Thence along the land of Piha to Kawau, kauhale manu on Piha makai of Kalapaohelo. Thence along Piha to Kaluaalu, makai of Nahuaapaakai on Humuula. Kaluaalu is a cave in the kahawai. The boundary runs close to the cave and near to the edge of the woods, about as far from the edge of the woods as from here to the sea shore. Piha ends here and Nanue joins Humuula here.
Thence along the land of Nanue to Hopuwai gulch. The gulch makai of the woods is called Naohe [Nauhi]. The tall trees are on Nanue, and the trees growing in the pili are on Humuula. Thence along Nanue to Kapunawai, a swampy place where there is always water. Kupuna is the name of the place mauka of the woods. Mauka of this place, at Kapunawai, the land of Hakalau joins Humuula. Thence along Hakalau to Puwai, a pond of water. A point of woods [Volume B page 39] extends mauka into Humuula. Place on Humuula mauka of the woods is called Na Waiaheu. Thence along Hakalau to Kanepu, and Palauolelo mauka of woods.
Kanepu is a kauhale by Palauolelo gulch. The boundary runs along here, leaving the pili with points of woods extending mauka on Humuula, and the dense forest on lands makai. Makahanaloa joins Humuula at Palauolelo gulch. Was told that Palauolelo is the mauka end of Waiaama gulch, or Kanepu in the woods. Thence along the land Makahanaloa to Puakala a kauhale by gulch of same name.
Have heard it is the mauka end of Kapue gulch. Pohopaele in the woods is on Makahanaloa. The forest is on makai land and the pili on Humuula. Kanepu is on Makahanaloa. Tall forest on makai lands. The boundary runs on the edge of the woods. Thence along Papaikou to Nukupahu. Lai [point of Koa on Humuula. Paapalepo kauhale is on makai lands. There is a Lae pili [point of pili grass] running way into the woods and Lae koa [point of koa] running to Kilohana. Papaikou extends to Nukupahu gulch, there the land of Paukaa joins, and bounds Humuula to Waipahoehoe gulch.
Kilohana is an ahua [mound, hillock] on Humuula, where Paukaa ends and Piihonua bounds Humuula. Thence along Piihonua to Laumaia kahawai, the boundary runs along the mauka edge of the forest. Thence along Piihonua to Laumaia and a cave on the gulch. Thence to Aama gulch near Hanamauloa where Kuakini built a bullock pen. The forest is on Piihonua and the pili on Humuula.
Thence to Waikee, a branch of the Wailuku. Thence to where the aa commences. Thence to Kaelewa, where there is now water. Thence to Kawauwai by the edge of the forest. Thence to Kaieie; Waiakea and Piihonua join Humuula between these two places. Thence along the edge of the forest to Kalapaohelo. I have been there with my parents, on old lava ground. Thence to Pohakuloa, a large rock where Kaehu Paki laid down on the side of the mountain towards Kau of Kalapaohelo.
There I [Volume B page 40] staid with my kupuna and they said the boundary runs from here up the mountain to Pohakuhanalei, a rock on the slope of the mountain towards Kaleieha. Waiakea bounded it to Pohakuloa, but they did not tell me what lands bounded Humuula from there to Pohakuhanalei.
We went to Kaleieha and to Omaokoili, they there pointed out a red hill called Kole, below Pohakuhanalei, and they said Kaohe bounded Humuula from Pohakuhanalei to this hill. Can see this hill from Omaokoili, hill near Kaleieha. They said the boundary runs from Kole to Omaokoili, the hill makai of the cart road to Waimea from Kaleieha. Thence to base of Mauna Kea, to Puuokalau a hill bounded by Kaohe.
Thence along Kaohe to Lanikepue, a pali. Thence to Kaluakaakoi, a cave where they used to get stone adzes out. Thence to Poliahu, a cave where Lilinoi [ Lilinoe ] used to live. Thence to Kamakahalau, a hill on the Hamakua side of the mountain. Thence down to Iolehaehae, a hill near the base of Mauna Kea. Puupapa and Pukaliali are on Kaohe. Thence to Ahua Poopuaa a hill with koa trees growing on it, the boundary runs to a pile of rocks on said hill, on the Hamakua side of the hill. Thence to Puuloa where the boundary enters the woods.
Puuloa is a hill in the woods which can be seen a short distance below the mauka edge of the woods. Thence to Keanalepo. Kaula gulch and Kaala bounds Humuula from Puuloa to Kahaleloulu, where natives used to live, in Palm trees. Thence makai along Kaula gulch to Kaleiike, kauhale manu. Thence along the gulch to Oina, where Humuula boundary leaves the gulch and runs onto Hilo side of the gulch at a large banana grove. There, the land of Ookala bounds Humuula. Thence along Ookala makai, along the land towards the sea, to Kalauonaki, a pool of water in a gulch which is a branch of the [Volume B page 41] Kaula gulch.
Thence across the gulch and along the land of Kaohaohanui to Palapu, passing Kaailama banana groves. Thence the boundary runs straight makai along Kaohaoha to Kainakiki, an awaawa, that as you go makai to Pauahi, becomes a gulch. There the boundary between Kaohaohanui and Humuula runs makai in the gulch to the sea shore. Kapuna is the name of the mouth of the gulch.
The sea bounds it on the makai side. Kahoahunanui bounds Humuula from shore into the edge of the woods. Kahoahunaiki does not reach to Humuula. Na Auliilii reach into the edge of the woods to the boundary of Humuula. The lands of Laupahoehoe reach further mauka than Waipunalei. Papaaloa used to extend on to the mountain, but in the time of Kamehameha I the boundary was established at the points I have mentioned.
Papaaloa joins Maulua. I went with Wiltse and Blodgett . We commenced to survey from the seashore. I marked KIV. They surveyed up the Hamakua side of the land to Kamakahalau. Blodgett surveyed this line. I went through the woods, Naaikauna then went. I went on the Hilo boundary of the land and Naaikauna went there also. Aipala and Kahunanui now dead also went with Blodgett. Wiltse did not go this time.
At Kalaieha, went with them, sighted to Poliahu, Pohakuhanalei, and surveyed across the land. Thence went to Hopuwai. There chained to between Kumukawau and Kalualu. Thence to Uhakanou, marked in both places K. Thence along the edge of the woods to Pihalei, passing mauka of Puukole etc. At Pihalei, mauka corner of Waipunalei, we stopped surveying. From Kalaieha we did not chain it, only pointed out places without going to them, and did not set up flags there. A flag was not set up at Pohakuloa. At Kaleieha hill we set up flags and the Haole surveyed these. The flags were set up a short distance ahead of the compass and sighted to.
Flags not set up on top of hills [Volume B page 42] in woods. We pointed out boundaries at the edge of the forest on that day, to Piha. The road in olden times, ran from Lahohinu to Laumaia, above the woods. No road from Humuula to Lai, along through the woods. My Kupuna told me the birds on mamani and pili belonged to Humuula, and the birds in the forest to makai lands. I went with Henry and. Lyman when Henry surveyed the land of Hakalau.
I told him Makahanaloa was surveyed too far mauka and that the pili belonged to Humuula. They chained along the road above the woods. I and a kamaaina of Hakalau, pointing out the boundaries to them. A flag was set up at the boundary between Makahanaloa and Hakalau, and on the boundary between Hakalau and Nanue. My kupuna told me Kapuakala was at the mauka end of Kapue gulch and Nukupahu at mauka end of Honolii gulch. I have never followed them down to know. I went with Wiltse, Naaikauna and Kahue to survey Humuula, we went around, above the woods and sighted to different places.
The flags were set up close to the compass and not sent to the different points on the boundary. We pointed out the boundaries on the edge of the forest the same as before; and I did not hear Kahue tell Wiltse that the boundary was in the forest. Kahue did not say that we did not point out the right boundaries. I have testified today as the boundaries were told me by my Kupuna, and as he pointed them out to me without being influenced by anyone.
