The studying of this material shall constitute an affirmation by students of their commitment to respect the dignity of all races and peoples and to forever eschew every form of discrimination in their lives and careers. In addition, the Illinois Social Science Assessment Framework gives a detailed description of what students should learn about the civil rights movement. The framework builds on the figures and events learned in fifth grade with additional details and a requirement for more conceptual understanding of the causes of social movements:.
These include links to the King Institute and a timeline of events in the civil rights movement. Both are externally produced content. The single resource for black history links to www. They appropriately portray the civil rights movement as the work of many groups and individuals. The standards do not include resistance to the civil rights movement or racism. Illinois should consider including some of its own rich connections to movement struggles if it revises its documents and resources.
Requiring students to be able to identify Malcolm X is not the same as challenging students to compare Black Power to nonviolent resistance. Some attention to redressing repetition in the standards from grade to grade could create room for inclusion of history, tactics and opposition to the benefit of Illinois students. History, a high school course. One deals directly with the civil rights movement:. Describe political, economic and social conditions that led to the civil rights movement.
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Identify federal, state and civil rights leaders who played a central role in the movement and describe their methods. Give examples of actions and events that characterized the movement as well as the legislative and judicial responses. Indiana does not set out specific content requirements for study of the civil rights movement before high school. The standard indicators outline a number of events, personalities and concepts related to the civil rights movement:.
This site, which requires registration, is a place for Indiana educators to share materials. The civil rights-related materials on this site are either scarce or difficult to access. Unlike many state standards, they identify original historical documents by name. They do an excellent job of identifying key individuals, groups and events of the civil rights movement.
However, they are considerably weaker when approaching resistance to the movement and its causes. George Wallace appears between Stokely Carmichael and Earl Warren in a list of people whose relationships are not explored. Iowa has statewide mandated core-content standards only in reading, math and science. The students identify how the actions of participants and groups in the civil rights movement impacted the lives of the individual and changed group decision-making. Its online educator community, The Agora, does not have readily accessible resources for teaching the movement. Iowa has, essentially, decided against having standards for social studies and history.
The state offers no materials supporting teaching and learning about the civil rights movement. As in many states, Martin Luther King Jr. The civil rights movement receives a more comprehensive treatment in the high school United States History course. As the Standards explains:. The second half of the 20th century saw dramatic changes in how Americans perceived race relations and the concept of equality.
In this unit, students will compare and contrast the role of the many different groups who took an active stance against discrimination in all parts of American society, including economic, political, and social injustice. The Standards further embeds the civil rights movement in high school United States Government, explicitly linking the movement to ideas of civic responsibility as well as a lens into the processes of institutional change. Students need to know how concepts of rights have changed over time and how social and governmental institutions have responded to issues of rights and diversity.
It directs teachers to a number of quality external lessons that use original historical documents, including lessons from The New York Times and Education World. The resources supporting teaching about the civil rights movement include several lesson and unit plans and are clearly organized by grade and topic. They do not include much in the way of original content, instead directing teachers to external sites.
They identify a number of key concepts, people and events in the civil rights movement. There is still considerable room for improvement — the new standards operate more as a list of ideas rather than as a narrative that might offer more substantial guidance to teachers. In particular, reading the standards does not give a sense of how the civil rights movement fits into the arc of American history or how the key terms relate to each other.
Mentioning Three Mile Island in a list that includes Pine Ridge and Montgomery does little to elucidate the importance of each place or the events that happened there. In addition, there are still significant content gaps in the standards—they could do much better in discussing the history of the movement and its obstacles to success.
Mentioning George Wallace and Orval Faubus is not the same as a detailed discussion of the nature and scope of resistance the movement faced. As Kansas continues to develop its history resources, it should look further across the Internet and collect resources from effective teachers to share across the state.
It identifies a number of key concepts for teaching the civil rights movement but does little to link those concepts together in a coherent arc. In addition, Kentucky misses opportunities to draw from its own rich movement history. From Muhammad Ali to the Louisville fight against restrictive housing covenants, Kentucky has been an active site of struggle and resistance to the civil rights movement. Additional lesson plans and guidance for using original historical documents would help fill the gaps created by the standards.
Revised in , the Curriculum focuses instruction about the civil rights movement in high school, with one mention before that. Louisiana requires second-grade students to learn about Martin Luther King Jr. Students learn about the civil rights movement in the context of Louisiana history.
The Curriculum requires study of Brown, school integration and Louisiana events in the civil rights movement. It includes use of visual documents for students to construct a newscast about one of the major movement events. Board of Education, Dr. The unit U. History curriculum covers to the present. Unit Seven includes study of A. Students learn how post-war social and political movements brought about change by analyzing the methods used by leaders, the effectiveness of legislation, and the impact of key events.
Students understand the role and importance of the civil rights movement in the expansion of opportunities for African Americans, Native Americans, Mexican Americans, and women in the United States.
- THE WARREN COMMISSION'S REPORT - The New York Times.
- Appendix 16 | National Archives!
- 11/22/63 Books.
Two GLEs specific to the civil rights movement itself are:. Puzzlingly, the civil rights movement is listed as an activity in this unit after study of a number of other social movements. Other than what seems to be a sequencing error, the civil rights movement content in this document is superb.
Multiple units link time-tested teaching strategies to movement ideas, figures and events. The lessons reach well beyond the traditional movement narrative, from the murder of Emmett Till to Watts and beyond. Throughout, the curriculum directs teachers to valuable resources available online, including many original historical documents. As this part of the curriculum doubles as supporting material, it was evaluated in both categories here as in the case of a few other states.
