Thus, the provision of electronic services is different between the two clusters. They have the best indicators of resources and use of ICT. The database used does not allow an evaluation of all dimensions of the conceptual model of e-government Cunha and Miranda, , but the cluster had good results in the four dimensions analyzed. This cluster includes capitals and municipalities considered important in the Brazilian context, which already have smart initiatives. Once the city has a technology infrastructure and citizen services, it can interconnect citizens, urban services and other actors in the city, such as companies, third sector, universities, collectives.
From the crossing and analysis of the different data of the city, services and citizens, the decision making is facilitated and the management of the city is improved. By providing real-time information to citizens, they can make their personal decisions based on what is going on around them. Examples of such services are transport services, such as bus or transit applications. The municipalities of this cluster have the infrastructure to develop architecture for a robust, standard, open and interoperable technology platform that ensures the municipality does not become hostage to suppliers and ensures the development of an innovative ecosystem in the smart city.
These municipalities are minimally qualified to develop new ways of contracting suppliers, such as public-private partnerships PPPs and contract management or other forms of agreements with the establishment of levels of technological services. Finally, there are the municipalities that were not included in the clusters, possibly digitally excluded, with the worst socioeconomic indicators and indications of poor infrastructure and use of ICT. They have even greater challenges to develop their e-government and smart city actions. This study was guided by the question of how the infrastructure and the use of ICT characterize groups of municipalities.
The results showed that there are four clusters and identified their characteristics, which influence initiatives of e-government and smart cities. The study analyzed the profile of municipalities from four dimensions Cunha and Miranda, : City Hall infrastructure of connection, e-services and communication with the citizen, digital inclusion and e-transparency.
The study sought to contribute theoretically, describing a typology of municipalities from the characteristics of infrastructure and use of ICT. The results show four types, with different needs. According to the federal government, 1 ICT initiatives in governments aim at democratizing access to information and must follow three fundamental guidelines: citizen participation, improved internal management and integration with partners and suppliers.
However, generic recommendations do not serve all municipalities.
Public Service Delivery
E-government public policies recommending generic principles in Brazil may not have achieved the expected effects, and the same may happen with smart city initiatives. The research of e-government and smart cities in developing countries should consider the steps that must be taken at the municipality level. Challenges are not trivial and actions that consider differences between the cities can leverage results. Municipal governments are responsible for defining public policies according to local priorities. Efforts should be made to use ICT in order to transform life and work in a region in a meaningful way.
Different groups of municipalities were identified, each with specific requirements for the best use of ICT. One of the limitations of this study is that the variables that make up each dimension were extracted from a secondary source, Munic , which does not completely define the use of ICTs in municipalities.
When conducting the Munic research, IBGE made changes on the set of questions asked to the municipalities in comparison to previous research. This made it difficult to analyze in depth the development of the topic through history and diminished the capacity of discrimination among the groups of municipalities.
However, Munic is a national study that has been conducted regularly for a number of years and therefore allows for some comparison. There seems to have been an evolution in the use of ICTs by municipalities between Sano, and Przeybilovicz, Silva and Cunha, One suggestion for future studies is to analyze how the use of ICT in the municipalities evolves, using the same database, comparing states, regions and municipalities, and to carry out analyzes within the clusters found in this study. Other studies may seek to analyze more closely the concepts and characteristics of development and deployment of e-government and smart city projects.
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Looking at the e-government literature can shed light on how the term and smart city initiatives are being appropriated in the Brazilian context. Perspectives from other fields of knowledge, such as political science, public management, urban management and sociology, may complement research on e-government and smart cities.
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This session addresses the future of PR in the context of a data driven digital communications environment. While many people have been sounding the death knell of PR for years, PR professionals have adapted fast and they are actually alive and kicking! Added to basket.
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