearance in the first decade of this century - 'Latterly, bludgers, so the police say, are marrying bludgeresses' Truth 27 September - but it was shortlived. The word bluey in Australian English has a variety of meanings. The most common is the swag i. There's the everlasting swaggie with his bluey on his back who is striking out for sunset on the Never-never track. Goodge, Hits! The association of the swaggie and his bluey continues in more recent evidence for the term:.

A swaggie suddenly appeared out of the bush, unshaven, with wild, haunted eyes, his bluey and billycan on his back. Cross, George and Widda-Woman That bluey is later transferred to luggage in general, is perhaps not surprising in an urban society which romanticises its 'bush' tradition:. Canberra Times 19 Nov. The word has been used to denote another item of clothing - denim working trousers or overalls - but the citation evidence indicates the last citation being that this usage is no longer current. More familiar is the use of bluey to describe a summons, especially for a traffic offence originally printed on blue paper :.

Perhaps the most Australian use of bluey is the curious use of it to describe a red-headed person first recorded in :. Paterson, Shearer's Colt : 'Bluey', as the crowd called him, had found another winner.

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All red-haired men are called 'Bluey' in Australia for some reason or other. Conquest, Dusty Distances : I found out later that he was a native of New South Wales, called ' Bluey because of his red hair - typical Australian logic. A more literal use of bluey in Australian English is its application to fauna whose names begin with blue and which is predominantly blue in colour:.

Ornithologists refer to them as some species of wood swallow They're all 'blueys' to us. There are two senses of the word bodgie in Australian English, both probably deriving from an earlier now obsolete word bodger. The obsolete bodger probably derives from British dialect bodge 'to work clumsily'. In Australian English in the s and s bodger meant: 'Something or occasionally someone which is fake, false, or worthless'.

The noun was also used adjectivally. Typical uses:. Hardy, Power without Glory : This entailed the addition of as many more 'bodger' votes as possible. Baker, The Australian Language : An earlier underworld and Army use of bodger for something faked, worthless or shoddy. For example, a faked receipt or false name..

The word bodger was altered to bodgie , and this is now the standard form:. White, Silent Reach : This heap is hot - else why did they give it a one-coat spray job over the original white duco and fix it with bodgie number plates? In the s another sense of bodgie arose. The word was used to describe a male youth, distinguished by his conformity to certain fashions of dress and larrikin behaviour; analogous to the British 'teddy boy':.

This sense of bodgie seems to be an abbreviation of the word bodger with the addition of the -ie -y suffix. Mr Hewett says his research indicates that the term 'bodgie' arose around the Darlinghurst area in Sydney. It was just after the end of World War II and rationing had caused a flourishing black market in American-made cloth. This sense of bodgie belongs primarily to the s, but bodgie in the sense 'fake, false, inferior, worthless' is alive and flourishing in Australian English. An uncultured and unsophisticated person; a boorish and uncouth person.

The early evidence is largely confined to teenage slang. Some lexicographers have suspected that the term may derive from the Bogan River and district in western New South Wales, but this is far from certain, and it seems more likely to be an unrelated coinage.

The term became widespread after it was used in the late s by the fictitious schoolgirl 'Kylie Mole' in the television series The Comedy Company. In the Daily Telegraph 29 November , in an article headed 'Same name a real bogan', a genuine schoolgirl named Kylie Mole 'reckons it really sux' " [i. Someone who wears their socks the wrong way or has the same number of holes in both legs of their stockings. A complete loser'. The earliest evidence we have been able to find for the term is in the surfing magazine Tracks September 'So what if I have a mohawk and wear Dr Martens boots for all you uninformed bogans?

The term has also generated a number of other terms including bogan chick , boganhood , and cashed-up bogan CUB. She had a quiet, middle-class upbringing in Box Hill, attending a private girls' school. Our geographic reach is flexible; residents of Taree and like communities, for example, may readily qualify for Boganhood, usually with little or no burdensome paperwork.

Affectionate, even I'm a bogan because I'm overweight. For further discussions of bogan see our Word of the Month article from Novemeber , and a article 'Bogan: from Obscurity to Australia's most productive Word' in our newsletter Ozwords. To swim or bathe. Bogey is a borrowing from the Aboriginal Sydney Language. The earliest records show the term being used in the pidgin English of Aborigines:. Bogie d'oway. These were Colby's words on coming out of the water. Dawson, Present State of Australia : 'Top bit, massa, bogy,' bathe and he threw himself into the water.