Books by Walt Brown
Louisiana requires students to take one social studies elective. The course begins with ancient Africa and ends with the civil rights movement. It uses the following objectives:. Students will understand the effects of Jim Crow laws on the day-to-day activities of African Americans. Students will understand how boycotts, sit-ins, and other forms of civil disobedience were used as effective tools that helped to end many legal and institutional forms of racism. Students will understand that there were many instances in which blacks and whites worked together to end decades of racial discrimination toward African Americans in the United States.
It encourages the use of original historical documents and integrates well-supported teaching strategies to teach the movement. High school teachers would do well to consult the U. History unit as well as the African American Studies unit when planning instruction for their classrooms. This does not mean there is not room for improvement in Louisiana—coverage of the movement is substantially weaker in the early grades, and documents could be made more searchable for outside access. Overall, Louisiana leads the nation in efforts to teach the civil rights movement. It does not mention the civil rights movement.
The Maine Department of Education website provides no supporting materials for teaching the civil rights movement. The civil rights movement is only one of many essential topics in American history that the state has chosen not to require. Unlike other local-control states, Maine provides no supporting materials for teaching the civil rights movement.
This burdens teachers, schools and districts. In Maryland, the major documents considered for this study were the State Curriculum revised and state curricula for U. Government and U. History courses. Both of the courses are required for high school graduation. In kindergarten and first grade, students are asked to learn about Martin Luther King Jr. The kindergarten social studies standards identify Rosa Parks as an important figure in the American political system. The required U. Government course curriculum includes several items relevant to study of the civil rights movement:.
The state curriculum for the required U. History class includes the following expectations relevant to the civil rights movement:. The U. The Maryland School Improvement website offers limited resources to support teaching the civil rights movement. It does contain a lesson on the desegregation of the armed forces , which takes the form of a guided historical investigation, encouraging students to explore multiple original historical documents. A similar lesson covers the social response to lynching. Both lessons and their supporting materials are thoughtfully constructed and useful to educators.
This partnership has produced lessons across grade levels that are aligned with museum content. Some of the lessons are collected online. Several are movement-related.
The lessons as a whole are excellent—most teachers could immediately use them in their classrooms. Another two learning objectives focus on Martin Luther King Jr. The state does an admirable job of covering diverse tactics, and is one of only a handful of states to include the urban uprisings of the s in its required curriculum. Slight modifications to these standards could yield substantial impact.
They could be improved by making explicit linkages to current events and civic engagement. Integrating learning across grade levels will allow the state to add more required content in appropriate sequences while increasing awareness of this essential period in American history. The Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework has students learning about the civil rights movement only in high school.
These will be completed in the summer of These units are not intended to be a full curriculum, but are designed for voluntary use or adaptation by school districts. They are accessible online with free registration. Some units include content relevant to teaching the civil rights movement. This unit connects King and Bridges with other individuals involved in global struggles for civil rights.
Students learn about some tactics, such as sit-ins, but are not encouraged to explore the debates about tactics within the movement. Requiring students to learn about Malcolm X does not mean that they will examine the relative merits of Black Power and nonviolent resistance. This view is unlikely to allow students to better understand current events and improve their civic engagement. Massachusetts could improve its documents and resources by connecting with local struggles, such as the busing controversies in Roxbury and elsewhere in the s.
These local connections allow students to understand opposition to the civil rights movement as something that extended and continues to extend beyond such commonly known figures as Bull Connor and the Ku Klux Klan. The supporting materials show promise but have considerable room to grow. They are easy to access and clearly organized. However, they focus on individuals rather than on the movement as a whole and do not reach beyond the basic narrative of the civil rights movement.
Michigan has content standards and more detailed learning benchmarks and covers civil rights in high school only. The civil rights movement is the third of three major topics included in a unit that covers the post-World War II era until The specific standards are:. The Michigan Department of Education does not provide teaching resources for any curriculum areas. Upon request, they do provide connections to content-specific organizations in Michigan. Their social studies consultant has recently established a committee to gather and promote resources on the civil rights movement.
Suggested content does include a variety of significant events and key groups but does not provide the kind of historical context and study of opposition that students need to fully understand the movement. It is encouraging that Michigan plans to fill its current gap in resources for teachers working to educate students about the civil rights movement. Minnesota has adopted new social studies academic standards for the school year. Standard 20 in the U. For example: Miranda v.
Strengths might include—expanded rights to new group of Americans, established tribal sovereignty, collaborative effort of multiple groups in American society, provided a financial safety net for individuals. Weaknesses might include—too expensive, unintended consequences, caused more problems than it solved. Later, the standards discuss the rights and responsibilities of citizens in a republic.
THE WARREN COMMISSION'S REPORT
Board of Education, Miranda v. Sixth-grade students are encouraged to make connections to Minnesota in their study of the civil rights movement. These are all discussed in the context of civics and government education. Seventh graders learn about the black codes as they study Reconstruction. After Reconstruction, as in many states, the Great Migration is included in a discussion of national transformation. Several benchmarks in the high school history standards are relevant to study of the civil rights movement.
For standards designed to guide students and teachers toward big questions about the nature of American history, they do an outstanding job. They are especially effective in encouraging teachers and students to connect the institutionalized racism of Jim Crow laws to other discriminatory periods in American history. The standards do lack depth and breadth, however. They would be greatly improved by increasing the level of detail, providing more specific guidance to teachers and students.
A number of the related required competencies and objectives deal directly with the civil rights movement. Notably, many of the competencies and objectives are related to helping students gain a deep understanding of the importance of mutual tolerance, respect and civil liberties in everyday society. Others deal with historical and contemporary pushes for human and civil rights.
