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Soon after his return from Jerusalem, by the direction of the Holy Spirit, Saul and Barnabas left on their first missionary journey, lasting from 45 to 51 AD. The Apostles traveled throughout the entire island of Cyprus, and by the time Saul converted the proconsul Sergius Paulus, he was already known as Paul. In 51 AD, Saint Paul took part in the Apostolic Council in Jerusalem where he heatedly opposed the necessity for gentile Christians to follow the traditions of Mosaic law.

Returning to Antioch, Saint Paul in the company of Silas undertook his second missionary journey. At first he visited the churches that he had founded earlier in Asia Minor, and then crossed over to Macedonia, where he founded congregations in Philippi, Thessalonica, and Berea. In Lystra, Saint Paul gained his favorite pupil Timothy, and from Troas he continued the journey with the recently joined Apostle Luke. From Macedonia saint Paul crossed over into Greece, where he preached in Athens and Corinth, remaining in the latter city for one and a half years.

His 2 Epistles to the Thessalonians was sent from here. The second journey lasted from 51 to 54 AD. After a short stay in Antioch Saint Paul undertook his third missionary journey AD , at first visiting, according to his custom, churches that were founded earlier in Asia Minor, and then stopping at Ephesus, where he preached daily for two years in the school of Tyrannus.

He wrote his letter to the Galatians because of the insurgence of a faction of Judaists there and his first letter to the Corinthians because of the upsurge of agitators and also to respond to a letter to him from the Corinthians. A local riot, stirred up against Paul by a master silversmith named Demetrius, forced the Apostle to abandon Ephesus and leave for Macedonia Acts On the way he received news from Titus about the state of the Corinthian church and about the favorable reaction to his Epistle.

Consequently, he sent a second Epistle to the Corinthians from Macedonia with Titus.

4. The Pauline Epistles | yxicavicox.ml

Shortly after, he came to Corinth himself where he wrote a letter to the Romans, intending to later leave for Rome and further west, after going to Jerusalem. Bidding farewell to the Ephesian elders in Miletus, he arrived in Jerusalem. Because of a riot that sprung up against him, Paul was taken under guard by the Roman authorities and ended up in prison, at first under Proconsul Felix and then under his successor, Proconsul Festus. This happened in 59 AD. Because the Roman authorities held Paul in such a high esteem, he was able to preach freely. Thus end the details of his life in the Acts of the Apostles Acts 27 and In Rome Saint Paul wrote his letters to the Philippians with gratitude for the financial aid sent to him with Epaphroditus , to the Colossians, to the Ephesians, and to Philemon, a citizen of Colossus concerning his slave Onesimus, who had run away.

All three of these Epistles were written in 63 AD and were sent with Tychicus. The further fate of Apostle Paul is not known with any certainty. Some think that he stayed in Rome and by the orders of Nero died a martyr's death in 64 AD. But there is evidence that suggests that after a two year imprisonment, Paul was given his freedom and he took on a fourth missionary journey, which was indicated by his "Pastoral Epistles" to Timothy and Titus.

After defending his actions before the Senate and the Emperor, Saint Paul was freed from bondage so he could again travel to the east. Spending a long time on the island of Crete, he left his pupil Titus to ordain elders throughout all the cities Titus , which shows that Titus was ordained by Paul to be the bishop of the church in Crete. Later in his letter Paul instructs Titus on how to go about his duties as a bishop. From this letter it is clear that Paul intended to spend that winter of 64 in Nicopolis Titus , near his native Tarsus.

During the spring of 65 AD, he visited the rest of the churches in Asia Minor and in Miletus, he left the sick Trophimus. Earlier, the people in Jerusalem rioted against Paul because of Trophimus, bringing about Paul's first imprisonment 2 Tim. Whether Saint Paul went through Ephesus is not known. He said that the Ephesian elders would not see his face again Acts , although at the time, it appears that he ordained Timothy as bishop of the Ephesian church. Later the Apostle went through Troas, where he left his bishop's mantle the outer layer of liturgical clothing and books probably also liturgical books, 2 Tim.

Upon hearing about the strengthening of false teachings in Ephesus, he wrote his first letter to Timothy from there. After spending some time in Corinth 2 Tim. They arrived in Rome where in 66 AD, Peter remained while Paul continued further to the west, probably reaching Spain.

After his return to Rome, he was imprisoned for the second time , where he remained until his death. There is a tradition that upon his return to Rome, he preached at the very door of the emperor Nero and converted his favorite concubine to Christ. For this he was condemned and even though by God's mercy - in his own words - he was "delivered from the lion's mouth," that is from being devoured by animals in the circus 1 Tim.