I never heard my parents say that Kaalaala joined Humuula. The pond of water called Waiau is on Kaohe and not on Humuula. My parents told me Humuula went to Kaluakaakoi and Poliahu. We used to go there after adzes for Humuula people. Hilo, November 6th Commission of Boundaries opened according to adjournment. Hitchcock, D. Kamai and S. Kipi for Estate of G. Robertson and D. Kapou k Sworn: I was born at Hakalau and have always lived there. Have always heard that Hakalau nui extends through the woods, and is there cut off by Humuula.
Have never been there. Kupuoli now dead told me. He was a bird catcher and kamaaina of Hakalau. My father came from another place. I did not hear the names of places on the boundary of Hakalau and Humuula. Did not hear from anyone while he was living that Humuula cut Hakalau off in the woods, did not hear about other lands. Kupuoli and Auau, his son now living , went with Henry Lyman when he surveyed Hakalau and were his kamaaina. Have always lived in the district of Hilo. Used to go on to Humuula. My parents told me the boundaries. Humuula commences at Kawalii kahawai, bounded by Kahoahuna at the stream in the gulch, at Kaahupuaa, Kahoahuna.
I cannot give the boundaries in the woods, after two Kahoahuna. Papaaloa runs through the woods and joins Humuula. The mamani and pili are on Humuula, the woods on makai lands. One of the Pihas runs through the woods and Laupahoehoe lands at Puukole. Heard that Maulua did not run clear through the woods. In olden times Hakalau ran clear through the woods, to the pili, and the lands of Makahanaloa, Papaikou and Alakahi [Volume B page 44] did the same.
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I always heard that the pili with trees growing on it was Humuula and the forest was makai land. I used to go there to catch birds. The road from Humuula to Piihonua runs along on the pili, and not in the woods. The roads in the woods were only bird catchers roads. Papaaloa joined Humuula at Kaiaiki. Kihalani ends in the woods and does not reach through the woods. Kaiaiki is an old kauhale manu at the edge of the pili and forest and awaawa. Papaaloa bounds Humuula to Heenui, kauhale manu. If folks from the makai lands came after birds in the mamani, the Humuula people would take them from them, and if we went into the bush after birds the people of the makai lands would take them away from us.
From Heenui to Kalapaohelo, Maulua bounds Humuula. Kalapaohelo is a kualapa in pili, by the edge of the forest. Hakalau bounds Humuula from Waikaloa at Kanepuu, to Palauolelo. The boundary of Humuula runs along the edge of the forest along Makahanaloa, Papaikou, and Piihonua etc. It did not go to Nahuina o Wailuku. The boundary runs to Kaelewa, a water place, and kauhale, along Piihonua; thence to Mawai [Mawae], out to pili. Pohakuhanalei is on Kapapala. Puuhuluhulu is the place where Kau, Kona and Humuula join; and I was told by my parents that it is the boundary of Humuula.
Omaokoili is on Humuula. I was told Puuike was on Kaaumana or Piihonua. Know Pohakuloa, it is beyond Puuiki on Kau. I used to go there from Humuula, and steal birds. I do not know of Wekahuna and Puonioni. Humuula does not reach to the top of Mauna Kea, it extends only as far as the mamani and pili grow Kaaumana is only a road in the upper edge of the woods and is cut off by Kaohe at the mauka edge of the mamani.
I do not know the boundaries between Kaohe and Humuula well. Kalua K. Sworn: Rather an old man I was born at Puumoi, at the time of Akahai o Mookuokai and have always lived there. I do not know the boundaries of Humuula and have never been above the woods. Do not know the boundaries outside of the woods. I have always heard that the pili and mamani above the woods are on Humuula, and the forest on Papaikou and other makai lands.
I do not know what lands join Humuula. What I have stated, I heard from old bird catchers of Papaikou. I used to go and catch birds in the woods, always heard that the forest is on makai lands, and the pili and mamani above the woods is on Humuula. Palauolelo is on Humuula, and Makahanaloa and Papaikou join Humuula near this place. The head of Kolikoli [Kolekole] gulch is at the head of Makahanaloa and Hakalau. I have heard Palauolelo is at the head of Waiama gulch. Piihonua, Paukaa, Papaikou, Makahanaloa and Hakalau run through the forest to the makai edge of the pili.
This is what I have always been told. Have heard that Kaaimana is the boundary between Humuula, Papaikou and Paukaa. Kapuakala gulch is the boundary between Paukaa and Piihonua, on the boundary of Humuula. Alakahi does not run through the woods. Palauolelo is the boundary between Makahanaloa and Papaikou, on the boundary of Humuula. Wahamu K. Sworn: I was born at Kulaimano, Hilo, and have always lived in Hilo. Have heard from old people where Makahanaloa and Hakalau join Humuula, it is at the mauka edge of the forest, and the pili and mamani are in Humuula. I have heard that Papaikou joins Humuula above the woods, and I have since heard that Paukaa reaches through the woods to Lai.
I have heard this for about thirty years. Have heard that Piihonua runs through the woods to the makai edge of the pili. I lived on the mauka part of Piihonua for five years, catching birds. It was when Castle had the saw mill at Kapahukea. At that time Humuula did not claim to Keanalepo, at Wailuku. Papaikou and Makahanaloa join Humuula at Kaaimana 2nd the one towards Hamakua. In olden times I heard from one kamaaina that Lai is on Piihonua and from another that it is on Paukaa.
The boundary is at Kapuakala, on Nukupahu gulch. I have not heard definitely about the boundaries of Humuula adjoining Waiakea and Kau. When Palai was shooting bullock; Namakaokaia, a man from Humuula told me this. Li, a bird catcher of Humuula, told me the boundaries of Humuula, Makahanaloa and other lands they are now dead.
They said Piha joins Humuula and Hakalau at Naohe gulch, a little below the edge of this forest. He is now dead. I don not know the other corner of Piha, and Maulua. Kamohaiulu K. I was born at Laupahoehoe at the time of the building of the heiau at Kawaihae, and have always lived there. Know the boundaries of Humuula on the Hilo side at shore, but do not know them on the Hamakua side. The boundary at shore is at Kawalii gulch at Kaahupuaa, bounded on Kahoahuna; thence mauka along the gulch to Piinau, kauhale; thence to Lapalapa, a cultivating ground. Thence the boundary runs up the kahawai to Mauiana gulch, a branch of the Kawalii.
There Kahoahuna is cut off by Humuula. Thence along the land of Kahoahuna 1st to Lainakaunohi, a spot in the old canoe road of Humuula at Mauiana. The boundary leaves the gulch at Lainakaunohi, the boundary runs towards Hilo. At this place Auliilii 2nd and Auliilii 1st join Humuula. Thence to Waiopae a kahawai, at the high waterfall, Auliilii ends, and Kahuahokolo bounds Humuula to Olohe Kahawai, a gulch, a place where we used to live and catch birds, and. Pana 2nd and Pana 1st bound it from this point, but the land is very narrow.
Thence the boundary runs up an old trail Pihahelei, a puu mamake ground , the mauka corner of Waipunalei. I have heard that Laupahoehoe bounds it to Pukoa, and there Papaaloa bounds it. Pukoa is just inside of the mauka edge of the woods. I have not heard that in older times Kaiwilaihilaihi, Piha on Nanue reached to Humuula. Have heard from old people that in olden times Maulua, Hakalau, Makahanaloa, and Piihonua reached to Humuula. Have not heard about Papaikou and Paukaa joining Humuula. I have heard that in olden times if Humuula people caught birds in the ohia woods, Piihonua took them away, and if Piihonua people caught birds on mamani, Humuula people took them away from them.
I have heard this from the bird catchers of Humuula and from our place. Have never seen the boundaries on the Kau side of Humuula. Kaohe bounds Humuula on the mauka side. Heard in olden times Kaohe cut Humuula off at the upper edge of the mamani on Mauna Kea, but I do not know about it. Kipi K. I was born in Hilo, Hawaii and have always lived there.