The Mississippi Social Studies Framework describes the new strands:. This education should lead learners to understand and appreciate issues such as social justice, power relations, diversity, mutual respect, and civic engagement. Students should acquire a working knowledge of tactics engaged by civil rights activists to achieve social change.
The competencies and objectives in the culture strand aim to place historical events, actors and prominent ideas in a cultural context. Students should be able to relate better to historical and contemporary events and see them as alive with possibility and open for critique. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of mass culture media, arts, religion, contemporary sentiments, etc. Understand the influences of historical documents e. Constitution, the Bill of Rights, the Emancipation Proclamation, etc.
Understand how the civil rights movement achieved social and political change in the United States and the impact of the civil rights struggle of African Americans on other groups including but not limited to feminists, Native Americans, Hispanics, immigrant groups and individuals with disabilities :. The Minority Studies framework does not substantially add to the content stipulated in the required course standards, with the exception of a benchmark that requires students to learn about the effects of racism in contemporary society, including discussion of economic policies and ongoing inequalities.
The African American Studies framework does add some depth, explicitly linking the legacy of slavery and its legal protections to Jim Crow through the development of the modern civil rights movement. It also covers the desegregation of the military and encourages students to compare and contrast the major intellectual wings of the civil rights movement.
This framework, like the Minority Studies framework, covers institutionalized racism and its persistence in current events. It explains the legislative mandate in Mississippi for education about civil rights and points teachers to a selection of websites most centered on Mississippi for further investigation. The state does include a number of leaders in its suggested content, but the events list falls short, relying on Mississippi-centered content. The standards do an excellent job of sequencing content across grades, however, as well as linking the civil rights movement to current events.
Among the national standards, they are exceptional at explicit links to citizenship and civics. Overall, more work should be done to set appropriate and high expectations in a state whose progress in education has repeatedly attracted national attention. As Mississippi refines its new standards, it should include more directed requirements to learn about the obstacles to the civil rights movement as well as internal debates about its tactics. This same item, with the addition of the American Revolution, appears in the requirements for the U.
Government course. This website lists possible research topics and links to eight lesson plans, most from Missouri-based SuccessLink. While the lessons are good, they lack the breadth necessary for a full treatment of the nuanced aspects of the civil rights movement. The resource page is not easy to locate. Louis, Missouri, citizens have a variety of role models to learn from in their own state. Unfortunately, by omitting the civil rights movement, the state has lost the opportunity to spotlight local or national figures, groups, events and tactics.
The state could make up for this gap by developing rich resources for teachers and students, but has not yet taken this opportunity. Elementary and Middle School Grade 3 Identify significant historical sites in Alabama, including locations of civil rights activities. Grade 4 Describe the social, political and economic impact of the civil rights movement on Alabama. Grade 6 Describe the role of major civil rights leaders and significant events occurring. Explaining contributions of individuals and groups, including Martin Luther King Jr. Describing the impact of African-American entrepreneurs including S.
Fuller and A. Supporting Resources The Alaska Department of Education website offers no materials for teaching and learning about the civil rights movement. Arizona The Major Documents Arizona has five master strands for social studies education in its Academic Standards revised High School U. Popular culture e. Protest movements e. Assassinations e. Kennedy, Martin Luther King Jr. Kennedy, Malcolm X. Shift to increased immigration from Latin America and Asia. Grade 4 Identify major historical events that occurred during the 20th century e.
Grade 6 Examine the following components of the civil rights movement: Freedom Riders, sit-ins, organized marches, boycotts, school integration and the Ku Klux Klan KKK. Constitution protects the rights of individuals e. Arizona, Tinker v. Des Moines, Gideon v. Examine changes in civil rights legislation e. Identify United States presidents and summarize their roles in the civil rights movements: Harry S.
Truman, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. AP United States Government and Politics The Arkansas Department of Education Enhanced AP United States Government and Politics curriculum framework includes the following items in the section on civil rights and equal protection: Barriers to voting, including the white primary, the grandfather clause, poll taxes, literacy tests, acts of violence and intimidation.
Brown v. Board of Education : reversal of Plessy v. The civil rights movement. Changes in civil rights legislation e. Compare and contrast the views of various civil rights leaders e. Examine the role of government in securing civil rights e. Supporting Resources The Arkansas Department of Education provides relevant online resources to aid teachers. Elementary and Middle School Kindergarten Identify the purposes of, and the people and events honored in, commemorative holidays, including the human struggles that were the basis for the events e.
Grade 3 Describe the lives of American heroes who took risks to secure our freedoms e. Examine and analyze the key events, policies and court cases in the evolution of civil rights, including Dred Scott v. Sandford, Plessy v. Ferguson, Brown v. Board of Education, Regents of the University of California v.
They only see one thing: we have come here and stolen their country. Why should they accept that? Assuming it was correct it probably was, as the witness Mrs Markham was leaving her house to catch the 1. The honour spawned a number of articles about him and his exploits. See Montreal newspapers various for details plus the Toronto Globe and Mail , which also carry his obituaries.
Details can be found on both the Canadian and the French Legal Directories for the time. See also: Phillips and Vineberg. Kennedy was organised by Bloomfield and Permindex. Edgar Hoover and William Sullivan. Torbitt claims that Bloomfield was in control of the operation. Bloomfield, who donated his papers in to the Canadian Public Archives, under the condition that they were to be released 20 years after his death i.
His archives contain hundreds of pieces such as cables and letters documenting the activities of the organisation. Details of the court case can be followed in the various Canadian Court reports. At the time of writing it still remains bogged down in the Canadian courts. The travails of the first black Secret Service Agent on the Presidential detail are well described with detailed references in Ultimate Sacrifice.