Yes, said Mr Dixon, any two of ye that can swim. Harris, Settlers and Convicts : In the cool of the evening had a 'bogie' bathe in the river. Flory was much puzzled till she found out that a 'bogey', in colonial phraseology, meant a bath. Mackenzie, Aurukun Diary : A bogey is the Queensland outback word for a bath or bathe. A bogey hole is a 'swimming or bathing hole'.

The verb is rare now in Australian English. For an earlier discussion of bogey see our Word of the Month article from February A wave that forms over a submerged offshore reef or rock, sometimes in very calm weather or at high tide merely swelling but in other conditions breaking heavily and producing a dangerous stretch of broken water. The word is now commonly used for the reef or rock itself. Horrobin Guide to Favourite Australian Fish ed. Bombora probably derives from the Aboriginal Sydney Language where it may have referred specifically to the current off Dobroyd Head, Port Jackson.

Used allusively to refer to a hasty departure or speedy action. Bondi is the Sydney suburb renowned worldwide for its surf beach. Trams last ran on the line in , but the phrase has remained a part of Australian English. Bonzer is an adjective meaning 'surpassingly good, splendid, great'. In the early records the spelling bonzer alternates with bonser , bonza , and bonzor. The adjective, noun, and adverb are all recorded from the early years of the 20th century:.

Yuong Jack Hansen undertook to sit him but failed at every attempt. Jack states he got a 'bonza on the napper', at one time when thrown. Cable By Blow and Kiss : Came back grinning widely, with the assurance that it [ sc. A fool or simpleton; a stupid person; an uncouth person. Boofhead derives from buffle-headed 'having a head like a buffalo' OED and bufflehead 'a fool, blockhead, stupid fellow' OED.

Bufflehead has disappeared from standard English, but survives in its Australian form boofhead. It was popularised by the use of boofhead as the name of a dimwitted comic strip character invented by R. Clark and introduced in the Sydney Daily Mail in May For an earlier discussion of the word see our Word of the Month article from December We get their boofheads so they can have ours. Boomerang is an Australian word which has moved into International English. The word was borrowed from an Aboriginal language in the early years of European settlement, but the exact language is still uncertain.

Early evidence suggests it was borrowed from a language in, or just south of, the Sydney region. While the spelling boomerang is now standard, in the early period the word was given a variety of spellings: bomerang , bommerang , bomring , boomereng , boomering , bumerang [etc]. The Australian Aboriginal boomerang is a crescent-shaped wooden implement used as a missile or club, in hunting or warfare, and for recreational purposes.

The best-known type of boomerang , used primarily for recreation, can be made to circle in flight and return to the thrower. Although boomerang -like objects were known in other parts of the world, the earliest examples and the greatest diversity of design is found in Australia. A specimen of a preserved boomerang has been found at Wyrie Swamp in South Australia and is dated at 10, years old.

Boomerangs were not known throughout the entirety of Australia, being absent from the west of South Australia, the north Kimberley region of Western Australia, north-east Arnhem Land, and Tasmania. In some regions boomerangs are decorated with designs that are either painted or cut into the wood. Very early in Australian English the term boomerang was used in transferred and figurative senses, especially with reference to something which returns to or recoils upon its author. These senses are now part of International English, but it is interesting to look at the earliest Australian evidence for the process of transfer and figurative use:.

By the s the verbal sense developed another meaning: 'to return in the manner of a boomerang; to recoil upon the author ; to ricochet'. Australia's a big country An' Freedom's humping bluey And Freedom's on the wallaby Oh don't you hear her Cooee, She's just begun to boomerang She'll knock the tyrants silly. On 13 November the Canberra Times reported that 'Greg Chappell's decision to send England in appeared to have boomeranged'.

These verbal senses of boomerang have also moved into International English. For a further discussion of boomerang see the article 'Boomerang, Boomerang, Thou Spirit of Australia! The phrase is first recorded in the s. A tax avoidance scheme. In the late s a large number of bottom of the harbour schemes were operating in corporate Australia.

The term is usually used attributively.

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Hyland Diamond Dove : The feller in the dock was some fabulous creature - part lawyer, part farmer - who'd been caught in a bottom-of-the-harbour tax avoidance scheme. An employee responsible for maintaining the outer fences on a station, or a publicly owned vermin-proof fence. This sense of boundary rider is recorded from the s but in more recent years, as a result of changes in technology and modes of transport, this occupation has become relatively rare. Since the s the term has been used of a boundary umpire in Australian Rules Football, a cricketer in a fielding position near the boundary, and a roving reporter at a sporting game.