I have heard about the boundaries of Humuula and makai lands, from old people. Have always heard that Humuula cuts off makai lands at the mauka edge of the forest; at makai side of pili land, ku ana iloko and that the points of woods running mauka are on Humuula. The only road I have heard of from Humuula runs along the pili land mauka; through the points of woods that run mauka.
Kamanu now dead an old man who used to live on Honomu, and other places, was one of those that told me this; he was a kamaaina, and may have been the one who went with Henry Lyman. When I was picking pulu on Humuula in , I sent men after bullock for meat and they said they got them on Maulua. Keola K. We went to Waiau. Kahue could not find it, but Aikanaka found it.
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Kahue did not then say that Humuula extended to Waiau. Naaikauna K. I was born at Humuula and have always lived there. Born at the time of Kiholo [ca. My father Eekamoku and his father Kaapunini told them to me. Humuula is bounded at shore on the Hilo side by Kahoahuna 2nd at Kaahupuaa the kahawai is on Kahoahuna, Kawalii gulch.
The ahu is in front of the houses. Thence up the gulch to Nohoaokaakau, a cave thence up the gulch to Lapalapa; there the gulch branches. Waikoloa on Kahoahuna, thence up the north branch Alanaio to Kapualeiapana; thence up to Mauiana, a pali and waterfall. Humuula is above the falls, there Kahoahuna is cut off, and the boundary leaving the gulch runs across land towards Hilo to Kahoahuna iki at Lainakaonohi; thence across the head of Kahoahuna to the bank of Waiopae gulch; there is a waterfall there and Waiopae is at the foot of it.
Auliilii 2nd and Auliilii 1st corner in this gulch and Kahuakolo and Awaawaiki bound Humuula from Waiopae to Olohekahawai, a branch of Waiopae. From makai of the waterfall the boundary runs towards Hilo at Olohekahawai; Waipunalei joins Humuula at the waterfall. Thence up across the land to the Hamakua side of Waipahoehoe, a gulch with water in it; thence up the road to Pihahelei a kauhale near the mauka edge of the woods, and the mauka corner of Waipunalei, where it is cut off by Humuula and Laupahoehoe runs toward Hamakua, and bounds Humuula to Puukole; mauka of hill can be seen the pili from the hill.
Palipali of Humuula is mauka of the woods. There Papaaloa bounds Humuula to Puukoa, a hill in the woods near the mauka edge. There Maulua joins Humuula and bounds it to the mauka side of Puulehu, a hill in the woods, makai of Kaiaiki, a kauhale on Humuula close to the mauka edge of the woods about as far as from the Court House to the shore. The pili and mamani run an open spot close to this hill. There are points of ohia that run a good ways mauka there on Humuula.
If we went from Kaiaiki to Puulehu and were caught we had to give the birds to mauka people. Maulua extends from Puulehu to Uhakunou a kualapa running from the pili into the woods. Thence I was told that Piha bounds Humuula to Kawauwauwai water holes in and close to the mauka edge of the woods; it is also a kauhale. Kalapaohelo is a point on Humuula above the woods. Thence along Piha to makai of Kaluaalu, on Humuula at Ohiamalumalu, an ohia tree.
Was told that Nanue bounds Humuula to Kupunawai, outside of the woods; the boundary is at Waikaloa in the woods. There Hakalau bounds Humuula. Kapahee is on this gulch. Kaloaloa is just on Puna side of the gulch. I have heard it ends at Kaaimana and from there Papaikou bounds it to Kapuakala where there is water. I do not know where the land of Paukaa comes. I have heard that it bounds Humuula from Kapuakala to Nukupahu.
I was told that the tall woods are on makai lands but the points of pili running into the woods and the points of trees running mauka are on Humuula. Paukaa bounds Humuula from Kapuakala wai to Nukupahu and Lai. Nukupahu gulch is the kahawai on the Hamakua side of Lai. Thence along Piihonua, along the edge of the forest, crossing a branch of the Wailuku to Kaelewa, a place on Humuula; thence to Kahiliku. Thence down the mountain to Puukole; thence to Puupapa; thence to Omaokoili; thence to Kanoa.
I do not know what lands bound it towards Kona and Kau. My parents told me Kaohe was at Lanikepu. Thence the boundary runs to Poliahu; thence to Kamakahalau hill; thence to lolehaehae; thence to Ahua Poopuaa a heiau, high hill of stones. Thence along Kaohe to Kaula gulch, where the boundary enters the woods; thence down the gulch to Keanalepo a cave in the Hamakua side of the gulch, and along Manowaialee.
Thence along the gulch to Kahauloa a kawa [leaping place] in the side of the woods where the boundary leaves the gulch and runs toward Hilo, across the head of Ookala to Oina, a banana grove; thence along Ookala to Paiopu a banana grove at the mauka corner of Kaohaoha; thence makai to Pauahi a punawai at the commencement of Poololo gulch this place is marked. Thence down said gulch to sea shore. Humuula is bounded makai by the sea. Oina is in the woods. Kahoahuna 1st joins Humuula in the edge of the woods; also Auliilii, Kahuahokolo, Awaawaiki and Waipunalei, and one Laupahoehoe only.
I never heard from my parents that Humuula cuts Piihonua off at Nahuina of Wailuku. I have heard that Kahue says that Humuula cuts it off there. I went with Blodgett and surveyed to Kamakahalau, on the mountain, and from Naohe kahawai to Pihahelei. We surveyed from Kalaieha to Omaokoili and Blodgett sighted from there to Naohe but as it was foggy it did not show the boundary. When Wiltse went, the second time, Kahue pointed out the boundaries. I did not point them out because he did not ask me. Wiltse sighted without going to the points or setting up signals and he did not use a chain.
I did not hear from my parents that the boundary of Humuula runs to Pohopaele; heard this from Kahue. I heard from my parents that Kanepu and Puuwai are on Makahanaloa and Hakalau and that the water of Waikoloa is on Hakalau. Kapunawai is on Humuula, water holes close to each other. In olden times the road from Humuula to Laumaia went along on the pili and not through the woods. I used to go into the woods a short distance catching birds, and then go back outside again. November 7th Lyman, Commissioner of Boundaries, 3d Judicial Circuit.
Boundary Commission met according to adjournment. At the Court House at Hilo November 7th Waikiliilii K. I was born at or near Humuula, district of Hilo, and have always lived in said district. I have often been on the mountain catching bullock, and know the boundaries of Humuula at shore. When I was on the mountain I was told that the boundary on Mauna Kea between Kaohe and Humuula was where the mamani ceases to grow, and that the pukeawe is on Kaohe.
Was told that Humuula extends to Pohakuhanalei. I have not heard where Kaohe ceases to join Humuula, as you go towards Mauna Loa. Have never heard that Humuula extends to Waiau. I have not heard in olden times what land Poliahu is on. Have always heard that Humuula takes the pili and mamani. I have been told that if our kupuna caught birds on ohia trees, Piihonua people took them away; and that if Piihonua folks took the birds from the mamani, our kupuna would take them away from them. In olden times we did not hear of Humuula cutting off Hilo lands in the forest, but at the edge of the forest.
Never heard of any road running from Humuula to Piihonua through the woods in olden times. The old road has never been pointed out to me. I have not been with kamaaina along above the woods, and had the lands pointed out to me. Hemahema K. I was born in Hamakua at the time of Oku [ca. I heard where the boundaries were from Kulaipahu, Kiliilii and Koie, they were bird catchers, but are now dead. They told me Piha ended at Kawauwauwai, a kauhale manu and oioina and swampy place. The place on Humuula near here is Naohe gulch. Kawauwauwai is on the gulch about as far makai from the edge of the forest, as from Hilo Court House to the beach.
I do not know whether. Nanue extends through the woods or not. Was told Maulua joins Piha. Kawauwauwai is on Piha and Puulehu is on Maulua. Kalaualoha K. I was born at Opea, Hilo, at the time of Hulupi and have always lived in Hilo. I am a bird catcher and canoe builder. My brother Koie and Waikane told me boundaries. Hoolualani my kupuna, bird catchers, told us boundaries. Piha is cut off by Humuula. Nanue also at Kawauwauwai. Maulua joins Piha at Kulipalapala, I do not know about its junction with Humuula, have heard it is at Puulehu.