He surfaced 44 years later in November , telling his story to the American media. Chicago Tribune. Turner Rice, Dawn 18 January The testimony of Bowers and the deaf mute Hoffmann is too close to be explained away as coincidence. See the Warren Commission Hearings, vol. Bowers, Jr. Myers in See t he Testimony of Lee Bowers, Jr. See Warren Commission Hearings and Testimony. Online, Brading-Braden gets a lot of attention: see the various allegations and references, eg, Spartacus and the NameBase Proximity websites.
In Samuel set up shop as a alcoholic beverages distributor, founding the Distillers Corporation in Montreal in , specializing in cheap whiskey. See Peter C. Bronfman eventually built an empire based on the appeal of brand names developed previously by Seagram. See The Seagram Company Ltd. See also, Christopher G. See Robert D. JFK was assassinated. Before her death on 22 June , author and lecturer Robert Gaylon Ross had the opportunity to conduct an minute interview with Madeleine Duncan Brown and from that lengthy discussion, her version of exactly who was behind the assassination of JFK was exposed.
Kennedy was elected as presidential candidate with Johnson as his running mate, where H. Hunt, an American oil tycoon, and Lyndon Johnson hatched the assassination plot. Some key extracts are:. Hunt met three days prior to the election — they finally cut a deal according to John Currington an aide to H. Hunt and H. When H. Brown said that in the immediate aftermath of the convention Hunt and Johnson mapped out a strategy to kill Kennedy. Brown was in Dallas in the day of the assassination but just as the parade for Kennedy was beginning she left and began driving towards Austin, first stopping off to have a haircut.
Upon entering a hair salon she saw the news that Kennedy had been shot and immediately thought to call Lou Sterret , who was an Austin media mogul. The Warren Commission made the bullet, exhibit CE , central to their findings and the single-bullet theory. He fired at animal carcasses and, finally, in desperation even at soft blocks of gelatine. In every case the Mannlicher Carcano bullets emerged deformed. See the Warren Report and hearings and Mortal Error.
Not everyone signed up to the Magic Bullet theory. See for, example, Bethesda autopsy witness Lt Col. They ignored him. Wayne and Edna Hartman were standing on the South East corner of Dealey Plaza and noticed two small mounds of freshly turned soil on the grass.
The bullet tracks pointed back — towards the area of the grassy knoll. When the death certificate eventually burst into print in it contradicted the testimony that he had signed off on at Bethesda, and placed the back wound where it really was, low on the shoulder blade, not high up near the neck as Warren and the Autopsy Report claimed. See the photographs outside the TSBD, the FBI official letters and the proliferation of conspiracy theories and claims in dozens of books and websites.
He specifically names George Bush and Zapata as being involved. Now the triple coincidence there is. See below. My job responsibility was as a junior watch officer. I do not recognize the contents of the memorandum as information furnished to me orally or otherwise during the time I was at the CIA. In fact, during my time at the CIA I did not receive any oral communications from any government agency of any nature whatsoever.
Based on the above, it is my conclusion that I am not the Mr George Bush of the Central Intelligence Agency referred to in the memorandum. He was an expert on air reconnaissance and air intelligence matters. Banister was running a network of student on-campus informers on behalf of the US intelligence agencies.
See the good description of what happened to him after that in Benson and also Crossfire. As a primary source it is unreliable as it leaves out a lot of detail, and unsurprisingly borders on admiring hagiography. Reuters News Service, 26 June Rose Cheramie was found under the wheels of a car on 4 September There are numerous books on Guevara.
Wikipedia leads the pack, listing no less than primary sources, plus over 50 interviews and first-hand accounts. Ira Wood has compiled an excellent chronology of the JFK assassination including many useful primary references for researchers. As demolition jobs go it is a classic and buries any idea that the CIA was either cost-effective or a force for good. This proved a serious failing, as the CIA lacked the cold critical analysis of independent and well-informed SIGINT officers and tended to view things Cuban as they wished them to be and not as they really were.
There are many claims that link the CIA to organised crime. For details of CIA drug running etc. See also Benson , and the testimony of various CIA senior officers — including their own Inspector General — to the several Capitol Hill committees over the past thirty years. According to dedicated researchers Mockingbird has not been closed down but still operates under new cover. See: Ultimate Sacrifice for a detailed listing of primary sources. That the CIA specialised in undercover operations and dirty tricks is no secret.
That they were not above using philanthropic foundations as the most effective conduit to channel large sums of money to Agency projects without alerting the recipients to their source is well documented. It ended up as a cover for opium smuggling. George Robert, chief of the U. He points out that the French Connection found its basis on the control of the opium production in the Golden Triangle by the French SDECE military intelligence agency, who financed its covert operations during the First Indochina War That the CIA was out of political control in the early s is no great revelation.
The Central Intelligence Agency violated its charter for 25 years until revelations of illegal wiretapping, domestic surveillance, assassination plots, and human experimentation led to official investigations and reforms in the s, according to declassified documents posted in by the National Security Archive at George Washington University. However the sheer breadth and admission of their wider crimes and exploits is still extraordinary. Howard Hunt requests a lock picker p. Angleton and issue of training foreign police in bomb-making, sabotage, etc.
All now deceased. In a grisly end to the whole affair, the FBI asked the Connally family if they could examine the body during the funeral of Governor Connally on 17 June Unsurprisingly, the angry Connally family refused in fairly terse language. It is a curiosity of our age that the prevailing metropolitan and academic view seems to be that conspiracy theories are somehow infra dig for serious thinkers, even when hard evidence of dirty work at the crossroads is shoved under their noses. Mike Corbitt was a corrupt Chicago Police Officer, who before his death in , confessed to being on the payroll of Mafia boss Sam Giancana.
