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If you have two vanishing points visible, you can't go beyond than that without breaking the system. In fact, the system is already pretty much broken if both vanishing points are visible and it shows as excessive depth. I haven't discussed third vanishing point in the example, because it's basically the same as the one on the left, besides it's above or below the beholder. It won't help the beholder in her quest of seeing the wall 2 from the front. The moment we introduce fourth vanishing point, we are moving beyond the field of classical perspective. At this point there are no straight lines anymore and it's really not possible to construct such perspective with straight ruler.

The guidelines become arcs. So the only way to show both walls 1 and 2, you need separate frames for them. So the problem is that on a flat canvas, you can never show what really is on the left side of the beholder. That's the limit of 2D. In order to show the second wall, you will need to apply perspective distortion that mimics eye movement. It's an illusion which works quite well. Panorama pictures are excellent examples of this. The road is straight, no matter how you brains try to tell you that it's arcing. The reason that the example 4. When you move your eyes or turn your head, you won't even notice such distortion taking place.

Your brains don't need that information. When you are presented such "unwrapped" perspective, your brains won't understand it naturally. However, if you re-wrap the perspective, you can see that it forms that familiar 3D illusion.

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I applied mesh transformation in Clip Studio Paint to reconstruct the unwrapped view. Applying distortion Distorted perspective can't show everything, but it can show more than classical perspective with straight guidelines. It's possible to draw 6-point perspective which includes the vanishing point behind the beholder, but it's not possible to draw it without discontinuity in some areas. You need two 5-point perspectives to pull it off. Fortunately, in most cases you don't need to show anything that's behind the beholder though.

Distorted perspective isn't easy to construct. But what's great about art is that it doesn't have to be perfectly executed in order to be convincing and believable. Careful amount of distortion really makes the difference. Although I mind the perspective system, I hardly ever really construct it.


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I want to trust my intuition and perception. I'm fairly good at figuring out the relationship between the beholder and the objects she sees, but I'm not perfect either. You can see an example about few imperfections in one of my example pictures. My goal was to tie my understanding to what I've been taught and this was excellent practice for that. Nsio of the Hermit Mystics. Add a Comment:. Load All Images.

Looks great. Good way for cartoonists to learn about interesting perspectives and shots. Sorta kinda confused on this still. Maybe I should re read this. But I'll give practicing some perspective shoots a try and do my best to grasp the idea of it. Thanks for your work! Would really like to buy your book, if u will ever write one! Yo, great eye-opening perspective discussion. Upon reading it, I immediately wanted to try and do it myself. And, only naturally, questions arise. The orientation and placement of the beholder was really well explained.

However, when it came to the objects with the scene, I find it a little hard to apply the logic to it. Say, you are looking at a cube from a 2-point perspective base, how will the guidelines bend and distort? I tried to identify the plane of a wall seen from an oblique angle and trying to apply distortion from it. It was stuck on whether the guidelines would bend up or down making the wall bulge in, out, or warp around the image. If my question didn't make quite any sense, then I would happily link a crude diagram of my issue.

Another question I have is about you demonstration of wrapping up a panorama into what I assume is 4 Point perspective. I sometimes wonder whether that scenario could just be done in a 1 Point perspective. Also, about the demonstration with the worm's eye view of the room, may I ask why the guidelines are bent as such? Looking from the other examples, it could be related to the beholder's height in the scene. I do understand that there are six vanishing points and distortion could be used to bring more life to the straight and stiff perspective scenarios. I look forward to seeing you reply, once you have the free time to do so, of course.

Note that in 2 point perspective, there are only 2 vanishing points and no more. Thus, you cannot distort the guidelines, because there are no other vanishing points for them. You can check how things distort in perspective by holding something like a book close to your eyes and then watch what happens in your peripheral vision. The larger the object is, the easier it is to see the distortion. Basically the closest part of the objects seems to buldge towards you, while the edges seem to bend away from you. No, the panorama view cannot be done with 1 point perspective.

The height of the eye level on that scene only makes the distortion above more pronounced, because the ceiling is farther away from the eye level. I saw that effect the most clear when I got myself the new glasses. They made my vision sort of When I first wore them, I realised that what I was taught about perspective was not completely valid. But I guess the job of an art teacher or any teacher, perhaps is to teach students basic things and shortcuts and encourage them to explore the more advanced material on their own. Wait so is this stuff supposed to be for everything?

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First slide got me confused lol. Basically, it's supposed to be for everything, if the goal is to achieve real and natural perspective. However, in many cases the distortion is so insignificant it can be ignored. Sometimes the effect isn't desirable at all. I can never be able to understand this I have noticed that curve kind'a thing before, like when you look at a tile floor, and follow it to where you're standing, and behind you, where the vanishing point's at both ends.

It's nice that someone else has noticed that type of thing. I thought I'd mention this now. Yes, that's just the effect, on a tile floor it's very evident. Probably ceilings more so. Then, there's also the issue with cameras, where if you take a photo in a small bedroom, all the walls are bowed.

