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And some of them randomly were assigned to beds with a view of a brick wall and others had a view of a grove of trees. And all of these patients were taken care of by the same doctors and nurses. So it was an extraordinarily well-controlled study. And his hypothesis is that endorphins are released in that part of the brain that recognizes a beautiful or preferred view. And he said, why else would we pay hundreds of dollars more for a hotel room with a beautiful view?

I mean, so I think most people or certainly many people would agree that being in a place of beautiful nature is somehow nourishing, uplifting. You know, people would use different words. So what do you know — what do we know now about what is happening in us physiologically in those experiences? He maketh me to lie down in green pastures; He leadeth me beside the still waters; He restoreth my soul. Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil. I actually read that in your book as well and was so struck by it.

So those environmental variables are really important. Again, maybe we know this, but when you talk about or you describe the places where I think many of us have memories of being invigorated by these things, of being most aware of them, would be gardens or, on the other end of that, stained-glass windows, that somehow captures some of that same, you know, almost not just the restorative, but the energetic properties of those things.

But equally, you want to be energized, you want to be happy, you want to have some sense of desire, you want to be alive. Being alive means that you respond moment to moment to different external stimuli in an appropriate way, and people want to feel alive. People in theater, people in movies figured all this stuff out a long time ago. Well, the lights go out. So now you can immerse yourself in another place, in an imaginary place, and you forget about your surroundings.

I learned this interesting piece of information when I actually went to their library, and you can look at the original drawings of Sir Thomas Willis, the anatomist who first described the brain in perfect detail. He has this huge tome from where he — every page shows engravings of the brain in perfect detail. We cannot do better today. And at the very beginning of this, you know, year-old book, there is a dedication to Christopher Wren — my colleague, Christopher Wren — who is the one who actually drew those drawings. You know, who better than an architect to draw the drawings of the brain?

So there was this collaboration across disciplines, which today we are carrying on in a different iteration. But the problem with the word placebo is it carries with it a lot of baggage. But the percent of effect of the placebo effect in any given intervention has been estimated to be somewhere between 30 and 90 percent. A drug that has the ability to help reduce pain by 50 percent is a very powerful drug. Because what we do with the drug is trick our brains into doing that.

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Do the maximum that you can with things like meditation and yoga and prayer to help amplify these pathways in the brain that we know ultimately can help the immune system do its job to heal. You also devote a chapter on healing spaces to labyrinths, which is a very ancient phenomenon and kind of being rediscovered in the 21st century. A labyrinth is very different from a maze. And labyrinths are calming, walking meditations and or allow you to walk calmly and meditate, and mazes are stressful places.

Airports too. Just think about an airport. What about Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire? So I quickly ran out and bought The Goblet of Fire , and indeed the description of Harry Potter in that maze and how he feels is exactly the stress response. You come to a decision point, so you have to have multiple decision points.

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Fears are raised by these mazes. And so it really is a very stressful experience, whereas a labyrinth is just a pattern on the floor. I described the Chartres Labyrinth outside of Paris. And the rose window of the cathedral is placed in such a way that the sunlight on the summer solstice comes right in and falls directly on the labyrinth. You know, you have all your senses. I have to say, I walked a labyrinth just recently at the new year.

There is an element of time to it or forgetting time or not worrying about time. And things like walking slowly, it forces you to walk slowly, right? It was done when the Dalai Lama visited there, and it was a garden especially dedicated to him. You have frankincense, myrrh, and gold, and I said why are they giving these weird things, frankincense and myrrh?

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They should be giving diamonds and rubies. And new studies show that in fact frankincense and these kinds of molecules do have beneficial or boosting effects on the immune system. Coming up, Esther Sternberg on creating portable healing places. Stay with us. Today with immunologist Esther Sternberg, exploring new knowledge about how the physical spaces of our lives can stress us, make us sick, or help us be well. Esther Sternberg later became one of the people who helped explain the physiological and neural connections between stress, illness, and well-being.

There is a part of the brain that specializes in memory of place, the hippocampus. And one of the things that it seems that the hippocampus does is it integrates all of these incoming sensory signals from the visual cortex, from the auditory cortex, from the olfactory bulb. So what you hear and see and smell and touch. So in fact, from a neuroscience point of view, the poet was right, that we do have an internal place that we can go to from our memories if we could dip into it.

Ideally, yes, we would all love to be able to go to our favorite Greek island, you know, and I describe that. You know, that was when my arthritis first appeared. I serendipitously ended up going there with neighbors and, in a day period, I began to feel so much better.