For a more detailed discussion of the original sense of boundary rider and the later sporting senses see our Word of the Month article from December McGinnis Tracking North : Mechanisation had finally reached the open-range country. There were no more pumpers or boundary riders. Be the unlikely winner of an event; to win an event coming from well behind.

For a detailed discussion of this phrase see our blog 'Doing a Bradbury: an Aussie term born in the Winter Olympics' which includes a video of Bradbury's famous win , and our Word of the Month article from August The Socceroos need some of that luck. The practice of improperly increasing the membership of a local branch of a political party in order to ensure the preselection of a particular candidate.

The term is a specific use of branch meaning 'a local division of a political party'. While the practice described by branch stacking has been around for a very long time, the word itself is first recorded in the s. Leaving immediately; making a hasty departure; at full speed. It is likely that this expression was first used in horseracing to refer to a horse that moved very quickly out of the starting gates. Bray Blossom : 'Come on youse blokes! First sign of a better offer and they are off like a bride's nightie. An invitation to bring a plate of food to share at a social gathering or fundraiser.

There are many stories of new arrivals in Australia being bamboozled by the instruction to bring a plate. As the locals know, a plate alone will not do. In earlier days the request was often ladies a plate , sometimes followed by gentlemen a donation. Ladies bring a plate. Please bring a plate. All welcome. A wild horse. The origin for this term is still disputed. Curr in Australian Race gives booramby meaning 'wild' in the language of the Pitjara or Pidjara or Bidjara people of the region at the headwaters of the Warrego and Nogoa Rivers in south-western Queensland.

This is in the general location of the earliest evidence, but the language evidence has not been subsequently confirmed. This origin was popularised by Paterson in an introduction to his poem 'Brumby's run' printed in A common suggestion is that brumby derives from the proper name Brumby. This theory was also noted by E. Morris in Austral English in 'A different origin was, however, given by an old resident of New South Wales, to a lady of the name Brumby, viz. Over the years, various Messrs Brumby have been postulated as the origin. More recently, Dymphna Lonergan suggested that the word comes from Irish word bromaigh , the plural form of the word for a young horse, or colt.

McGinnis Wildhorse Creek : The country's rotten with brumbies. A forlorn hope; no prospect whatever. One explanation for the origin of the term is that it comes from the name of the convict William Buckley, who escaped from Port Phillip in and lived for 32 years with Aboriginal people in southern Victoria. A second explanation links the phrase to the Melbourne firm of Buckley and Nunn established in , suggesting that a pun developed on the 'Nunn' part of the firm's name with 'none' and that this gave rise to the formulation 'there are just two chances, Buckley's and none'.

This second explanation appears to have arisen after the original phrase was established. For an earlier discussion about the origin of the term buckley's chance see the article 'Buckley's' in our Ozwords newsletter.

Meanings and origins of Australian words and idioms

It should have been Buckley. Olympus explains that he altered it because he didn't want the Fitzroy men to have 'Buckley's chance'. A pair of close-fitting male swimming briefs made of stretch fabric. The Australian term is probably a variation of the international English grape smugglers for such a garment. The term is a jocular allusion to the appearance of the garment. Budgie smugglers is first recorded in the late s. For a more detailed discussion of the word see our Word of the Month article from December That, and a thin pair of Speedos so figure-hugging you can see every goosebump - flimsy togs that are known not-all-that-affectionately by us Brown boys as budgie smugglers!

A kind of fine powdery dirt or dust, often found in inland Australia. Roads or tracks covered with bulldust may be a hazard for livestock and vehicles, which can become bogged in it. It is probably called bulldust because it resembles the soil trampled by cattle in stockyards. The word can also be used as a polite way of saying bullshit. Both senses of the word are first recorded in the s.

This 'bull' dust might be about two feet deep, and cakes on the surface, so that it is hard to penetrate. I told him that nothing would get within a 'bull's roar' of Agricolo to interfere with him, and such was the case. The term is often found in this phrasal form where it now has several meanings: 'to be financially bankrupt, to come to nought; to fail, to collapse, to break down'.

These figurative senses of bung emerged in the late 19th century. An amphibious monster supposed to inhabit inland waterways. Descriptions of it vary greatly. Some give it a frightful human head and an animal body. Many descriptions emphasise its threat to humans and its loud booming at night. It inhabits inland rivers, swamps, and billabongs.

The word comes from the Aboriginal Wathaurong language of Victoria. Bunyip is first recorded in the s. For a more detailed discussion of this word see the article 'There's a Bunyip Close behind us and he's Treading on my Tail' in our Ozwords newsletter. Venture an attempt; give something a try. This is an Australian alteration of the standard English phrase give it a whirl.