Billy Byers Jr and Hoover. Our whole political system would be disrupted. Dallas policeman Roger Craig appears to have genuinely shot himself. Considering what he had endured since that day in Dallas it is not surprising. There was no gun, no robbery and Crump was half drunk, having fallen in the canal after drinking beer. He was acquitted. Doc number: See HSCA documentation and report. Cusack III, who made a fortune selling hundreds of Kennedy-linked documents he claimed came from his father, was convicted on 13 mail and wire fraud charges. He stared, eyes narrowed, at the jurors, then he shook his head repeatedly and dropped his face into his hands.
Edgar Hoover. One letter purportedly signed by Kennedy includes ZIP codes, which did not exist at the time the letter was dated. And the typeface used in many of the letters came from a typewriter that was not manufactured until the s. Bradley had served in the US Navy, was closely tied to intelligence, had connections to right-wing groups and knew David Ferrie. Mark Lane later tied him in with the events in Dealey Plaza but without conclusive proof that Bradley was involved in the shooting.
Bradley later admitted involvement. See also Benson and Flammonde. Howard Brennan was an unlikely witness; he had bad eyesight and was at ground level. Nevertheless he testified that he had clearly seen Lee Harvey Oswald up at the sixth-floor window of the TSBD and the Warren Commission gratefully accepted his evidence. However, at 2. This was the first newsflash to mention any dead Secret Service agent. See: Assassination Research, Vol 4, 1. One interesting sideline is the story told by the Dealey Plaza greenkeeper, Emmett Hudson. He testified to the Warren Commission that he had been standing on the steps leading up to the Grassy Knoll — which can be seen in the various photographs — and was accompanied by two young men, neither of whom have ever been identified.
When the shooting started he lay down, and was initially adamant that the firing was coming from behind him, i. The Warren Commission ignored his testimony. Wim Dankbaar is a Dutch businessman who has made extraordinarily lengthy and detailed researches into the JFK assassination. The site is a valuable primary resource as it contains numerous first-hand accounts, original source material and even a confession. The nearest witness to the shooting outside the car was a man called Maurice Orr, who was standing on the grass just below the Pergola. He says that he was interviewed by an unknown man and said that he had heard at least five shots.
Orr was never contacted again and did not give evidence to the Warren Commission. See Summers. A couple called Arnold and Barbara Rowland made a very detailed statement about the two men that they had seen on the upper floors of the TBSD just before the shooting. See the Warren Commission report. An off-duty policeman called Tilson may well have seen one of the gunmen fleeing and even chased him in his car.
Decker was the Dallas County Sheriff and is on record as warning his men not to get involved in the security for the motorcade. Jack Ruby The investigation is over. It is difficult to assess the Private Dinkin allegations. This redacted pre-assassination cable appears to relate to the search for the missing Dinkin before the assassination.
A 26 Nov. On balance the most probable assessment is that Pte Dinkin saw some warning cables passed between senior military officers as part of his special top-secret cryptographic operator duties. If that is the case then it raises some disturbing questions. The Wikipedia biography is accurate and unbiased. It contains a list of useful primary sources. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University.
The wartime OSS was dissolved in October In Dulles became the first civilian CIA director. Dulles also oversaw Operation Mockingbird , a programme which influenced foreign and domestic media companies, and the design and use of the U2 spy plane which was initially operated by CIA pilots.
Dulles is considered one of the essential creators of the modern United States intelligence system and was an indispensable guide to clandestine operation during the Cold War. He established intelligence networks worldwide to check and counter Soviet and Eastern European communist advances as well as international communist movements.
Kennedy , the appointment was criticised by some observers, who noted that Kennedy had fired him, and that Dulles was therefore unlikely to be impartial in passing the judgements charged to the Warren Commission. I agreed not to polygraph or require detailed background checks on Allen Dulles and 60 of his close friends. Duran was a Mexican employee in the Cuban consulate in Mexico City.
The Mary Ferrell Foundation website has leads to extensive documentation and primary source material. It is a murky tale. Duran told him he would need to visit the Soviet embassy to get the necessary paperwork. Oswald then returned to the Cuban consulate and after a brief argument left. Oswald passed the security camera six times. Neither detail fits in with the authentic Oswald.
However, these details had been removed from the CIA statement by the time it reached the Warren Commission. This could not have been the real Oswald, who spoke the language well. Duran was then rearrested and questioned about her relationship with Oswald. Despite being roughed up again she denied having a sexual relationship with Oswald. However, Duran later admitted to a close friend that she had dated Oswald while he was in Mexico City. She also had been told that Oswald was sleeping with Duran. Win Scott reported this information to CIA headquarters but never got a reply page To be more correct, someone posing as Oswald?
Duran was interviewed by the House Select Committee on Assassinations in This testimony is still classified. However, in Duran told the author Anthony Summers that she told the HSCA that the man who visited the office was about her size 5 feet 4 inches. This created problems, as Oswald was 5 feet 9 inches tall. Scott told Director Helms that he would not be talked out of publishing the book.
Angleton flew immediately to Mexico City and took control of this material which has now disappeared. Also useful are the Dwight D. Eisenhower Papers at the Seeley G. See also the Spartacus Education website. Several oil millionaires, including W. Alton Jones , B. Byers and George E. Allen , began acquiring neighboring land for Eisenhower. The oilmen acquired surrounding land for Eisenhower under dummy names, filled it with livestock and big, modern barns, paid for extensive renovations to the Eisenhower house, and even wrote out checks to pay the hired help.
