Hulk Smash Up. Smash Up Saddam. Mega Truck. Sieger Level Pack. Super Metroid Justin Bailey Hack. Faddish Twin Sisters. Twin Shot 2. Super Metroid. Pamplona Smash. Frozen Sisters Elsa and Anna. Super Toad Flash 2. Super Cars Hidden Letters. Head Hunter Super Sniper. Super Tractor. Monster High Chibi Werecat Sisters. Super Mario Bros Crossover 2. Super Muzhik. Super Baldy Kart. Super Mario World Flash. Elsa and Anna Pregnant Shopping. Smashtastic Cricket. Super Mario World All Stars. Spiderman Super Bike. Pleiades 2. Super Marine.
Super Maus. Super Idol. Super Stick Hero. Super Mario Flash Bros. Super Soccer Star. Super Small Powerful Surf. Super Briefcase. Super Bikers. Super Racer. Super Tramp. Super Blux. Super Ant. Super Handball. Super Karoshi. Mario Bros Super Puzzle. Super Sneaky Spy Guy Escape. Super Horse Jigsaw. Super Sewer Scramble. Super Bobby World. Unfortunately, the woman who gives away the bracelets is none other than Helga Von Guggen, wearing an awful disguise. Worse still, the spies never recognized her, and she managed to lure them into her trap.
As soon as they put the bracelets on their wrists, the spies suddenly pass out. When they wake up at long last, they forget everything about being spies at WHOOP, believing they are ordinary girls. Jerry goes into a fashion store, only to be captured by L. He hears about their evil plan, and tries to warn the girls. At school, they hear what Jerry has to say to them. Unfortunately, they do not believe in him, and they put the communicator in the trash can. After capturing a villain called the Inventor, the girls return to find that their mothers have returned.
Learning that their daughters have been spies, the mothers order their daughters to quit. Meanwhile, Mandy and her crony friends are infected by a chemical called SUDS dropped from Alex's backpack and spilled into Mandy's hot tub to become spy hunters or "spy-'ssassins", attacking the girls in their regular lives. The girls later try to spy on Mandy, finding the SUDS vial, but they are caught by their moms again, and are prohibited from seeing each other. It is clear now that the spy-'ssassins have posed as the girls' mothers into abducting their own daughters above all.
The girls send Jerry a letter for help, then head to Mandy's chalet at the Sugarflake resort, where they rescue their moms from a runaway gondola lift. Later, they fight with the spy-'ssassins, but Jerry's arrival causes an avalanche. All three's mothers are safe, however, but the girls have gone missing. When Jerry's mother accidentally ingests a concentrated dose of pure evil, she becomes evil.
Going under the alias, "Mr. The Spies' are stupefied at the sudden turn of events, and when a crime spree begins at the mall, the robots barely react. The girls call Jerry to see whats going on, but he gets kidnapped by the robots. They follow the robots to Mrs. Lewis' house to find Jerry, their three fellow spies-Britney, Dean, Blaine- and even Mandy trapped there.
The sixth season of Totally Spies! Sam, Clover, and Alex, along with the rest of Professor Plunkett 's Fashion Design class, win a trip to Versailles Palace, where they will be guests at a fashion show, showcasing the outfits of Queen Marie Antoinette herself. When they get on the flight and their plane is nearly forced into the ocean as a result of Mandy's very heavy luggage, they have no choice but to get into spy mode, regardless of being told by Jerry they would not have to be doing any spying.
Once they are in Versailles, things become hectic just as quickly. After the palace representative, Mr. Auguste, tells them to make themselves at home in their posh surroundings, Jerry breaks his promise and sends the girls to check out a break-in at the nearby Palais du Luxembourg. The super spies find a clue — what appears to be a missing key — as they return to Versailles and find the place under assault by a mysterious attacker. Sam, Clover, and Alex realize that something very strange is going on after the attacks in the Palace of Versailles. Not only were they attacked by a very weird creature whose footprints are extremely odd, but they also soon discover that several students from their trip have also gone missing.
After Jerry informs the girls that the missing key they discovered earlier is linked to Versailles itself, the spies flee from a palace statue that has come to life, as they are reunited with the rest of their class in a dungeon beneath the palace itself. Eventually they learn that Mr. Auguste used the stolen key to bring the statues at Versailles to life, so that he himself can become king. They must save themselves, their classmates, and the palace before it is too late. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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March 2, Archived from the original on May 16, Toronto : Teletoon. Toon Zone. March 23, Archived from the original on September 17, Toutelatele in French. TV Series — ".
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September 4, France September 7, Canada . October 3, France [note 1] March 1, Canada. September 2, Musician Ricky Mathis becomes an overnight sensation thanks to his song "Rock Legend. While Clover is enchanted by Ricky's music, Sam and Alex investigate the recording studio and discover they are using special glowing CDs that brainwash listeners. They must stop manager Sebastian Saga from using Ricky's music to take over the world. In the subplot, Clover has a crush on schoolmate Damon Reynolds, who plays guitar and hangs out with school diva and rival Mandy.