During this second imprisonment he wrote his second letter to Timothy in Ephesus, inviting him to Rome for a last meeting, sensing death was at hand. Tradition doesn't say whether Timothy managed to find his teacher alive, but it does say that the Apostle did not have to wait long for his martyr's crown. After a nine-month imprisonment he was beheaded as a Roman citizen, not far from Rome. This happened in 67 AD during the 12th year of Nero's reign.


A general observation of Apostle Paul's life shows that it is sharply divided into two halves. Before his conversion to Christ, Saint Paul then Saul was a strict Pharisee, fulfiller of the law of Moses and the traditions of his fathers, thinking that he could be justified by the works of the law and his zeal for the faith of his fathers, reaching even fanaticism. After his conversion, he became an Apostle of Christ, totally committed to the task of spreading the gospel, fortunate in his calling, yet recognizing his own impotence for fulfilling this eminent ministry and attributing all of his deeds and merits to the grace of God.

All of Paul's life before his conversion was driven by a deep conviction toward deviation and sin, which led him towards condemnation instead of justification, and only the mercy of God saved him from this destructive delinquency. From that moment on, Saint Paul tries to be worthy of God's grace and not turn away from his calling. Therefore there cannot be any talk of personal merit - all of it was God's doing. All of Saint Paul's teachings revealed in his Epistles, being a full reflection of his life, carry this very fundamental thought: man is justified by faith, independent of deeds of the law Romans However, it cannot be concluded from this that Apostle Paul rejects any significance of good deeds See for example Gal.

According to his Epistles, the understanding of "works of the law" does not mean "good deeds" in general, but ritualistic observance of the Mosaic Law. It must be remembered that during the time of his evangelistic work, Paul needed to carry out a bitter struggle against the opposition of the Judaists and Judean Christians. Upon becoming Christians, many of the Judaists held the view that it too was necessary for Christians to strictly observe all the ceremonial instructions of Mosaic Law. They deluded themselves with conceited notions that Christ came to earth to save the Jews only, and therefore gentiles wanting to be saved, needed to undertake circumcision and observe all of the Jewish rituals.

This delusion impeded the spread of Christianity among the gentiles so strongly, that the Apostles were obliged to convene in 51 AD the Jerusalem Council, which removed the requirements of the ceremonial decrees of the law of Moses for Christians.

However, even after this Council, many Judean Christians continued to stubbornly hold to their former views and as a consequence, split from the Church by establishing their own heretical society. These heretics opposed Apostle Paul personally and injected disturbances into the life of any church, where Paul was absent. That's why Saint Paul needed to continually underline in his Epistles that Christ was the Savior of all humanity - for Jews just as well as for gentiles - and that a person was not saved by fulfilling the ceremonial deeds of the law, but only through faith in Christ.

Unfortunately, Luther and his successors - the Protestants - distorted these thoughts of Apostle Paul, because to them Paul had repudiated the importance of every good deed for salvation. If this were so, then he would not have written in his first Epistle to the Corinthians in the 13th chapter that "if I have a faith that can move mountains, but have not love, I am nothing" 1 Cor. On the basis of credible witnesses, the common voice of the Church attributes fourteen Epistles to Apostle Paul's authorship, which appear in the Bible in the following order:.

The Epistles are not in any chronological order, but are arranged according to their significance and magnitude of their circulation, and by the relative importance of the Church and its people to whom they are addressed. The Epistles to the three individuals follow those Epistles to the seven Churches. The Epistle to the Hebrews is last because it was the last to be authenticated. Usually, Apostle Paul's Epistles are separated into two uneven groups: 1 Epistles of a general Christian nature and 2 Pastoral Epistles.

The Epistles to Timothy and Titus belong to the second category, because they indicate the basis and rules of good pastorship. Certain sections of Apostle Paul's Epistles gave rise to thoughts that he had written other Epistles that have not reached us eg.

What Are the Epistles?

While the correspondence with an unknown philosopher Seneka, brother of pro-consul Gallio as mentioned in Acts was attributed to Paul, this could not be authenticated. T he Epistles of Apostle Paul carries great importance in the composition of the New Testament, because it is in them that we find a deep and all-encompassing revelation and elucidation of the mysteries of the Gospel's teachings. Apart from Apostle Paul's individual, especially-loved mysteries of Christ's faith, for example: the meaning of the Old Testament law in relation to the New Testament, the corruption and decay of human nature, the only means of justification before God is through faith in Jesus Christ, it can be said that there is not one point in the whole of Christian dogma that did not have its beginnings and affirmation in his Epistles.