In addition, in an instrumental variable analysis of national data in France, Goux and Maurin showed that the probability of having to repeat a grade among year-olds was strongly linked to overcrowding in the household. Parental perceptions of residential crowding were inversely associated with positive social behavior amongst 3- to month-old Burundian refugee children living in the United States McAteer, Less parental monitoring is a well-documented predictor of behavioral conduct disorders, including juvenile delinquency.

Parents in both Singapore Hassan, and Hong Kong Mitchell, noted greater difficulties monitoring their children as a function of household crowding, and in the former case this appeared to contribute to greater juvenile delinquency rates. Greater family conflict and tension have been reported among crowded Indian and Thai families Evans et al. In a survey of parenting values conducted in 34 low- and middle-income countries around the globe, Cappa and Kahn documented a relatively consistent link between household crowding and maternal endorsement of the need for physical punishment in child rearing.

In high-income countries both children and parents report more strained, negative familial interactions in high-density homes Evans, , as well as instances of elevated punitive parenting practices. Children in more crowded preschools and elementary schools also evidence more aggressive behaviors towards their classmates Evans, One of the factors believed to drive part of the crowding — aggression link is conflict over scarce resources such as toys Evans, One of the ways in which crowded family members appear to cope with crowding is to socially withdraw from one another, which can have the unintended consequence of diminishing socially supportive relationships Evans et al.

A number of studies, including some with random assignment, have shown that crowded children tend to be more socially withdrawn Evans, Parents in more crowded homes are also typically less responsive to their children Evans, Given greater social withdrawal among children in high-density homes and lower levels of parental responsiveness in similar situations, some investigators have explored whether crowding might also be linked to psychological distress among children. As indicated above, there is already evidence of elevated rates of aggression, withdrawal, and behavioral conduct disorders such as juvenile delinquency.

A small number of studies in North America and Europe have shown that children in more crowded homes have higher levels of psychological distress Evans, This effect has been produced in a laboratory experiment on crowding and persistence on puzzles, and at least two field studies showed a dose-response function between residential density and learned helplessness Evans, In a study of to year-old Indian children, Evans et al.

SES was included as a statistical control. For girls but not boys, density was also related to learned helplessness. Family conflict partially mediated these relationships. The authors also found that resting blood pressure was elevated among more crowded boys, but not girls. The paucity of research on duration of exposure is unfortunate, particularly in thinking about the maturation of developing processes over time.

Bronfenbrenner also argued that proximal processes need to be reciprocal between the child and her surroundings and become progressively more complex as she matures. Most studies use parental or observer ratings of levels of structures and routines coupled with indications of noise, crowding, and various other interruptions of household activities to evaluate levels of chaos. Evans and Wachs , in a recent volume on chaos and child development, provide an in-depth discussion of the measurement of chaos. Chaos has been linked, primarily in cross-sectional studies in North America, to academic achievement and socioemotional development, including behavioral conduct difficulties and symptoms of internalization e.

No relations between chaos and cognitive development were found. Poverty, substandard housing, and slum dwellings without security of legal tenure often lead to excessive residential mobility. In addition, students and teachers in classes with high levels of mobility face considerable challenges because of the instability of their members.

Early childhood residential instability can also influence developmental trajectories. Bures , using a nationally representative sample of middle-aged American adults found that more frequent moves during childhood were associated with poorer mental health and more strained social relationships in midlife, independent of race, income, and education. In the global South, residential mobility is high, particularly for low-income families living in urban areas Bartlett et al. Further, children whose families are evicted from their homes in a violent manner may experience trauma.

The HOME scale and its variants, however, primarily consist of indices of parent-child interactions, with fewer items focused on the physical environment. In addition, although the HOME has been widely used in various cultural contexts, the scale as a whole, and the physical environment items in particular, may not adequately assess the full range of physical affordances offered by housing for children, particularly in the global South Hayes, ; Iltus, ; Ngorosho, In this section, we focus on what is currently known regarding the effects of housing type, physical housing quality, and the availability of resources for children, such as books and toys in the home.

Research on housing type in more affluent countries has focused primarily on the potential developmental implications of high-rise housing. One study showed that the effects held only for boys, which could also explain the mixed set of findings since most studies have not investigated gender differences in response to high-rise housing Saegert, Several studies in high-income countries have found that children and youth in high-rise buildings manifest greater levels of behavioral conduct disorders e.