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So I have on my deck in Washington a gardenia tree and jasmine bush, and I can sit there in the evening in the summer and listen to the crickets and inhale the scent that reminds me of the orange blossoms and lemon blossoms from the Mediterranean. And I have lavender and I have basil, you know, all these fragrant plants that I find very soothing and healing. You can create your own little space wherever it is. The wonderful thing is the designers and architects and urban planners can now and are being able to incorporate these features into their designs.

So hospitals are being designed with beautiful views and with windows and with places for social support. I mean, even in workplaces. Yes, so it comes back to the practicalities and why the architects and designers and urban planners need the science, and more and more research is being done now. And some of the work has been done. They started these studies where various aspects of health outcomes were measured in patients in new wings of hospitals that incorporated these different features.

And then Derek Parker, who was one of the principals involved in this, added up all of the actual costs from these different kinds of extra wings that were built on 50 different — or 30 different hospitals and said, OK, this is how much it costs extra. Architects are just embracing this all over the world. Today with immunologist Esther Sternberg. You know, a rock just sits there and it eventually gets into sand or mud or something as the elements affect it.

But a living being is constantly repairing itself against all of these different insults at a very, you know, molecular level, at a cellular level, at an emotional level. So disease happens when the repair process is not keeping up with the damage process, right? The Germanic calendars were the regional calendars used amongst the early Germanic peoples , prior to the adoption of the Julian calendar in the Early Middle Ages. The Germanic peoples had names for the months which varied by region and dialect, which were later replaced with local adaptations of the Roman month names.

Records of Old English and Old High German month names date to the 8th and 9th centuries, respectively. Old Norse month names are attested from the 13th century. Like most pre-modern calendars, the reckoning used in early Germanic culture was likely lunisolar.

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As an example, the Runic calendar developed in medieval Sweden is lunisolar, fixing the beginning of the year at the first full moon after winter solstice. As in all ancient calendars, the Germanic calendar before the adoption of the Julian one would have been lunisolar , the months corresponding to lunations. Tacitus in his Germania ch. Tacitus gives some indication of how the Germanic peoples of the first century reckoned the days. In contrast to Roman usage, they considered the day to begin at sunset, a system that in the Middle Ages came to be known as the " Florentine reckoning ".

The same system is also recorded for the Gauls in Caesar's Gallic Wars. The concept of the week , on the other hand, was adopted from the Romans, from about the first century, the various Germanic languages having adopted the Greco-Roman system of naming of the days of the week after the classical planets , inserting loan translations for the names of the planets, substituting the names of Germanic gods in a process known as interpretatio germanica. The main source of reference for Old English month names comes from the Venerable Bede. He recorded the pre-Christian Anglo-Saxon month names in his Latin work known as De temporum ratione De mensibus Anglorum , written in Charlemagne r.

They probably also influenced Fabre d'Eglantine when he named the months of the French Republican Calendar. A separate tradition of month names developed in 10th-century Iceland, see below. The Old High German month names introduced by Charlemagne persisted in regional usage and survive in German dialectal usage. The Latin month names were in predominant use throughout the medieval period, although the Summarium Heinrici , an 11th-century pedagogical compendium, in chapter II. In the late medieval to early modern period, dialectal or regional month names were adopted for the use in almanachs , and a number of variants or innovations developed in this context, comparable to the tradition of "Indian month names" which developed in American Farmers' Almanacs in the early 20th century.

Some of the Farmers' Almanacs' "Indian month names" are in fact derived from continental tradition. Tolkien for use in his The Lord of the Rings. A special case is the Icelandic calendar developed in the 10th century which, inspired by the Julian calendar, introduced a purely solar reckoning with a year having a fixed number of weeks 52 weeks or days. This necessitated the introduction of "leap weeks" instead of Julian leap days.

The old Icelandic calendar is not in official use any more, but some Icelandic holidays and annual feasts are still calculated from it. It has 12 months, of 30 days broken down into two groups of six often termed "winter months" and "summer months". The calendar is peculiar in that each month always start on the same day of week. This was achieved by having 4 epagomenal days to bring the number of days up to and then adding a sumarauki week in the middle of summer of some years. They have developed differently in different regions. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Nec dierum numerum, ut nos, sed noctium computant. Sic constituunt, sic condicunt: nox ducere diem videtur. Nilsson, Primitive Time-Reckoning. Older explanations compare the name with Old Frisian horning Anglo-Saxon hornung-sunu , Old Norse hornungr meaning "bastard, illegitimate son", taken to imply a meaning of "disinherited" in reference to February being the shortest of months.

Haddock supposes that certain "Colonial American" moon names were adopted from Algonquian languages which were formerly spoken in the territory of New England , while others are based in European tradition e. Instituut voor Nederlandse Lexicologie. Retrieved 12 July Schiller in a dedication: Mannheim den