Nanue bounds Humuula to Kapunawai, a water place in the woods, in the awaawa above Nanue gulch. Kamaipialii K. Sworn: I was born at Maulua, and now live there. Maulua is cut off by Humuula and I have always been told that it joins Piha. Was told by old people that Maulua is cut off by Humuula at Kapulehu.
I have been there once. Do not know how wide Maulua is mauka. I do not know where Piha joins Humuula. Kamai, K. At pre-. Published by American Institute of Mining Engineers. The valuable ores that may be considered primary constituents of eruptive rocks, resulting from direct differentiation in the cooling magma, are as follows:—.
In the South Island of New Zealand there are two mountain-masses of peridotite in which the magmatic segregation of chromite is exhibited on a scale of unusual magnitude. A few miles from the City of Nelson, Dun Mountain rises to a height of over 4,ft. It covers an area of about four square miles, and is entirely composed of massive olivine, in which chromite of iron is fairly uniformly disseminated in the form of fine grains, but is occasionally aggregated in large masses. The serpentine contains lenticular-shaped masses of chromite, native copper and copper-ores, principally chalcopyrite, with the usual products of oxidation.
It also contains thin irregular veins of diallage, hypersthene, bronzite, enstatite, scapolite, wollastonite, and chrysolite. The larger deposits of chromite occur near the borders of the olivine and serpentine. The second great mass of peridotite forms Red Mountain, situated twenty miles north of Milford Sound, in Otago. Reports and Explorations, , p. Gessellschaft, vol. The mountain is composed of massive olivine containing disseminated chromite. The latter occurs in much greater proportion than at Dun Mountain.
Near the contact with the sedimentary rocks it is often so highly charged with chromite as to from compact bodies of ore. No deposits of chromite are known in the serpentine, but they may possibly exist, as the country is still practically unexplored. Since the discovery of awaruite nickel-ore alloys have been found in several places, most notably in gold-bearing sands associated with chromite in Elvo River, Biella, Piedmont, Italy; in sands derived from serpentine in Josephine County, Oregon; in the Fraser River, British Columbia, associated with chromite; and in Smith River, Del Norte County, California.
The association of copper and chromite in the serpentines at Dun Mountain has already been mentioned. Large masses of native copper associated with silver are found in amygdaloidal diabase at Lake Superior. In Professor S. The dykes are intruded in volcanic breccias of probably younger Miocene age. Platinum has only been found in a few cases in the matrix in situ. In the Ural Mountains it occurs as grains in peridotite, serpentine, and olivine-gabbro.
The bed-rock of the. London, vol. Reports and Explorations, —80, p. Vyzaj and Kaiva Rivers, on the western flanks of the Urals, consists of olivine-gabbro containing disseminated grains of platinum, but not apparently in payable quantities. An olivine rock was discovered in at Goroblago-datsk, on the western side of the Urals, containing chromite and platinum, the latter at the rate of 14 dwt. Since the discovery of platinum in the nickel-copper sulphide ore at Sudbury, in Canada, careful analysis has disclosed the presence of the metal in minute quantity in many sulphide ores throughout the world.
But in this and all cases where platinum occurs in sulphide-beds or in veins, its occurrence is probably not the result of direct magmatic segregation. Vogt directs renewed attention to the close relationship existing between ore-deposits and eruptive processes. Ore-deposits which are generally connected with eruptive magmas are grouped by him into two principal classes, as under:—. Ore-deposits belonging to the first group are infrequent, and therefore economically subordinate in importance to those of the second group. They include, according to Vogt,—.
That sulphides can be segregated from eruptive magmas in the first concentration has yet to be proved; and it is still doubtful how far Vogt's conclusions respecting the occurrence of sulphide ore as products of primary segregation from molten magmas are admissible.
By Professor James Park , M. A Molten magma tends to effect changes in the rocks with which it comes in contact. In the case of overflow magmas the thermal changes are generally trifling, and in many cases hardly appreciable. Even magmas that have cooled in rents in sedimentaries at shallow depths have not always caused great changes in the enclosing rock.
The greatest alteration will naturally take place in the case of magmas that do not reach the surface, but cool slowly under great pressure. The greater the mass of the intrusive magma, the slower will be the rate of cooling; and the slower the rate of cooling, the longer will the adjacent rocks be heated. The rate of cooling will be mainly dependent upon the mass of the intrusion, the distance from the surface, and the relative thermal conductivity of the adjacent rocks.
The changes effected in the country rock by the intrusion of an igneous magma will be mechanical and hydrothermal. The intruded sedimentaries will be compressed, bent, and more or less shattered and fissured along the line of intrusion. The magma will part with its heat by slow radiation into the adjacent rocks. As the igneous magma and the heated sedimentaries cool they will contract in area, and when the temperature normal to the depth has been reached. Aqueous vapours above the critical temperature and under great pressure will act as strongly upon the cooling magma as upon the adjacent rocks.
They will possess a solvent power which will be greatest at the depth where the highest temperature and pressure are reached. The pressure will cause the heated steam and gaseous emanations carrying the heavy metals to permeate the bedding-planes of the sedimentaries, and fill all accessible cracks and fissures.
In this way bed-impregnation may be effected, and even ore-bodies formed at points some distances from the genetic eruptive magma. A decrease in the temperature and pressure will cause the least soluble substances to be deposited; and as the temperature and pressure continue to diminish, the dissolved substances will be thrown out of solution in the inverse order of their solubility.
It is manifest that the later phases of the eruptive after-actions will represent in a modified form the waning effects of solfataric action. The deep-seated conditions will also favour the action of metasomatic processes in the zone of metamorphism, and veins will be formed, some of which may rise to the surface. It is probable that the circulation of the heated mineralised solutions in the later phases will tend to effect a redistribution of the ores and minerals deposited in the earlier stages. In some cases the ascending waters and gases may reach the zone of surface circulation and mix with the meteoric waters, which will then reappear as hot springs, forming ore-bodies and veins not directly in contact with the eruptive magma.
Weed and some other writers have made an attempt to subdivide contact-metamorphic deposits into groups depending mainly upon the mode of occurrence. But the form and mode of distribution may be due to accidents of density or porosity, composition and hydrous condition of the rocks affected, rather than differences in genetic formation. Moreover, the mass of the magma, the weight of superincumbent rocks, the amount of heat and subsequent contraction, and phase of the after-action are all doubtless contributing factors in connection with the form and distribution of the heavy metals.
Masses of ore occurring as contact deposits, fissure-veins, and bed-impregnations in the zone of metamorphism may all be traced to the same genetic causes. Professor L. The extent of contact metamorphism effected by the granite intrusions of Albany, in New Hampshire, was fully investigated by Hawes.
The rocks are dehydrated, boric and silicic acids have been added to them, and there appears to have been an infusion of alkali on the line of contact. He regarded the schists as having been impregnated by hot vapours and solutions emanating from the granite. Contact deposits frequently lie at the boundary between the eruptive and the country rock; also at variable distances from the eruptive, but never outside the zone of metamorphism. The pyritic ore-mass in Mount Lyell Mine, in Tasmania, is generally described as a contact deposit, although its geologic occurrence does not strictly conform to the common definition of such a body.
It is a boat-shaped body lying between talcose schists and conglomerates. There are no eruptives in actual contact with the ore-body, but dykes of diabase and other igneous rocks occur in the district at no great distance. The existence of these dykes and of bands of schist impregnated with sulphides forming fahlkands would lead to the belief that there at one time existed channels of communication leading from the eruptive rocks to the vein cavities.
It seems probable that the ore-bodies in the Mount Lyell field were formed in the later or solfataric stages of eruptive after actions. Partly for this reason, and partly because of the characteristic paragenesis of fluoride, borate, and phosphate minerals, he supports the common view that tin-deposits are genetically connected with granitic eruptions, and that various volatile fluorides took part in their formation. He further urges that they were formed immediately after the eruption, and before the complete cooling of the granite, one proof of which is the occurrence of tin-vein minerals in veins of pegmatite in the granite.