Euins was a year-old black boy and was clearly terrified by the Dallas cops and the FBI. The first three all blamed Lee Harvey Oswald acting alone. In the HSCA reluctantly conceded that Lee Harvey Oswald had been part of a larger conspiracy by recording that there had been at least four gunshots, not three. All these reports, plus detailed commentaries, can be read online. She was also known as Judith Campbell Exner. She gave a revealing interview to People Magazine in , in which she confessed to her role as a go-between for her lover JFK and the Mobsters Giancana and Roselli.
The alleged affair between Exner and Kennedy is said to have ended in when J. In a Vanity Fair interview , Exner said that she terminated a pregnancy resulting from her relationship with Kennedy. She also asserted to have carried money payoffs from California defence contractors to the Kennedys, including Robert F. Her involvement was revealed in during the investigations of the Church Committee and first published by William Safire in the New York Times. It has since disappeared. Full details of the FBI involvement are to be found in Best Evidence which identifies the contradictions with the autopsy report and the omission of FBI evidence from the Warren Report.
However, the appointment went to William H. Although Kennedy did well at the SEC and was praised for his enforcement of securities regulation, he resigned a year later, to return to private business, allegedly to cash in on his new insider knowledge of Wall Street. In , FDR asked him to return to the administration and chair the first Maritime Commission, aimed at reviving the American shipping industry.
See also the correspondence in the F. Britannica , Wikipedia and the other encyclopaedias have comprehensive brief accounts of the Federal Reserve Bank and its enabling statute, plus many useful primary references. Executive order 11, can be read in full at the official JFK website and library. See On the Trail of the Assassins. They were Alvin Beauboeuf and Melvin Coffee.
However, the would-be hunters had neither guns nor ice skates. Ferrie later claimed, in his cups, that his real task was to pick up any fleeing assassins needing a good pilot for a quick getaway. In , just as Garrison prepared to indict him, Ferrie was found dead in his apartment. He was lying on a sofa with a sheet pulled over his head. But the New Orleans coroner officially reported that the cause of death was a cerebral hemorrhage. According to the journalist Edward Lardner, who interviewed him on the morning of the day he died, Ferrie was still alive when he left at on 22 February See Benson, Summers and article by John S.
He maintains that John F. Kennedy was assassinated as the result of a well-planned and precisely executed conspiracy, which included altering the autopsy X-rays, substituting another brain, and recreating the Zapruder film using sophisticated techniques of optical printing and special effects. He has edited three collections of studies on the assassination, run four conferences on the subject, and continues to make numerous talk-show appearances on the topic.
Fetzer has observed that presuming its authenticity functions as the backbone of the cover-up, since it becomes impossible to reconstruct the actual sequence of events in Dealey Plaza on the basis of a fabricated film. Files himself testified on video on 22 March In a metal detector operated by a Dallas workman called John Rademacher, discovered two such fired cartridge cases, just 3 inches under the soil on the Grassy Knoll. An orthodontist later testified that the open end was oval and that human teeth had indeed caused the indent. A furious row has since erupted as to whether the cartridge case was manufactured before or after Clearly if it is then it has nothing to do with the JFK assassination.
Two hitherto unknown researchers, J. Stockwell and J. Curiously, both turned out to be ex-CIA officers. Government records claimed that they had no trace of Files or Sutton and it was assumed that he was lying. In addition, the section of the transcript where three Secret Service agents' autopsy observations contradict the official autopsy report was deleted. No wonder readers of this expurgated version of the commission's report became true believers. With the issuance of the Warren report, Oswald became the assassin. Although from the very beginning with a November Life article on Oswald headlined, "The Assassin: A Cold Lonely Man Who Resented All Authority" there was no presumption of innocence and little inclination to consider other explanations.
Much of this is true, although the observations of agents does not hold the weight of the contradictory coroners. Life was in Dallas making arrangements to buy the original Zapruder film only four hours after the assassination. Of the four existing home movies taken that day in Dealey Plaza, the 8mm film, shot by a middle-aged dress manufacturer, was considered to be the best record of JFK's murder. According to Richard Stolley, who is currently the editorial director of Time Inc.
And who was C. A staunch anticommunist who played a crucial role in the direction of U. By permitting the chain of custody to include Life magazine, and by accepting a mere copy of a crucial piece of evidence, the law-enforcement authorities were well on their way to compromising their investigation.
The critical Zapruder film was kept exclusively in the hands of Time Inc. In its very first issue after the assassination, Life seriously misrepresented the content of the Zapruder film, a practice that would continue until the film finally gained general release in The doctors at Parkland Hospital, who had worked on the president, had reported that he had suffered an "apparent" entrance wound to the throat.
Since the book depository, from which Oswald had allegedly fired, was to the presidential limousine's rear, how, some were beginning to wonder, did the president suffer a frontal throat wound? Life's December 6, , edition gave a simple and conclusive explanation, based on the Zapruder film, an answer only Life could provide. Wrote Life: "The 8mm [Zapruder] film shows the President turning his body far around to the right as he waves to someone in the crowd. His throat is exposed to the sniper's nest just before he clutches it.
There was only one problem: The description of the Zapruder film was a total fabrication. Although the film shows Kennedy turning to the right toward the grassy knoll, that is at no time does he turn degrees toward the book depository. Indeed, by the time he is hit, he is once again turning toward the front. Herein is 1 of the central forensic mysteries- has the Zapruder film been tampered with?
Both sides gloss over this fact by accepting the Zapruder film face up. The October 2, , issue underwent two major revisions after it hit the stands, expensive changes that required breaking and resetting plates twice, a highly unusual occurrence. That issue of Life was illustrated with eight frames of the Zapruder film along with descriptive captions. One version of caption 6 read: "The assassin's shot struck the right rear portion of the President's skull, causing a massive wound and snapping his head to one side.