The bulk of the Epistles are structured on the one and only plan. They begin with a greeting to the readers and expression of gratitude to God for His providential activity about the place it is addressed to. Further on, the Epistle is usually divided into two parts - religious instructions doctrinal and moral directives. In conclusion, the Apostle touches upon private matters, charges persons with commissions, discusses his personal circumstances, expresses his kind wishes and sends greetings of peace and love.

His language is lively and bright - reminiscent of the ancient Prophets, and reflects a profound understanding of the Old Testament. B ecause the opportunity to give a more detailed account of St. Paul's many faceted Christian teachings is constrained by time and space, we will limit ourselves to citing extracts from his Epistles, which are essentially of a moral nature. As we will see in them, the Apostle explains what constitutes a true spiritual life - that what every Christian should strive for. For convenience sake, we bring these excerpts by subject order - in alphabetical sequence - so that the reader may easily refer to them in Apostle Paul's Epistles.

For you did not receive the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you received the Spirit of adoption, by whom we cry out, 'Abba, Father. But the manifestation of the Spirit is given to each one for the profit of all: for to one is given the word of wisdom through the Spirit, to another the word of knowledge through the same Spirit, to another faith by the same Spirit, to another gifts of healings by the same Spirit, to another the working of miracles, to another prophecy, to another discerning of spirits, to another different kinds of tongues, to another the interpretation of tongues.

But one and the same Spirit works all these things, distributing to each one individually as He wills" 1 Cor. See also: Rom.

About attitudes toward riches : "Let your conduct be without covetousness; be content with such things as you have. For He Himself has said, 'I will never leave you nor forsake you. See also: 1 Tim. Life is spiritual warfare : "Put on the whole armor of God, that you may be able to stand against the wiles of the devil. For we do not wrestle against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this age, against spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.

Therefore take up the whole amour of God, that you may be able to withstand in the evil day, and having done all, to stand. Stand therefore, having girded your waist with truth, having put on a breastplate of righteousness, and having shod your feet with the preparation of the gospel of peace; above all, taking the shield of faith with which you will be able to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one.

And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God" Ephes. The report of the resurrection appearance to the disciples develops into an extended discourse by Jesus, interrupted by questions from the disciples to which he replies. This discourse includes a prophecy of the conversion and missionary work of Paul ch. For example, a man should admonish his neighbor without respect of persons if he sees him sin, or he is himself liable to judgment. The revelation conveyed in the form of a post-resurrection discourse is similar in type to some Gnostic documents e.

On the other hand, it stands at some distance from the NT and primitive Christianity. The author was familiar with the gospel tradition, giving a special place to John, but his free handling of the gospels and his use of non-evangelical material suggest that they have not yet reached full canonical status.

Who Were the Romans Paul Wrote To?

The absence of evidence for knowledge of Pauline theology is remarkable in view of the place given to Paul. All this points to a 2nd cent. We said unto him: Now sayest thou unto us: I will come; and how sayest thou: He that sent me is he that shall come? Then said he to us: I am wholly in the Father and my Father is in me. Then said we to him: Wilt thou indeed forsake us until thy coming? Where can we find a master?

But he answered and said unto us: Know ye not, then, that like as until now I have been here, so also was I there, with him that sent me? And we said to him: Lord, is it then possible that thou shouldest be both here and there? But he answered us: I am wholly in the Father and the Father in me, because of in regard of the likeness of the form and the power and the fullness and the light and the full measure and the voice. I am the word, I am become unto him a thing, that is to say word gone of the thought, fulfilled in the type likeness ; I have into the Ogdoad eighth number , which is the Lord's day.

In place of these sentences Eth. I am his complete fulfilled, entire Word. It is an interpolation, in place of words which the translator did not understand, or found heretical.

But the whole fulfilment of the fulfilment shall ye see after the redemption which hath come to pass by me, and ye shall see me, how I go up unto my Father which is in heaven. But behold, now, I give unto you a new commandment: Love one another and [ a leaf lost in Copt. Love your enemies, and what ye would not that man do unto you, that do unto no man. Preach ye, and they shall obtain faith, that ye may be they for whom it is ordained that they shall bring his children unto heaven.

And we said unto him: Lord, unto thee it is possible to accomplish that whereof thou tellest us; but how shall we be able to do it? He said to us: Verily I say unto you, preach and proclaim as I command you , for I will be with you, for it is my good pleasure to be with you, that ye may be heirs with me in the kingdom of heaven, even the kingdom of him that sent me. Verily I say unto you, ye shall be my brethren and my friends, for my Father hath found pleasure in you: and so also shall they be that believe on me by your means. Verily I say unto you, such and so great joy hath my Father prepared for you that the angels and the powers desired and do desire to see it and look upon it; but it is not given unto them to behold the glory of my Father.