Cassiterite veins are admittedly independent of the immediately adjacent country rock, and for this reason seem to be more nearly related to deposits of magmatic segregation than to contact-metamorphic deposits. It is probable that the magmatic segregation of chromite in peridotite was in some cases effected by pneumatolytic agencies before the complete cooling of the magma. It is not uncommon to find chromite in vein-like masses that have the appearance of having been segregated in cavities of contraction in the pasty magma. As the agency of underground water cannot have been active in this class of ore-deposit, the aggregation must have been effected by metal-bearing steam and gases occluded in the igneous magma.
Pegmatite veins, while genetically connected with granitic eruptions, seem to be of later formation than the cassiterite veins. They often pass into quartz, and frequently possess sharp well-defined walls, which suggest their formation in shrinkage-cracks by pneumato-hydatogenetic agencies in the waning phases of the after-actions developed by the progressive cooling of the eruptive magma.
The different phases of after-action must necessarily merge into each other, and hence we may expect to find, as we do, tin-vein minerals and even cassiterite in veins of pegmatite. Among ore-deposits of contact-metamorphic origin Vogt includes the ore-bodies which occur within the metamorphosed contact zone of deep eruptives, especially granite. He distinguishes several types of contact deposit. The Chris-. These ores are never found in the granite, but always in the adjcent rocks. The eruptive magma is believed to be the source of the metal, which is expelled in the heated steam into the surrounding rocks.
London , F. IT is manifest that the whole series of eruptive after-actions will commence at the moment of intrusion of the magma, and continue until the igneous mass has become completely cooled. Igneous magmas are now admitted by petrologists to contain more or less water together with many constituents of a hydrous or gaseous character.
Hence the fusion of magmas is not believed to be pyrogenetic—that is, the result of dry heat alone—but hydato-pyrogenetic—that is, fusion by heat in the presence of water. According to the same distinguished physicist water in a rock magma acts the part of an acid, liberating free silicic acid and free bases. The activity of water at high temperatures is very great. It is probable that at great depths the pressure will be sufficient to hold the water in the form of a liquid in a superheated condition.
It is well known that during and after volcanic eruptions there are emitted enormous volumes of steam, also hydrogen-sulphide, sulphur-dioxide, carbon-dioxide, as well as compounds of chlorine, fluorine, and boron. These gaseous and aqueous emanations come from the same source as the igneous magma, accompany the magma in its ascent, and may possibly be one of the contributing causes of the eruption.
Volcanic phenomena can be studied in many parts of the world, but perhaps nowhere with more advantage than in New Zealand. In the volcanic region of the North Island there are thousands of square miles in which volcanic activity can be seen in every stage and phase; there are active, intermittent, and extinct volcanoes, besides innumerable geysers, fumaroles, and hot springs, active, decadent, and dead. The active and intermittent volcanoes discharge their lavas and fragmentary matter from single pipes, or from lateral vents apparently connected with the main pipe, and from fissure rents.
The volcanic eruption at Rotomahana in was from a fissure rent over six miles in length, extending from the summit of Mount Wahanga southward into the basin of Lake Rotomahana, and thence across the rhyolite plateau to Lake Okaro. The geysers, hot springs, and fumaroles occur in isolated groups, or along a line of fissure which often runs along the floor of a valley, or lower flanks of a range of hills. The geyesers deposit siliceous and calcareous sinters, mostly the former; and the fumaroles native sulphur.
Everywhere the air is pervaded with the smell of sulphur-dioxide. The solfataric action is active, waning, or dead. With the latter the vents are closed up by crustification. Where the.
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Z Reports of Geol. Explorations, —87, p. The silica is sometimes soft and porous. In all cases the hot springs and geysers are grouped around the volcanic vents, and along fissures in lavas near the point of emission. The waters range from strongly alkaline to acid; and at Rotorua, alkaline and acid springs exist side by side. The ascending deep-seated waters are strongly alkaline; while the source of the acid waters is the superficial deposit of pumice which overlies the rhyolite.
The pumice in some places contains disseminated marcasite pyrites, and where the alkaline waters come in contact with the pyrites they are oxidized and reach the surface either neutral or acid, according to the degree of oxidation. In the Hauraki gold-mining area, which adjoins the northern end of this volcanic region, the country rocks consist of a vast pile of andesitic lavas, tuffs, and breccias of younger Tertiary age, resting on slaty shales and greywacke of probably Triassic age.
The gold-bearing veins traverse both the andesites and tuffs, but are only productive in the former. They are fissure-veins; but, strictly speaking, they do not conform to the usually accepted definition of a true fissurevein, since they are generally confined to the igneous-rock formation. Near the borders of the andesites the veins are small and unimportant, and generally die out when they reach the underlying basement rock.
On the other hand, the larger and more productive veins are grouped around the old vents, and there seems to be no reason why they should not descend to great depths. The country rock on the walls of the ore-veins is propylitised to a moderately hard grey rock. When two or more veins run parallel with each other, as they do in all the Hauraki mining centres, the country rock between the veins is often entirely altered, or propylitised. In the Thames district the distance between the numerous parallel veins which traverse the goldfield seldom exceeds yards, and in almost every instance the veins are separated from each other by a narrow belt of hard unaltered andesite.
They vary from a few feet to 30 yards in width. The country rock has been found to be propylitised down to a depth of nearly ft. The propylitisation of the andesites is not widespread, but confined to small areas grouped around the old volcanic vents. Away from the eruptive centres the andesites have suffered surface-decomposition, but are not propylitised. The propylitisation was apparently effected by the fissures, which are now veins, having served as channels for the circulation of the hot mineral waters.
From these fissures the waters acted on the rock on each wall, and where the fissures were near each other the metasomatic processes operating from one fissure met those coming from the other. At Waihi and surrounding districts the veins are chiefly composed of chalcedonic or micro-crystalline quartz, possessing all the characteristics of solfataric origin. Some of the larger lodes can be traced on the surface for a distance of 16,ft. Besides veins having linear extension, there are many huge mushroom-shaped masses of chalcedonic quartz, closely resembling in form the siliceous deposits now forming in the volcanic regions around Rotorua and Lake Taupo.
At Kuaotunu and Great Barrier Island there are many mushroom-shaped deposits of chalcedonic quartz of great size, in some cases covering hundreds, in others thousands, of acres. At Kuaotunu they are more or less circular in shape, and seldom exceed 20ft. At Great Barrier Island the largest deposit is of an unusual character. The pipe is completeley filled with mineral matter. It has been intersected in four mines in a distance of a mile, and opened up by levels for many hundreds of yards.
It varies from 12ft. The evidence furnished by the mine-workings implies that the overlying mushroom or umbrella of quartz was deposited on the surface from thermal water issuing from a long fissure or rent in the andesite. Survey Report No. When the quartz is extracted there remain only empty pipes or vents.
These pipe-like ore-bodies possess a peculiar genetic interest. They appear to closely resemble the siliceous pipes formed in rhyolite by the hot springs in the Rotorua volcanic region, and the mushroom-shaped quartz blows at Kuaotunu.
There are near Waihi in New Zealand several massive deposits of chalcedonic quartz which are stated by Rutley to be replacements of the andesitic country rock. A similar replacement of andesite by silica is described by Spurr as occurring at Monte Cristo district in Washington. In and I made an exhaustive examination of the Hauraki andesites for gold and silver.
The samples subjected to examination were selected by myself in situ. The analyses were conducted by the cyanide test, on samples ranging from 2lb. The cyanide solutions and washings were evaporated, fluxed with a little pure litharge and borax, and the resulting button of lead cupelled. Simultaneous tests were made so as to check the purity of the litharge and fluxes. All the andesites examined were found to contain gold at the rate of 1 gr.
The augite-andesite, at 3, ft. Park and F. The samples were selected from the least-altered rocks obtainable, and in no case did they contain visible pyrites. The evidence is by no means conclusive that the gold and silver are primary constituents. He states that his tests were made upon the concentrates obtained from large samples, by the method of crucible fire assay. His results, in the case of the unaltered andesites, were negative, from which be concluded that these rocks contained no gold.