The photo makes it look as though shots came from the front the railroad trestle or the right the grassy knoll. A second version of the issue replaces this frame with another, the graphic shot of the president's head exploding frame Blood fills the air and all details are obscured. The caption, oddly enough, remained the same describing his head snapping to one side.
A third version carries this same slide frame has been thrown on the dumpheap of history but now with a new caption, one that jibes perfectly with the Warren Commission's findings. Of course, as all the world would learn years later, it was the back of the president's skull that would explode, suggesting an exit wound, and sending Jackie Kennedy crawling reflexively across the trunk of the limousine to try to salvage the pieces.
But this would not be fully understood until the Zapruder film itself had been seen in its entirety. That question- why did Jackie sprawl across the back of the car? It sure seems as if she were trying to recover something shot from the opposite direction, or instinctively hide in the opposite direction.
By The Times seemed to be moving away from its stance of unquestioning support for the Warren report. In a November editorial, the paper acknowledged that there were "Unanswered Questions. That investigation lasted for less than a month. The best look inside the brief investigation came in a Rolling Stone interview with New York Times reporter and assassination investigation team member Martin Waldron.
Waldron told Rolling Stone that the team found "a lot of unanswered questions" that the Times did not choose to pursue…. But finally, the lid blew off in when activist Dick Gregory and optics expert Robert Groden approached Geraldo Rivera with a newly unearthed clear copy of the Zapruder film. Finally, the American public was to see the Zapruder film in its entirety, unmediated by any editors or censors.
ABC's Good Night America show was the first national television airing of the film to include the deadly frame Pirated copies had started to crop up in the mid '60s but were of such poor quality they had no dramatic impact. ABC relented, but only after Rivera agreed to sign a waiver accepting sole financial responsibility if Time or the Zapruder family sued. Rivera maintains that Time-Life did not sue because "they were blown away by the reaction to the program. Oliver Stone's movie JFK relies on the Zapruder film to support the film's central contention that Kennedy's fatal wound came from the front, and that therefore a conspiracy existed.
Referring to the 8mm film, Stone told the Voice: "It was key. It is the best smoking gun we have to date. Oddly enough, the man who shot the film, Abraham Zapruder, according to an article authored by Stolley in the November Esquire, told the Life reporter, "My first impression was that the shots were coming from behind me" that is, from the infamous grassy knoll. This claim is something that is consistently downplayed by the anti-conspiracists.
CBS decided to go ahead with a documentary series in the fall of , as the cynicism about the assassination continued to mount. Books on the subject were starting to stimulate a national debate. Reports on the suppression of crucial evidence including the fact the Warren Commission never even saw the actual autopsy photos and X-rays of JFK had became parlor talk around the country. Buzz phrases like "magic bullet" were being used for the first time to express a growing cynicism. Public opinion polls indicated that a majority of the respondents had begun to doubt that Oswald was the whole story.
The CBS effort was nothing if not monumental. Whereas those who had come before had used fixed targets to test the magic bullet hypothesis, CBS went a giant step further, rigging up a moving target. But the money and manpower thrown at the project was undercut all along the way by errors in procedure and logic; if not motive. For instance, in trying to determine whether Oswald could possibly have fired all the rounds believed to have been squeezed off in Dealey Plaza, CBS used a rifle that was faster than Oswald's: capable of three shots in 4.
The 11 CBS marksmen fired 37 firing runs of three shots each; of those, an amazing 17 of the 37 runs were disqualified as Cronkite said "because of trouble with the rifle. Oswald, a notoriously bad shot firing with a slower gun, is alleged to have done much better three shots and two direct hits in 5.
CBS neglected to inform its viewers of the poor total average hit ratio.
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How did CBS interpret these rifle tests? But these were not normal circumstances. Oswald was shooting at a president. So our answer is: probably fast enough. Such reasoning, applied to other things, would probably have gotten Uncle Walter pink slipped years earlier. Cronkite tells Schechter that Johnson invoked "national security" to get CBS to edit out his remarks long after they had been captured on film.
Cronkite and CBS, of course, reflexively complied. But perhaps nothing revealed CBS's prejudice in the series more tellingly than the network's treatment of Orville Nix, a man who was wielding a movie camera across from the grassy knoll on that fateful day. But, according to his granddaughter Gayle Nix Jackson, the film only brought him heartache. They said they needed to analyze it. They returned it in pieces," recalls Jackson. In Nix dutifully turned out for the CBS re-creation. Recalls his granddaughter: "His turn came to reenact what he saw. Nix, where did the shots come from?
Birnbaum says CBS did give Warren Commission critics air time and cites a segment of the documentary where another eyewitness contends shots came from the grassy knoll. Throughout the early s, when Walter Cronkite said, "That's the way it is While Stone's film does take serious liberty with history, the virulence with which the film has been attacked seems to say more about a defensive press that missed and continues to miss a major story than it does about any flaws in JFK.
Another interesting point- the attacks against JFK , the film, are far out of proportion with its impact. The Film JFK. By accepting the tyranny of the known, the media inevitably relies on the official version of the truth, seldom asking the government to prove its case, while demanding of critics of that official version the most exacting tests of evidence.
The original, official findings are accepted without serious scrutiny, as if the government was institutionally incapable of anything but impartiality. Challenges, by contrast, are run through the most withering gauntlet, perhaps for the obvious reason that it is the government that sits in judgment of the merits of the challenge…. Other than the Zapruder film the autopsies remain the most central evidence pertaining to the question of a 2 nd shooter. That so many questions abound is 1 thing- that no questions are raised in the mainstream media another, even more damning 1.