However, these differences were not significant for kindergartners. These findings largely mirror those in Western contexts Evans, ; Evans et al. In a study of families living in high- versus low-rise apartments in Israel, Churchman and Ginsberg similarly found that the outdoor play behavior of 4- to 5-year-old children living in high-rises was more restricted than that of other children, although it should be noted that these effects were not found at other ages within the range of 2—13 years.

In the global South, housing type is inextricably connected to housing quality. There is little research investigating the impacts of housing type alone. Further, the variations in housing type are somewhat different from those in the global North, with high-rise dwellings being uncommon.

However, there is some evidence that a high percentage of families, particularly low-income families in urban areas, live in informal housing, and that such housing often lacks basic amenities such as access to clean water Bartlett et al. The implications of an unclean water supply have already been discussed above. In addition, informal housing is typically unstable, and children living in such areas frequently face eviction and therefore frequent residential mobility Bartlett et al.

In addition, children living in informal housing may be more vulnerable to injury, and are more likely to be exposed to toxins from industrial waste. For example, a recent survey in Delhi found that only For those in school, homelessness has significant impacts on school performance and socioemotional well being Hicks-Coolick et al. In addition, there is some evidence that indigenous populations in Australia, for example, are disproportionately exposed to substandard housing Dockery et al.

There is a desperate need for further work in this area. A small number of studies in North America and Europe have examined housing quality and cognitive development. A few, including a large national British cohort, reveal that, independent of SES, children living in substandard housing have lower academic competency Evans, , Evans et al. Dunifon, Duncan and Brooks-Gunn , using a US national data set, also showed that residential clutter during childhood predicted adult educational attainment. A number of cross-sectional studies in North America and Europe show that children living in substandard housing suffer from greater psychological distress Evans, ; Evans et al.

Nearly all of these studies incorporate statistical controls for SES, and the effects replicate in longitudinal studies examining changes in housing quality cf. In a cross-sectional study, low-income primary school children living in substandard housing coupled with noise and crowding had higher levels of overnight stress hormones e.

In a second, longitudinal study, low-SES children residing in lower quality housing had elevated cortisol over their first four years of life Blair et al. Differences were already present at 7 months of age. An important conceptual limitation of North American and European research is the rather limited range of variation in housing quality.

In it was estimated that more than half the housing units in Zimbabwe, In , Substandard living conditions lead to higher levels of exposure to lead and other toxins, air pollutants and pests Govender et al. Such constraints are not unfounded: Dal Santo et al. In rural sub-Saharan African contexts, limited space renders household items like kerosene easily accessible for children, and open fires for heating and cooking pose a serious injury risk Munro et al.

Space and furnishings e. This effect may partially be explained by the fact that the provision of separate, soft, cozy areas for children may both offer comfort and help regulate social interaction. Such processes may help counter some of the negative effects of crowding and institutionalization on children. In addition, separate, enclosed areas with comfortable furnishings provide a more homey, and less institutional, setting for young children Evans, ; Greenman, ; Olds, ; Sanoff, One useful data source may be the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey MICS , an international household survey that has been implemented across a large number of countries in the global South.

However, the availability of such materials is seldom disentangled from parent-child interactions in the literature. Nevertheless, there is a strong relation between income and the provision of both stimulating materials and experiences for young children from birth through adolescence e. There is much debate over what constitutes appropriate learning materials in the home, particularly cross- culturally Bornstein et al.

The availability of other material resources in the home is likewise limited. Similarly, Hamadani et al. Unfortunately, continual innovation in the design of schools and classrooms throughout the world is typically not based on evidence, instead reflecting current trends in architecture and design Lackney, Much of instructional facility innovation at present is driven by the infusion of information technology into learning environments. Although this practice has some potential benefits, we simply do not know how to train teachers and designers in the use and configuration of learning environments to take advantage of the affordances offered by information technology in schools.

This explosion of learning technologies in the West inevitably will be transported to the global South. Most research in the US and Europe on the physical characteristics of educational settings has focused on open versus traditional plan configurations Evans, There is a large body of research on school and classroom size. Because nearly all of this work has been conducted within the US and Western Europe, we do not know what happens when much larger scale schools or bigger classrooms occur. Although there is some variation across regions, primary school pupil-teacher ratios PTRs in the global South are typically much higher than those in the global North.