The question that will naturally suggest itself to the mind of the metallurgical chemist, accustomed to the estimation of infinitesimal quantities of gold in cyanide solutions and residues, will be, is the method of crucible or pot assay capable of sufficient refinement to indicate the presence of gold in the proportion of a grain or two to the ton of rock? My early tests of the Hauraki andesites in were made by the crucible-assay method. The results, however, were often discordant and unsatisfactory, chiefly on account of the many sources of possible error inherent to the method—errors that it was found impossible to entirely eliminate.
Believing that trustworthy results could not be obtained by the pot assay, I adopted a method of leaching the pulverised rock with dilute solutions of potassium-cyanide. By this process larger samples could be tested than by fire assay, and the possible sources of error were reduced to a minimum. The crucible assay is clumsy, laborious, and, in my experience, incapable of the refinement required for the estimation of minute traces of gold even in the hands of the most skilful manipulator.
Discussing the assay of rocks, he. Don that country rocks can be assayed by panning down a quantity and assaying the residue has been tested, as well as the statement that pyrites must be present in order to find gold; and my experiments show that both statements are incorrect—or, at least, not in accord with my experience. At Te Aroha, near the northern boundary of the central volcanic region, there are in the andesites hot springs; twenty-five miles distant, soda-water springs; and at the Thames, ten miles further north, gas springs which discharge enormous volumes of carbon-dioxide.
In the mines in the north end of the Thames Goldfield the CO 2 issues with great force from cracks and fissures in the rocks. The mine-shafts are situated near the foreshore, and descend to depths varying from ft. In close muggy weather in summer, with a low barometer, the gas rises in the mines, and, flooding the workings, drives the miners before it.
Sometimes the gas rises up to the top of the shafts and overflows at the surface. Notwithstanding the special precautions employed to effect ventilation and to warn the men of danger, several fatal accidents have taken place in the past thirty years. In the Big Pump shaft the CO 2 escapes with such force as to cause violent boiling all over the surface of the water in the well. The depth of the shaft is 64ft. The commotion at the surface of the water at the ft. The pump has been raising water from this shaft for over a quarter of a century at the rate of gallons per minute.
The water is so highly charged with gas as to often cause trouble in working the pumps. The evidence favours the conclusion that the propylitisation of the andesites and formation of the lodes were the result of hydro-thermal action. In these the fibre and annular rings can be easily recognised, being extremely plain on polished surfaces. In the tuff-beds associated with the gold-bearing andesites masses. The Martha Lode and its numerous ramifying branches, the Silverton, Union, and Amaranth Lodes, at Waihi, are all contained in an area of about a square mile.
The huge lodes, wide zones of silicified andesite, and extensive propylitisation of the andesite, prove that Waihi was an area of intense hydro-thermal activity some time prior to the eruption of the later rhyolite-flows which now form the plains and wrap around the isolated outcrops of andesite containing the Martha and Silverton veins. The propylitisation has already been shown by the Waihi Mine workings to extend to a depth of nearly ft. Obviously the alteration of the andesite was due to the action of ascending and laterally moving thermal waters.
At Thames and Coromandel some of the most productive veins do not reach the surface of the enclosing rock, and the mine-workings at Waihi have disclosed a similar feature in connection with a few valuable veins in the Waihi company's property. In Captain F.
Hutton, as the result of a petrographical examination of the Thames Mining District, concluded that the veins were of hydro-thermal action. The Ohaeawai Hot Springs quicksilver deposits, on the mainland some distance north of the Hauraki Peninsula, are. Institute of Mining Engineers, vol.
Journal of Science, Vol. It is agreed by all geologists that the basalt constitutes the youngest rock-formation in the district. The surrounding country is studded with old craters, and there is everywhere evidence of former intense volcanic activity. The hot springs around which the quicksilver-deposits are clustered are situated about two miles south-east of Lake Omapere, which itself occupies the site of an old crater. They occur along the edge of a flow of basalt, which is overlain at this point by deposits of calcareous and siliceous sinter and solidified siliceous and carbonaceous muds, through which sulphur and cinnabar are finely disseminated.
There are also deposits of pyrites with or without cinnabar, in some cases containing traces of both gold and silver. The ground around the springs is generally very hot, and all attempts to develop the quicksilver-deposits have been frustrated by the large volumes of hot water encountered at shallow depths below the surface.
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Griffiths, who conducted extensive prospecting and mining operations there in and The mining operations and borings disclosed many important details which could not be gathered from a surface-examination. The iron-pyrites occurs in masses near the basalt, and also filling cracks and fissures in that rock. The thickness of the pyritic masses varies from 3in.
Close to the pyritic masses there is a hard white siliceous sinter from 8 in. It also occurs impregnating the sinter in an extremely finely divided form. Sulphur occurs the sinter in larger proportion than either the cinnabar or pyrites. The hot springs give off large quantities of H 2 S, and occasionally a little steam.
Sulphur is also being sublimed at the vents of openings in the rocks from which H 2 S and SO 2 gases escape. The prospecting-work conducted by Griffiths disclosed some interesting features. A deposit of cinnabar and pyrites crops out at the foot of the hills to the south-west of the main deposits. A shaft was sunk near it, and cut the lode at a depth of 35 ft. The ore was 2 ft. At this depth there was a strong evolution of H 2 S, and the heat of the rocks increased so rapidly with the depth that mining was extremely difficult.
It is noteworthy that the outcrop of this lode was found close to the charred trunk of a tree partially imbedded in hard siliceous mud. The trunk and roots of the tree were coated with a thin film of cinnabar, as also were some pieces of fossil kauri-gum found near the roots. A small trench was sunk over a small fumarole; and at a depth of 10 ft. At the same time it struck a fissure from which hot mud was projected a height of 60 ft. The mud was succeeded by boiling water charged with H 2 S gas, which was found to issue at a pressure of 30lb.
Griffiths further mentions that the richest deposits of cinnabar were found in close proximity to the hottest fumaroles, and that at very shallow depths a temperature was soon reached which precluded mining operation being carried on. The Ohaeawai hot springs cinnabar-deposits, although never likely to be turned to economic account, are of great scientific importance from the light which they throw upon the formation of sulphide ores by solfataric actions.
The deposits are still in process of formation, and metallic sulphides have been, and are still being, deposited in underground fissures and at the surface, together with the sinters which form the matrix. The hot springs and fumaroles owe their existence to the eruption of the basalt, but the basalt is manifestly not the. The source may not be deep-seated, but that it exists at some distance below the flow of basalt is almost certain. The waters of the Ohaeawai springs were found by Captain Hutton in to contain zinc, manganese, silica, free sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, but not traces of mercury.
Skey in gave the following results:—. Abundant evidence of the hydro-thermal origin of veins traversing eruptive rocks is also obtainable in Europe and America. In several of the mines in the Comstock Lode ascending thermal waters were encountered in the deep workings, and seriously impeded mining operations.
The quicksilver-mines at Sulphur Bank, in California, furnish important evidence in relation to the genesis of oredeposits by solfataric action. At this place the basements rocks are slates and sandstones overlain by a fresh-water. The sandstones and slates are broken and fissured in such a way as to form a breccia. The interspaces are filled partly with a still soft or already indurated siliceous paste, containing finely disseminated metallic sulphides, and partly with cinnabar, for the most part in coherent crusts. The silica-deposits are found in all stages of consolidation, from a gelatinous mass to chalcedony, and alternate with layers of metallic sulphides, consisting of cinnabar and pyrites.
Unfortunately, no information is obtainable as to the nature of the fresh-water formation lying between the Cretaceous sandstone and basalt. According to Becker, the hot water is rich in chlorides, borax, and sodium-carbonate. The gases liberated from the water consisted of parts of CO 2 , 2 parts of H 2 S, 79 parts of marsh-gas CH 4 , and 25 parts of nitrogen, in 1, parts. According to Dr. Melville the marcasite associated with the cinnabar contains traces of gold and copper; and in the efflorescence from the mine-workings Becker detected traces of cobalt and nickel.