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It seems like having the slight arcs in pictures can really help make them look more real or organic. I suppose it would've been harder to tell before cameras were invented, though. Or maybe the perspective lines were always meant to just be a rough guide instead of taken literally. The current theory of perspective just works so well and it's easy to construct.

Since all lines are straight, it's easy to draw everything with a ruler, it's easy to set useful reference points and place the elements in perspective. When there are no straight lines, the benefits of perspective grids are lost. The perspective changes all the time so you can't use any ruler or define useful guidelines. From there on it's just about making decent guesses.

Anyway, the current theory isn't wrong by all means.

It's just simplified and designed to work in certain situations where minor distortions don't really matter. The rules are the same with "real" perspective, it's just that the beholder acts more like a static camera with limited field of vision. All in all, perspective is just a tool and theory to simplify the reality and art is all about making convincing illusions, so it's not that important to follow everything literally as long as the artist understand what she is doing. You should change your name you humble intelligent organism lol.

Nsio, am enjoying your tutorials and learning as well. These are very helpful. Especially the one on perspective answered questions that I have always had in mind. Still more to go as I practice. Contrary to your forte, I have never drawn females! Hoping to learn with the help of your tutorials Thank you again!

Holydiver79 Featured By Owner Apr 23, Great tutorials! Although it's aimed for comic artists, many things in it can be applied on any field of art. Hey was wondering how to you determine which way the distortion guides bend? For the two examples on the right the distortion lines coming towards the viewer above the horizon bend in opposite directions. Why is this? The top right example my profile pic is actually faulty by the rules I presented.

There the distortion is more about dynamism rather than distortion of perspective caused by eye movement. I think I wanted to "curl" the scene around the focus point for the sake of composition, but honestly I'm not sure what I was thinking when I drew that. Another explanation could be that the eyes of the beholder move sideways along a linear path. So if you look at the vanishing point, the edge of the table is on the left. Once you look at the intersection of the table and canvas edge, your eyes has moved to the left.

So the viewpoint slightly changes depending on which area you are looking at. It sounds weird and I don't think that was my original goal when I drew this. So as a general rule, if you have a vanishing point in front of you as you do , the guidelines bend away from you once you start moving your eyes around. For a specific pose the bottom part from the horizon down is equal no matter the depth? If you could measure the b and c or a and d, you would confirm them different you just can't take in account the depth in your measures.

The proportional relationship between the measures are still equal. Of course, in 2D the measures are still not equal, just like in the case above. I've never noticed that relation to propotions in terms of perspective. But you explained everything already - it's about proportional equality. I was only told the fact that the horizon crosses the body at the same place regardless the distance, but I figured out the proportional relevance myself.

It's basically just another way to explain this phenomenon, but since I prefer working with proportions and scales, it suits my thought process better. I guess I understand why they say that mathematics is so beautiful system. We are very good at recognizing the perspective and spontaneously see errors, especially if we see human figure in perspective.

This happens when you draw human figure equal in height from two dimensional point of view. It's clear though that in the context, it's wrong. The figure on the left looks larger than on the right, but they are actually equal in size in 2D. We naturally compare the subject to the environmental cues such as storey height and the width of the road. If you need to draw whole perspective yourself, it's easier to make mistakes because you don't have rigid visual cues unless you know how to use perspective guidelines.

This is terrible! But a fine example. I see what you mean. I've found for myself that when I draw some perspective guidelines horizon and lines from both ends that form a box for the character , the drawing turns out rather fine. Because I see how the figure sits in perspective and what parts of the body what directions are facing. But all that works when I don't mess up the guidelines and I manage to nail the figure somehow. I guess with time and practice, artists get better and they know where the guides are and don't need to explicitly draw them.

I remember seeing an artist drawing Chun-Li. He started with clean lines from the get-go. Almost no guides if any at all. Very helpful. I didn't think of the lines bending like this, but I agree, the straight lines always seem too organized to be how people really see the world. Nice explanation on the distortion. There are several instances that perspectives needs to be better that we usually do and it gives that feel on how perceive it with our eyes. Then there's the recut. Now it's night and Kowalski meets the nameless hitchhiker Charlotte Rampling. First Kowalski passes her but then he stops, backs up a bit and says: Kowalski: "I'm heading for Frisco.

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Soft music starts playing while both take off into the night. Kowalski then asks her: "Have you, uh, been waiting a long time? I didn't mean to be rude. While they continue driving they pass a sensor of the California Highway Patrol which monitors their way. Cut to the headquarters and we see the light spot move on along the road on the map. Cut back to Kowalski stopping alongside the street and turning off the car.

He takes the almost finished joint out of the hitchhiker's hand and throws it out. She, almost asleep, asks: "What's happened? First, last and only. What's yours? You make it sound like a good place. I like you, Kowalski. I like you. I've been waiting for you for a long time. Oh, how I've waited for you. Since when? Everywhere and since forever.

That's the only way to wait for somebody. Kowalski touches her chin, moves forward and kisses her. Now we cut to the headquarters of the Highway Patrol again. This scene follows right after the phone call in the US version. After the brief interlude with the Highway Patrol the UK version shows a conclusion of Kowalski's meeting with the hitchhiker. It's morning and Kowalski's car still rests alongside the road.