Students in smaller schools in the US and Western Europe perform slightly better on standardized tests and feel more connected to their school Evans, There is also some evidence that smaller classrooms support more student- as opposed to teacher-directed learning and, similar to school size, are associated with more socially supportive settings Blatchford, ; NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, It is worth noting that both school and classroom size are confounded with crowding. Work on household size and density shows that the critical variable is density, not family size Evans, A surprisingly large number of school spaces for American children are in disrepair.

Estimates were much higher for the majority of other participating countries, including the United Kingdom, Norway, Turkey, Uruguay and the Slovak Republic. In the global South, the majority of rural schools in particular have inadequate building facilities, including a lack of finished flooring Glewwe et al. In many countries, half to two thirds of schools lack electricity, water, and basic sanitation facilities UNICEF, However, assessments of building quality conducted by independent raters e.

Further strengthening these conclusions are several studies comparing performance before and after building improvements Evans, In two recent studies utilizing the New York City school facilities building quality database, Duran-Narucki showed that the significant association between these expert rating measures of school building quality and academic achievement in elementary school children was largely mediated by attendance. Given that nearly all of the research on school facility quality and student performance emanates from wealthy countries where the range of school quality is truncated, this is an area of particular importance to examine in the global South where the range of quality is considerably broader.

In high-income countries, where lighting is typically sufficient, research has focused more on potential benefits of exposure to natural light. Poorly maintained heating and ventilation systems as well as low levels of indoor:outdoor air exchange exacerbate these adverse indoor climate impacts on children Evans, Although work in this area in the global South is limited, similar impacts of poor quality ventilation and heating would be expected. Several studies have shown that poor quality school physical conditions adversely influence teacher satisfaction and retention Buckley et al.

However, frequently these physical environment factors are correlated with each other and with other physical and psychosocial factors such as class size, building quality and teacher training, and so it can be difficult to clearly identify key factors impacting child outcomes. In addition, the mechanism explaining learning outcomes is somewhat unclear; perhaps the availability of these resources partly signals a commitment on the part of the school administration and relevant local and national government agencies to quality education Glewwe et al.

Nevertheless, a number of carefully controlled studies across multiple contexts document the importance of having a desk, chair and textbook per student. In preschool and childcare settings across the global South, there is a growing interest in improving the quality of both physical and psychosocial environments for children Engle et al. However, as part of a preschool intervention program in rural Bangladesh, Moore, Akhter and Aboud implemented a series of changes, including increasing the availability of learning materials for reading and mathematical problem-solving.

However, it should be noted that the Activities subscale does not separate the availability of learning materials from their use. In addition, many researchers in the global South debate the applicability of the ECERS-R in evaluating childcare and preschool quality in non-Western contexts Aboud, ; Moore et al. Physical characteristics of these environments include high levels of air and water pollutants; nonexistent or inadequate collection of household waste; poor drainage; poor sanitation; proximity to busy street traffic; and limited or absent access to childhood resources such as open green space, grocery stores, schools and hospitals and play space e.

Many of these neighborhoods are also unsafe because of high traffic volumes and limited street lighting e. The situation is similar in high-income countries. In nearly all of the extant research, neighborhood quality is defined by the socioeconomic profile of the population. Two areas of neighborhood physical environment that are receiving considerable attention because of the obesity epidemic are access to places for physical activity and proximity to healthy food sources.

In all three contexts, children aged 10—15 years reported a keen awareness of the physical quality of their neighborhood environments, noting specific aspects of these environments e. Other work in low-income countries has similarly documented the importance of play spaces and access to natural settings for children e. However, little work has specifically investigated the impacts of natural settings on the cognitive and socioemotional development of children in the global South.

Psychological distress in adults is a central risk factor for healthy parenting. Evaluations of outdoor nature experiences such as Outward Bound in high-income countries reveal consistent, positive associations with psychological well being Hattie et al. Part of the apparent psychological benefits of access to outdoor play areas is likely related to enhanced physical activity, which has been consistently linked in both children and adults to proximate, outdoor recreational spaces Evans et al. In a recent WHO study of approximately 6- to year-olds residing in eight European cities, the well-documented, inverse relation between household income and childhood obesity was explained, in part, by proximity to open green space.

Children from wealthier households had greater access to open green spaces, which in turn was linked to higher levels of physical activity. The latter largely accounted for the inverse, household income — body mass index correlation Evans et al. Thus some of the benefits of nearby nature for children may also operate via their parents.

As can be seen upon reviewing the current state of the evidence on the physical environment and child development, very little work has documented the impacts of environmental conditions on the development of children growing up in the global South and other low-income countries. This is unfortunate for many reasons. What we do know suggests that the physical environment experienced by children impacts their cognitive and socioemotional development across the lifespan, from the prenatal period through adulthood. The development of interventions to improve the physical environments experienced by children across the globe is thus warranted.