Again, the silence from the mainstream media is too much to ignore in this regard. So does the evidence merit a reexamination by a new panel of experts? The reader will have to decide for himself how much suppressed, and contradictory, evidence it takes to justify a reappraisal. Or to justify lack of confidence in prior appraisals. But today it is not an exaggeration to argue that still, nearly 40 years later, there remain myriad unanswered questions.
This is a very good point. Why so many apparently covert maneuvers if LHO was truly a singular wacko? You do so and, magically, you find a small piece of paper contain a single message: "7. If you had tried again and said "Ten," the gypsy would have asked you to look beneath the teapot. There you would have found a slip of paper with the number "10" written on it.
But the gypsy quickly directs your attention to other matters — he dares not perform more than one demonstration of his clairvoyance per session, or even the most gullible would catch on. The above scenario demonstrates the power of undetected selectivity. Once it is detected, it loses its power. There is a long history of selectivity in the reporting of images on the x-rays of the neck and torso of the late John F.
Yet, this technique has been equally applied to other aspects of the murder, which I have illustrated. The U. Government has gotten out of the business of answering these questions, having done so twice in and , with different answers. Lee Harvey Oswald, acting alone and Jack Ruby acted alone when he killed Oswald in the basement of a police station two days later.
Was there really a government coverup? No, although there was perhaps excessive secrecy and a desire to avoid inflaming the situation given Oswald's Communist background. Are there any smoking guns in the new records? No not that it is necessary to actually read them to discover this. Will we ever know what happened? The Warren Commission figured it out in , but irresponsible "conspiracy theorists" have misled a public all too willing to believe that such a larger-than-life figure as Kennedy could not be brought down by a single disturbed loner.
Does it matter anymore? Hey, it was almost 40 years ago. Get a life! Note how these points echo through every bit of information put out by the anti-conspiracists- a group that, in comparison to the pro-conspiracists, are as homogeneous as milk. Later on some more questions of merit are pointed out:. Other aspects of coverup are so overt and open that they often escape comment.
An honest and aggressive investigation would have immediately hauled Ruby to Washington for several days of grilling. Instead, the Commission put off interviewing Ruby until June 7, , when chapters of the Warren Report were already being drafted and edited. During his single interview, held in a jail cell in Dallas, Ruby begged several times to be taken to Washington where he could speak more freely.
Ruby said at one point: "Gentlemen, unless you get me to Washington, you can't get a fair shake out of me. As Warren noted: "And I wish we had gotten here a little sooner after your trial was over, but I know you had other things on your mind, and we had other work, and it got to this late date. Members of the general public, like the journalists and pundits who mostly live on the other side of the fault line, are not particularly well-versed on the particulars of the assassination.
In both cases, shared assumptions and general belief systems matter more than detailed arguments over facts and evidence. In defense of the general public's belief in conspiracy, it can be argued that the populace "smells a rat" for many very good reasons, including basic commonsense ones like Jack Ruby's shooting of Oswald. In defense of the elite opinion, the Warren Report and modern versions of it such as Case Closed seem to effectively debunk many of the conspiracy arguments. The emphasis here is on the word "seem.
Also, many of the arguments which seem so effective ultimately devolve to appeals to authority, and rely on the assumption that those in law enforcement and high political positions would not lie about such important matters. This is an issue of belief more than provable fact, and there is good reason to doubt its truth in many instances.
Any serious investigation of the Kennedy assassination quickly becomes an adventure in epistemology—the issue quickly becomes not "what does the evidence say" but "how do we know what we know? But there is a paucity of such evidence to begin with, much of it having mysteriously disappeared. Furthermore, legal traditions and common sense dictate that there be a "chain of possession" for such evidence, in order that the veracity of the physical evidence be upheld. But most of the primary physical evidence in this case has no such chain of possession, or is of suspect origin in the first place.
The "magic bullet," for instance, tied to Oswald's rifle to the exclusion of all others by its rifling marks, was found in Parkland hospital well after the shooting. It was found on a stretcher near some elevators by a hospital employee. The Warren Commission asserted that the stretcher was Governor Connally's, but more detailed analyses have shown it was probably that of a patient unrelated to the shootings.
The bullet is slightly flattened at the base but otherwise unmangled, and looks remarkably similar to test bullets fired into tubes of cotton. In other words, it has all the earkmarks of a "plant," and the scene of confusion at Parkland Hospital provided ample opportunity. And what about the societal and historical view of the assassination, that which appears in history textbooks, encyclopedias, articles in the New York Times, or any other indicator of official opinion? These, with a few exceptions, have remained strikingly free of the grim reality which has come pouring out over the decades.
Microsoft Encarta, based on the Funk and Wagnalls encyclopedia, contains this in its brief description of the JFK assassination: "two shots were fired Kennedy fell forward First, the Warren Commission found that three shots were fired there may have been more, but there certainly weren't less. Second, the Zapruder film shows unequivocally that Kennedy fell backward rather than forward. That such mis-information appears in encyclopedias to this day is hardly a good omen for the future. So who did kill JFK? The short and easy answer is that we do not know, the crime having never been honestly investigated by those who had, at least in theory, the judicial power to get to the bottom of it.
That failure is a bitter legacy from which there is no escape…. What follows, it should be obvious, is one person's overview analysis of the historical record; others can and do vehemently disagree. Lee Oswald - It was proven long ago that one man did not fire all the shots in Dealey Plaza that Friday afternoon in Dallas. More than three decades of additional information has only confirmed this judgment, despite the ferocity with which it is still held in some quarters. This is not to say that Oswald was necessarily an innocent patsy—it seems quite possible that he was part of the murder plot.
That too is uncertain. Oswald remains a true enigma, in many ways the most mysterious figure of the assassination landscape.