In the upper zone only sulphur was found; lower down sulphur and cinnabar, and in depth cinnabar and pyrites occurring upon or within deposits of silica. The Steamboat Springs in Nevada also furnish important evidence of vein-filling by thermal waters. The floor of the valley is covered in places with a sheet of calcareous sinter in which there are many fissures,. From some of the springs hot vapours and gases, chiefly CO 2 and H 2 S, still issue. Becker found in the mineral water small amounts of mercury-sulphide and sodium-sulphide. About a mile to the west of the main group there are similar fissures yielding steam and CO 2.
In the sinters of these occur several metallic sulphides. Becker analysed the filling of several fissures and found. The occurrence of metallic sulphides in the sinters at Sulphur Bank, Steamboat Springs, and Ohaeawai hot springs; the mushroom-capped lodes at Waihi and Great Barrier Island; and the tree-stems replaced by sulphides found in veins at great depths below the present surface, afford conclusive evidence of the filling of veins by hot ascending waters and gases in areas occupied by later eruptive rocks.
It is a notorious circumstance that ore-deposits are most numerous in the neighbourhood of extended zones of eruptive rocks, as in Hungary, Transylvania, Nevada, Colorado, and New Zealand, where the vein-bearing rocks are principally andesite, phonolite, and trachyte. In other rocks veins are fewer and more scattered. Moreover, the roots of propylite veins will be difficult to distinguish from fissure-veins connected with a plutonic intrusion.
In Nevada the sulphur-bearing rock occurs in beds lying between limestone and magnesian rocks. In Utah the sulphur occurs associated with gypsum near an old crater. At Tikitere, in New Zealand, there are extensive deposits of sulphur in an old crater. A large proportion of the sulphur is the black amorphous variety. The heat of the fumaroles and hot springs is too great to permit the excavation of the sulphur to a greater depth than 6 ft. At White Island, in the Bay of Plenty, the deposits of sulphur occur in and around the crater-lake, mixed with gypsum.
The crater-water is hot, and highly charged with free hydrochloric and sulphuric acids. The gypsum is deposited in crystalline incrustations on the sides and floor of the crater-lake. The source of the lime has not yet been determined; but the supply must be constant, as gypsum is being deposited continuously. The sulphur is deposited in the water from gas-springs which are seen bubbling everywhere in the floor of the lake; and also from fumaroles around the margin of the crater.
Until lately it was the common belief that ore-deposits merely filled pre-existing fissures and cavities in the country rock. In recent years, writers on ore-formation have become convinced, as the result of microscopic examination, that many ore-bodies were merely metasomatic replacements of country rock that followed certain well-defined crush-zones of zones of metamorphism. According to this, it is surmised that in many cases no previous cavities existed, but that the waters altered and removed certain tracks or zones of rock which they partially or completely replaced with orematter and gangue.
This process of replacement is known to petrologists to have taken place among the constituents of many rock-masses, no matter how dense, including all metamorphic rocks, and all older igneous and eruptive masses. Thus, while pseudomorphism and metasomatism are closely related processes, it is found that they differ widely in the scope of their operation. Gneiss and mica-schist are familiar examples of the work of segregation and molecular rearrangement of the dominant constituents of sedimehtary rocks.
The internal changes that affect eruptives are known to every petrologist. Besides these changes, which are chiefly molecular, rock-masses, and especially eruptive rocks, may be so altered by the action of circulating waters as to bear no resemblance to the original rock. Thus, in many cases andesites have been changed to propylite by the removal of certain essential constituents and the substitution of others. That substitution did, however, take place in some kinds of deposits is well known.
In the tin impregnations found in granite in New South Wales, pseudomorphs of tin in the form of orthoclase are not uncommon; and many other examples could be quoted having reference principally to the replacement of isolated crystals in crystalline and eruptive rocks. Slow replacement of substance by a progressive movement of the solutions in a definite direction must be assumed to have taken place in the formation of ore-deposits composed of massive aggregates of ore and quartzose matrix.
In most cases the direction of movement would be determined by a rockfracture, fault-line, or crush-zone.
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In the case of deposits formed by deep-circulating solutions it is manifest that circulation could not be rapid, as the face or breast where metasomatic processes were active would form a blind end or cul-de-sac. Whatever circulation existed would be mainly due to convection currents, which in deep-seated cavities would of necessity be feeble. This raises the question as to the transference and supply of dissolved matter to the continually advancing faces of metasomatic action.
The energy which caused, or, at any rate, accelerated, this transference was probably osmotic pressure, which is a force. It has been proved that when a portion of dissolved substance is deposited from a solution at any point the osmotic balance is disturbed, and immediately more dissolved matter travels to that point, in accordance with the well-established laws of osmotic diffusion, thereby providing new matter to augment the growing mass of ore. Osmotic pressure is the chemical principle which compels solutions to maintain an equal state of concentration throughout their whole mass; and since it is always called into being when precipitation commences, its operation as an agency in veinfilling must not be overlooked.
Metasomatism is a process of lode-formation, and does not concern itself with the source or origin of the dissolved matter contained in the solutions. It is almost certain that metasomatic processes, to a greater or less degree, were active agencies in the formation and filling of the majority of pyritic ore-bodies.
Veins in which the mineral contents are arranged in symmetrical bands or crustifications can only be satisfactorily explained by supposing that the vein-matter was deposited in open channels, beginning with a crust on each wall, followed by subsequent crusts until the channel became closed or the solution exhausted.
It is not assumed that the vein fissure remained open its full width during the whole period of deposition of the vein-matter. It is more reasonable to suppose that the fissure gradually opened as the process of deposition proceeded, the newly formed matter affording the necessary support to the walls. The forces which initiated the fracture, if still in existence, would doubtless tend to reopen and widen the fissure from time to time.
The author has followed Stelzner's methods of microscopic chemical research with conspicuous success, in a field hitherto much neglected. His work further shows that a clear understanding of the genesis of a vein can only be obtained by a minute study of the rocks contiguous to the ore-body.
It is one of the leading igures of traditional calligraphy during the irst period of the PRC. He was persecuted during the Cultural Revolution, but after that he was rehabilitated and his art has known a new golden age. See Ivi, His compositions are characterized by the dilation of the space among characters, and by the reduction of the space among columns, so that he often creates apparently wrong links among characters belonged to diferent columns in the sense that the radicals of the characters placed on the right columns seem to belong to the characters placed on the left columns.
Wang Dongling Beijing: Zhongguo renmin daxue chubanshe, , It is part of a series com- posed of eight calligraphies written on magazine sheets of the size of 25 x 20 cm each. The black and white photograph reproduced on the magazine is a famous work by Edward Weston , the artist named in the title of the work.
In this photograph she is totally naked lying on the beach. This photo is part of one of the most famous series shot by Weston at Guadalupe-Nipomo Dunes, an isolated area of massive sand dunes in the center of California. Charis Wilson recalled that in the moment of the shoot, Weston was concentrated on photographing the landscape, when she took of her clothes and rolled down the sand dunes. He immediately focused his camera on her, capturing both the spontaneity of her freedom and her unabashedly sensual form. Not only ancient great masters, but also important modern calligraphers have shaped remarkable copies of it: it embodies the whole history of Chinese calligraphy from Ouyang Xun to Wang Dongling, from tradition to modernity.
The integration between China and the West is possible because both China and the West are equally represented in this work: 1. China through i calligraphy, Chinese art form par excellence, ii the use of ink, Chinese art tool par excellence, iii calligraphy used as a colophon, as usual in Chinese traditional painting; 2. The reason for mixing so many codes Chinese writing, English title, Arabic nu- merals, photographic image, magazine framework, mass media language, etc.
In his desire for an easier accessibility to art, we can also recognize his attempt to integrate local and global cultures. In this work, local culture is em- bodied within the calligraphy written in Chinese characters: Chinese writing is a closed writing system that is comprehensible only for its traditional users Chinese people.