Interventions would also offer tremendous research opportunities to examine how environmental improvements can change developmental trajectories. This would also help address perhaps the major methodological weakness in most work on children and the physical environment: potential selection bias.

Comparisons between children living in different environmental conditions nearly always face the alternative explanation that some individual characteristic rather than environmental conditions might be the root cause of developmental changes. Another critical reason for studying children in the global South and elsewhere outside of high-income countries is the severely restricted range of environmental conditions typically monitored in research on child settings in North America and Western Europe.

Essentially every single environmental factor reviewed herein exists in a substantially greater range in low-income countries. However, the impacts on socioemotional functioning are less certain. In addition, the documented evidence for impacts of noise, crowding and chaos on the cognitive and socioemotional development of children growing up in the global South is tentative at best. And, across the globe, the impacts of individual aspects of the physical environment of housing, schools and neighborhoods are unclear, primarily because multiple factors tend to be correlated.

This is especially true for low-income families, underfunded schools and poor neighborhoods in both the global North and South, where poverty is frequently associated with multiple environmental risks Evans, ; Ferguson et al. It is also important to recognize that when cumulative, environmental insults have been studied, they typically reveal worse outcomes than singular environmental risks De Fur et al.

We thus focus here on outlining key steps involved in utilizing this framework to better understand and address the impacts of the physical environment on the cognitive and socioemotional development of children living in multiple contexts. We summarize the evidence to date below, while at the same time considering when the methodologies employed in related work are appropriate for filling in the gaps in the research literature, and when they are not.

When they are not, it is important to identify what is currently known in a particular context, for example identifying relevant country-level statistics and databases. Where possible, those leverage points most susceptible to change should be noted. Third, all of this information can be incorporated into an overarching bioecocultural framework, as outlined above, that identifies all known and hypothesized factors influencing a particular developmental outcome e.

Once this is done, interdisciplinary, international research teams should develop and implement a collaborative research program to test the model, with a specific focus on filling in the gaps in the research literature in understudied contexts, namely the global South. In fact, ideally relevant individuals and communities should be involved in every stage outlined above.

This will ensure that similarities and differences between contexts are adequately considered. Finally, in collaboration with all of these important constituents, key leverage points can be confirmed and leveraged in implementing a holistic program of reform that will effectively address current environmental inequalities, so as to ensure healthy developmental outcomes for all children. The limited evidence to date indicates that this is the case. Further work on factors impacting socioemotional development is warranted, however, especially in the global South.

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However, given the limited work in this area, particularly in considering socioemotional development, these predictions need to be tested more thoroughly in low-income countries. In terms of home and school environments, adequate building quality seems essential, but determining what this should entail in differing contexts is challenging. Home, classroom and school designs that reduce chaos may be particularly important. In addition, adequate lighting and comfortable climatic conditions temperature, indoor air quality are important for effective learning in school environments.

Finally, the availability of key material and learning resources in both home and school environments appears to be particularly important for cognitive development, but the specific resources needed in differing contexts is unclear. Further work in this area is needed.

Likewise, although it is clear that children growing up in low-income neighborhoods in both the global North and South encounter numerous disadvantages that impact their cognitive and socioemotional development, little is currently known regarding the specific components of the physical environment of neighborhoods impacting these developmental outcomes.

Neighborhood physical quality is the most understudied aspect of the environmental characteristics discussed herein. An important caveat at this point is that the majority of the work discussed in this review, with a few notable exceptions discussed throughout , employs environmental and outcome measures developed in the West. Yet the specific components of the physical environment impacting child development in the global South may differ from those in the global North, as we have noted throughout.

The questionnaires developed for the MICS, an international household survey, may be a useful beginning. The involvement of key stakeholders living within each context studied will also be essential in this process. In order for these processes to be effective, they need to occur on a regular, sustained basis and become increasingly complex as the child matures. Given this, a starting point for identifying key leverage points is the identification of environmental factors that clearly interrupt proximal processes for children.

As we have discussed above, housing and school design may also contribute towards chaos, particularly when a large number of people live or study in a small number of open plan rooms. In addition, schools and neighborhoods characterized by high residential instability may contribute towards chaos at the macro level. We have noted above that one of the unintended consequences of various coping strategies for dealing with crowding, noise, and chaos may be deteriorations in socially supportive relationships and less responsive parenting. The design of spaces, not simply the presence of stressors like chaos, can also influence interpersonal relationships, thus affording or inhibiting ease of interpersonal interactions.