We said unto him: Lord, what is this whereof thou speakest to us? He answered us: Ye shall behold a light, more excellent than that which shineth And the Son shall become perfect through the Father who is Light, for the Father is perfect which bringeth to pass death and resurrection, and ye shall see a perfection more perfect than the perfect. And I am wholly at the right hand of the Father, even in him that maketh perfect.

So Eth. And we said unto him: Lord, in all things art thou become salvation and life unto us, for that thou makest known such a hope unto us. And he said to us: Be of good courage and rest in me. Verily I say unto you, your rest shall be above? Like as I am in him, so shall ye also be in me. Again we said unto him: In what form?

And he answered and said unto us: Lo, I have put on your flesh, wherein I was born and crucified, and am risen again through my Father which is in heaven, that the prophecy of David the prophet might be fulfilled, in regard of that which was declared concerning me and my death and resurrection, saying: Lord, they are increased that fight with me, and many are they that are risen up against me. Many there be that say to my soul: There is no help for him in his God. But thou, O Lord, art my defender: thou art my worship, and the lifter up of my head.

I did call upon the Lord with my voice and he heard me out of the high place of his temple, Eth. I laid me down and slept, and rose up again: for thou, O Lord, art my defender. I will not be afraid for ten thousands of the people, that have set themselves against me round about.

The Epistula Apostolorum

Up, Lord, and help me, O my God: for thou hast smitten down all them that without cause are mine enemies: thou hast broken the teeth of the ungodly. Salvation belongeth unto the Lord, and his good pleasure is upon his people Ps. If, therefore, all the words which were spoken by the prophets have been fulfilled in me for I myself was in them , how much more shall that which I say unto you come to pass indeed, that he which sent me may be glorified by you and by them that believe on me?

And he said unto us: I know that ye pay heed, and that your heart is well-pleased when ye hear me: now concerning that which ye desire, I will speak good words unto you. And so will I accomplish all dispensations all grace, Eth. Then said we unto him: Great is that which thou sufferest us to hope, and tellest us. And he answered and said: Believe ye that everything that I tell you shall come to pass? We answered and said: Yea, Lord. I follow Eth. He said unto us: Verily I say unto you, that I have obtained the whole power of my Father, that I may bring back into light them that dwell in darkness, them that are in corruption into incorruption, them that are in death into life, and that I may loose them that are in fetters.

For that which is impossible with men, is possible with the Father. I am the hope of them that despair, the helper of them that have no saviour, the wealth of the poor, thc health of the sick, and the resurrection of the dead. And he said unto us: Copt. Therefore must we needs inquire of thee. And we said unto him: Lord, is it then possible that that which is dissolved and brought to nought should become whole? And he was wroth with us and said: O ye of little faith, how long will ye ask questions?

But what ye will, tell it me, and I myself will tell you without grudging: only keep ye my commandments and do that which I bid you, and turn not away your face from any man, that I turn not my face away from you, but without shrinking and fear and without respect of persons, minister ye in the way that is direct and narrow and strait. So shall my Father himself rejoice over you. And he answered and said unto us: I know that in faith and with your whole heart ye do question me; therefore do I rejoice over you, for verily I say unto you: I rejoice, and my Father that is in me, because ye question me; and your importunity shamelessness is unto me rejoicing and unto you it giveth life.

And when he had so said unto us, we were glad that we had questioned him, and we said to him: Lord, in all things thou makest us alive and hast mercy on us. Wilt thou now declare unto us that which we shall ask thee? Then said he unto us: Is it the flesh that passeth away, or is it the spirit? We said unto him: The flesh is it that passeth away. Then said he unto us: That which hath fallen shall rise again, and that which was lost shall be found, and that which was weak shall recover, that in these things that are so created the glory of my Father may be revealed.

As he hath done unto me, so will I do unto all that believe in me. For my Father said unto me: My Son, in the day of judgement thou shalt have no respect for the rich, neither pity for the poor, but according to the sins of every man shalt thou deliver him unto everlasting torment. But unto my beloved that have done the commandments of my Father that sent me will I give the rest of life in the kingdom of my Father which is in heaven, and they shall behold that which he hath given me.

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And he hath given me authority to do that which I will, and to give that which I have promised and determined to give and grant unto them. But if any man believe on me and do not my commandments, although he have confessed my name, he hath no profit therefrom but runneth a vain race: for such will find themselves in perdition and destruction, because they have despised my commandments. For that which I have promised unto you will I give unto them also, that they may come out of the prison-house and the fetters of the rulers.