On the contrary, global culture is embodied within contemporary society symbols and features: i worship of images the nude , ii mass media hegemony the magazine sheet , iii individualistic society the subject of a single woman that occupies the whole scene with her body , iv the babel of languages Chinese, English, and Arabic codes. The result is evident: even if Wang Dongling uses Western images, he remains deeply focused on his Chinese cultural reference system. By us- ing an external device, he wants to convey a Chinese concept deeply rooted in his own artistic tradition, translating it from a code to another.
It is not a coincidence that the selected text, the Heath Sutra, is also a translated text: it was originally written in Sanskrit and then translated into Chinese. On one hand, the references are passion and feelings; on the other hand, they are balance and harmony. The undisputed winner of this metaphorical battle always seems to be Chinese culture and its calligraphic tradi- tion.
Chinese modern calligraphy is the core of Chinese traditional art, and it embodies the real essence of Chinese art. The essence of their art is not so diferent from ancient times because they are still deeply rooted and dependent on Chinese tradition: Chinese charac- ters remain the basis of their works as well as techniques, tools, and aesthetic taste remain the same as in the past. However, Modernists are determined to include Western elements in their works because now they aim at shaping calligraphic forms so that they can be easily accessible and more attractive for Western audi- ence.
From the 80s to the beginning of the 21st century, their goal and their au- dience have totally changed: in the 80s and 90s they were deeply inluenced by Japanese and Western art and inserted foreign elements in their works in order to get Chinese traditional calligraphy away from its origin. That puts in evidence the inversion of an important cultural trend in China nowadays. The Avant-garde and Xu Bing As to the Avant-garde movement, it breaks with the tradition completely, aims at a radical, total transformation of calligraphic art, rejects the use of legible char- acters, and experiments with new languages and new media within the idiom of international contemporary art, in order to make people relect upon human condition or to challenge conventional thinking.
Chu Sang et al. What links modern calligraphy to the traditional one is its radical opposition to it. In this process, calligraphy represents the starting point of the creative process but not the inishing line. Gao Minglu, In this way, the aesthetic perception is similar to the structure of Chinese characters and to the struc- tural composition of a piece of traditional calligraphy, but no characters have been writ- ten, and no texts can be read. The result is something more similar to abstract painting than to calligraphic work. In this way, from being a local form of art, calligraphy opens itself to a global comprehension.
In this irst Figure 7. A schematic model of the main tendencies of the Avant-garde movement arranged by the author. In this period, the development of the move- ment depended to a great extent on the private initiative of the single artists. As a matter of fact, after the deconstructive fury of the 80s and of the 90s, in the last ifteen years the avant-garde artists are focusing on the opening to international market, in order to be more comprehensible also outside China and to override the opposi- tion of the government.
Now avant-garde art- ists aim at a real reconciliation between local and global cultures. Xu Bing is an international acclaimed artist, who usually lives in New York and Beijing. In he moved to the United States and he went back to China only in , when he was appointed as vice-director of the China Central Academy in Beijing. While Chinese characters are made up of several strokes written in the same imaginary square, here each word is made up of several letters written in the same imaginary square: in this way, each word becomes the equivalent of a character. From this apparently insigniicant observation, we can just easily understand what the author means with this work.
The Western one or the Chinese one? The utmost goal of these two artists is poles apart. Moreover, even if Xu Bing is an international artist who focused on global art panorama, in this work he does not completely give up his local and original cul- ture. If we consider the structure of the whole composition and of each of its ele- ments, we can easily identify a reminiscence of Chinese calligraphy compositions because: i the work is composed of two vertical scrolls, ii it is divided into ive columns, iii the title and the colophon at the beginning and at the end of the script are written in small characters, iv and each linguistic unit is inserted in an imaginary square, exactly like in every calligraphic work from ancient times until now.
In this speciic case, indeed, the text he selected was originally written by a Chinese monk another reference to his original culture , but it brings about a universal message. His extremely intuitive and opened art conception stands in stark contrast to that of the exclu- sive and closed calligraphic circles. He himself has claimed it was the event of September 11, in New York that inspired his work.
Like in all his works, also in this speciic case, Xu Bing proved to be deeply inluenced by current events and totally absorbed in global dynamics. Even if he still uses Chinese calligraphy traditional tools ink, paper, and brush , its reference system is no longer Chinese writing system: he resets the concept of wen through the implementation of another writing system and of another language. Sam Miller, 6. To viewers of these two cultures, the characters present equal points of familiarity and strangeness.
A Chinese person recognizes the characters as familiar faces but cannot igure out exactly who they are. Unlike Wang Dongling, who needed to use another code the visual code of igurative images to make his work readable for a non-Chinese audience, Xu Bing did not need any code changes: he still used linguistic code, even if he shifted from Chinese to English, and he also maintained the appearance of Chinese calligraphic forms.
Then, the result is the creation of something completely new that no longer belongs to only one culture, but that si- multaneously participates in Chinese and Western as well. Xu Bing inally creates a new language that is a well-balanced mix of diferent languages, which fundamen- tally does not completely belong to anyone so it could belong to everyone. Conclusions The analysis of two representative works by two important artists like Wang Dongling and Xu Bing has clearly showed how diferently the Modernist and the Avant-garde movements approach calligraphic art in China nowadays.
This difer- ence is fundamental to distinguish two contrasting positions within the cultural debate in contemporary China. In both cases, we can undoubtedly recognize an evident alteration of the traditional system of calligraphic art. Therefore, for the Modernists the cultural he- gemonic system still remains the Chinese one, while for the Avant-gardists, who succeeded in merging with the Western counterpart, the cultural reference be- comes the entire world system. Two are the main reasons for these diferent approaches: i the irst one de- pends on the diferent composition of the two movements, ii the second one on the diferent attitude of the central government, and of the oicial and academic See note With regard to the irst aspect, it is important to point out that the Modernists are for the most part out-and-out calligraphers or at most calligraphy-painters who are still living in China, and with a tradi- tional background, while most of the Avant-gardists are visual artists not ex- actly and not always calligraphers who lived or are still living abroad and with a ine arts background.
So, if for the irst ones it is very diicult to totally detach from traditional concepts and especially from the wen concept, for the second ones it is much easier to do that, because the Avant-garde artists feel free from any forms of authoritarianism, both in art and in culture. With regard to the sec- ond aspect, it is important to underline that the Modernist movement has always been appreciated and supported by the Chinese government and the academic institutions. Most of its members are professors in the major academies of the country.
Public museums contribute to their promotion, their initiatives are sup- ported and funded by public institutions, calligraphy and art magazines publish their articles and works, and their activities constantly increase and spread all over the national territory. The Avant-garde movement instead has never found fertile ground and good conditions to develop and widespread.
During the late 80s and early 90s, most of the avant-garde artists e. Xu Bing and Gu Wenda moved abroad because of the harsh critiques received in China. Today the gov- ernment and the cultural institutions have changed their approach and try to gain a dual-purpose: on one hand, they tend to absorb or at least to co-opt the avant-garde drifts for example, this is evident in the recent decision to designate Xu Bing as the vice-director of the China Academy of Fine Arts ; on the other hand, they are pushing the Modernist movement towards internationalization.
In order to do this, Chinese authorities are used to organize and support more and more activities, exhibitions, and conferences, which mutually involve Modernist and foreigner artists in China and they promote Modernist artists abroad. The analysis of the diferent approaches of the Modernist and the Avant-garde movements to the art of calligraphy has inally revealed the existence of two dif- ferent orientations in contemporary Chinese art and culture.
Both the movements relect the main aim of Chinese contemporary society at dialectically facing the past tradition and at opening at a new one as well. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Argan, Giulio Carlo. Milano: Sansoni, Barboza, David. Barrass, Gordon. The Art of Calligraphy in Modern China. London: British Museum Press, Beres, Tifany. Asian Art 15, 5 : La Cina dal ai giorni nostri. Bologna: Il Mulino, Bessire, Mark H. London: MIT Press, Carrante, Massimo. Chiang, Yee.