For example, are typical travel routes likely to lead to unplanned, impromptu interactions? Are there spaces that people feel comfortable spending time in such as cafes and common facilities e. In addition to proximal processes such as parent-child interactions e. One of the common qualities of many of the suboptimal physical settings children encounter is their uncontrollability. Some of the ways in which physical settings can influence mastery include: uncontrollable stressors such as noise and crowding; highly unpredictable and variable conditions such as chaos; the degree of inflexibility and regimentation of settings such as school; the scale and manipulability of settings for children; and design and planning features that afford crime, such as undifferentiated spaces lacking in ownership and defensibility.

Fascination or the experience of involuntary attention e. When children and their parents encounter various suboptimal environments, they often adapt strategies, be they behavioral, cognitive, or both, to right the balance between environmental demands and human comfort and well being. These adjustments and adaptations to the environment, in and of themselves, can lead to developmental changes.

For example, parents who cope with too much unwanted social interaction by withdrawing from their children are likely to be less responsive. The impact of the environment on adult caregivers is a particularly important underlying process to consider. Parents in crowded homes are typically less responsive and less patient Evans et al. The stress and anxiety engendered by knowledge of toxic exposures or parental struggles with substandard housing are bound to translate into less than ideal parent-child interactions.

One key leverage point for both cognitive and socioemotional development that might be further studied and then addressed is chaos. Interventions could include building sound barriers to block out aircraft and traffic noise, relocating homes and schools further from busy highways and airports, and redesigning open plan homes and classrooms to include quiet, secluded spaces for children. Low-income urban children may be at particular risk for interruption of play processes Chawla, ; Milteer et al.

Thus building safe, green play spaces for low-income and other children across the global North and South will likely have a particularly positive impact on their cognitive and socioemotional development. In low-income and highly mobile communities, these may provide a good alternative to constructing new playgrounds, and have the added advantage that they can take place both indoors and outdoors. Such spaces may also provide common ground for community members to have greater social interaction, forming networks of relationships.

The physical environments experienced by children have important impacts on their cognitive and socioemotional development. Yet the work to date documenting these impacts in the global South is limited. Such work should be led by an interdisciplinary, international team of researchers in collaboration with local and national government agencies and community members, including the children themselves.

This approach will allow us to more effectively intervene in the actual lived environments of both high- and low-income children across the globe. This research was supported in part by grants from the W. Grant Foundation and the John D. MacArthur Foundation. Special thanks to Jane Gorski for her help in locating and organizing reference materials and to Sheridan Bartlett for advice on this paper. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Int J Psychol. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jul 2. Kim T.

Ferguson , a Rochelle C. Cassells , b Jack W. MacAllister , a and Gary W. Evans b, c, d. Rochelle C. Jack W. Gary W. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Copyright notice.

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The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Int J Psychol. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Keywords: physical environment, child development, global South, chaos, Bronfenbrenner. Toxins and pollutants Lead Needleman et al. Pesticides Research on the developmental impacts of direct residential pesticide exposure or indirect prenatal or occupational exposure on the skin or clothing of exposed caregivers is somewhat limited.

Water pollution, sanitation and access Many families in the global South have limited access to clean water and sanitation facilities Bartlett, ; Bartlett et al. Noise Numerous studies in high-income countries reveal that chronic noise exposure early in childhood interferes with reading acquisition Evans, Crowding The most consistent crowding metric with human consequences is people per room.

Residential mobility Poverty, substandard housing, and slum dwellings without security of legal tenure often lead to excessive residential mobility. Housing type Research on housing type in more affluent countries has focused primarily on the potential developmental implications of high-rise housing. Schools and childcare Unfortunately, continual innovation in the design of schools and classrooms throughout the world is typically not based on evidence, instead reflecting current trends in architecture and design Lackney, School and classroom size There is a large body of research on school and classroom size.

Physical quality A surprisingly large number of school spaces for American children are in disrepair. Conclusions and future directions As can be seen upon reviewing the current state of the evidence on the physical environment and child development, very little work has documented the impacts of environmental conditions on the development of children growing up in the global South and other low-income countries.

Acknowledgments This research was supported in part by grants from the W. References Aboud FE. Evaluation of an early childhood preschool program in rural Bangladesh. Early Childhood Research Quarterly. Physical and psychosocial turmoil in the home and cognitive development. Environmental exposure to lead and mercury in Mexican children: A real health problem. Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods. Current Directions in Psychological Science.

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