Then said he unto us: Verily I say unto you, all that have believed on me and that believe in him that sent me will I take up into the heaven, unto the place which my Father hath prepared for the elect, and I will give you the kingdom, the chosen kingdom, in rest, and everlasting life. We said unto him: Lord, shall there then be teaching by others, diverse from that which thou hast spoken unto us? He said unto us: It must needs be, that the evil and the good may be made manifest; and the judgement shall be manifest upon them that do these things, and according to their works shall they be judged and shall be delivered unto death.

Again we said unto him: Lord, blessed are we in that we see thee and hear thee declaring such things, for our eyes have beheld these great wonders that thou hast done. He answered and said unto us: Yea, rather blessed are they that have not seen and yet have believed, for they shall be called children of the kingdom, and they shall be perfect among the perfect, and I will be unto them life in the kingdom of my Father. Again we said unto him: Lord, how shall men be able to believe that thou wilt depart and leave us; for thou sayest unto us: There shall come a day and an hour when I shall ascend unto my Father?

But we said unto him: Lord, who will believe us, or hearken unto us, or how shall we be able, Eth. Then answered he and said to us: Go ye and preach the mercifulness of my Father, and that which he hath done through me will I myself do through you, for I am in you, and I will give you my peace, and I will give you a power of my spirit, that ye may prophesy to them unto life eternal.

And unto the others also will I give my power, that they may teach the residue of the peoples. Six leaves lost in Copt. And his eyes shall be blinded, and by your hands by the sign of the cross shall they be protected healed: other Eth. Do ye unto him all that I have done unto you. Deliver it? And at the same time that man shall open his eyes and praise the Lord, even my Father which is in heaven. He shall obtain power among the people and shall preach and instruct; and many that hear him shall obtain glory and be redeemed.

But thereafter shall men be wroth with him and deliver him into the hands of his enemies, and he shall bear witness before kings that are mortal, and his end shall be that he shall turn unto me, whereas he persecuted me at the first. He shall preach and teach and abide with the elect, as a chosen vessel and a wall that shall not be overthrown, yea , the last of the last shall become a preacher unto the Gentiles, made perfect by the will of my Father. Like as ye have learned from the Scripture that your fathers the prophets spake of me, and in me it is indeed fulfilled.

And he said unto us: Be ye also therefore guides unto them; and all things that I said unto you, and that ye write concerning me tell ye them , that I am the word of the Father and that the Father is in me. Such also shall ye be unto that man, as becometh you. Instruct him and bring to his mind that which is spoken of me in the Scripture and is fulfilled, and thereafter shall he become the salvation of the Gentiles. He answered and said unto us: Are then the fingers of the hand like unto each other, or the ears of corn in the field, or do all fruit-trees bear the same fruit?

Doth not every one bear fruit according to its nature? And we said unto him: Lord, wilt thou again speak unto us in parables? Then said he unto us: Lament not. Verily I say unto you, ye are my brethren, and my companions in the kingdom of heaven unto my Father, for so is his good pleasure. Verily I say unto you, unto them also whom ye teach and who believe on me will I give that expectation. He answered and said unto us: That man will come out of the land of Cilicia unto Damascus of Syria, to root up the church which ye must found there.

It is I that speak through you; and he shall come quickly: and he shall become strong in the faith, that the word of the prophet may be fulfilled, which saith: Behold, out of Syria will I begin to call together a new Jerusalem, and Sion will I subdue unto me, and it shall be taken, and the place which is childless shall be called the son and daughter of my Father, and my bride. For so hath it pleased him that sent me. But that man will I turn back, that he accomplish not his evil desire, and the praise of my Father shall be perfected in him, and after that I am gone home and abide with my Father, I will speak unto him from heaven, and all things shall be accomplished which I have told you before concerning him.

After thy resurrection thou didst reveal unto us all things that we might be saved indeed; but thou saidst unto us only: There shall be wonders and strange appearances in heaven and on earth before the end of the world come. Tell us now, how shall we perceive it? And he answered us: I will teach it you; and not that which shall befall you only, but them also whom ye shall teach and who shall believe, as well as them who shall hear that man and believe on me. In those years and days shall it come to pass. And we said again unto him: Lord, what shall come to pass?

And he said unto us: Then shall they that believe and they that believe not hear see, Eth. The sun and the moon fighting one with the other, a continual rolling and noise of thunders and lightnings, thunder and earthquake; cities falling and men perishing in their overthrow, a continual dearth for lack of rain, a terrible pestilence and great mortality, mighty and untimely, so that they that die lack burial: and the bearing forth of brethren and sisters and kinsfolk shall be upon one bier.

The kinsman shall show no favour to his kinsman, nor any man to his neighbour.