September 4, Fed up of Jerry 's butting in to their personal lives and treating them like children, the girls are happy to see the young Mac Smit takes over as the head of W. Their happiness is short-lived when Mac's generous gifts turn out to be death traps. The girls discover that Mac is really a criminal and former employee named Tim Scam , who has sent Jerry into orbit and who plans to use his inventions to vaporize the world's oceans as revenge for being fired from W. September 5, The girls return from an intense mission, but mess up in the subsequent school track and field meet.
Jerry sends them to Hawaii to relax. Alex falls for a surfer guy named Corey, who is a research student for a volcano expert who has gone missing.
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After some surfing, Corey suddenly vanishes in a pile of dust, so the girls visit Iceland to consult with the scientist there. Returning to Hawaii, the girls discover that a madman called Hephaestus, a scientist whose face was disfigured by volcanic magma, is planning to make the volcanoes of the world erupt simultaneously.
After failing to stop the lava in time, the girls soon learn the entire situation is just a W. P field test Hephaestus is Jerry in disguise, while Corey is just a pimply guy named Morey , but they soon get pulled into a real emergency when the volcano erupts for real. The girls return in time for the school dance, but its theme is a Hawaiian luau with volcanoes.
September 9, The girls are sent to investigate the kidnappings of various military personnel and scientists by a mysterious knight. The knight reveals himself as a Malibu teen who overthrow the benevolent king by using his modern technology, and takes Clover as his queen. It is up to Sam and Alex to stop him before history is changed forever. In the subplot, the girls compete against Mandy for the best costume at the annual Halloween dance. September 11, When vital members of society start becoming engrossed in old-fashioned toys, the girls get sent to a toy fair in Taiwan.
Clover and Alex soon discover that Vladimir Kozirev, a toymaker from the s, plans to make all adults of the world act like children to bring back his favorite doll, the "Little Ann". In the subplot, Clover tries to impress a senior named Rick by acting more mature by wearing business-women clothes. September 6, When several models are kidnapped around the world, Jerry sends the spies to New York Fashion Week to investigate the possible cause. After their attempt fails, they learn that ex-model Tuesday Tate has planned to create an army of perfect models by combining various body parts of models, including Sam, Clover and Alex.
Now it is up to the spies to stop Tuesday and save the modeling industry, and get back Clover's legs, Sam's teeth and Alex's hair. In the subplot, Clover tries to win a beauty pageant for a food court. September 12, Sam, Clover and Alex fight to save their spy careers after being framed of committing a bank robbery in Phoenix. Forced to evade Jerry and the full force of the WOOHP agency, the spies investigate and soon discover that a villain from their past has managed to create exact copies of the spies themselves and plans to have his army of doppelgangers and clones rob hundreds of banks around the world, at the exact moment.
In the subplot, Clover tries to impress a transfer student from Texas by wearing a cowgirl outfit only for Mandy to beat her to the punch. September 10, Sam, Clover and Alex are sent undercover as sophisticated scholars to investigate the kidnappings of Nobel Prize winners at a conference in Paris.
They soon discover strange connection that the people being kidnapped are experts on the subjects of the quizzes about to be given back in Beverly Hills. The kidnapper, a concerned parent and ambassador, has stolen the prize winners' intelligence and transmitted it into his son to make him the smartest child in the world.
Can the girls stop him and his son, now with a head the size of a hot-air balloon?
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In the subplot, Sam lands the female lead in the school production of Les Miserables causing conflict with a jealous Clover, and infighting throughout the episode. September 13, The girls are summoned to investigate strange blob-like creatures that have erased the memories of select top scientists in Bora Bora. During a chase, Sam is hit by a blob as well, wiping her memory clean and rendering her useless, much to Clover and Alex's dismay. To make things worse, Clover and Alex also have to deal with Mandy, who thinks Sam is her best friend after Sam had saved her hair from getting trapped in a pottery wheel.
September 16, The girls go undercover on a popular game show F. Fear Intimidation Gladiator Habitat to discover why the famous Olympic decathlete Reggie Willis and several other competitors have gone missing after losing on the show. It turns out that the host Vince King has been enslaving the contestants using mind-controlling electronic collars to make them into new gladiators, ensuring that no one will ever win.
During their time as contestants, the girls became crowd favorites, but Vince turns Sam into a gladiator, pitting her against Clover, Alex and a freed Reggie Willis rally together and attempt to pull the plug and end the show once and for all.
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In the subplot, Alex tries to befriend tough new girl Donna Ramone, but her interactions anger Donna more that Donna calls her out for a beating after school. September 17, The girls go on a mission to discover why machines are attacking three seemingly random people. The attacks turn out to be related, leading to Sam, Clover and Alex going undercover as exchange students at the high-tech Silicon Valley High school. Though Adam only wanted to use C. D for harmless pranks, C. D instead harmed Adam's old enemies and now plans to fire nuclear missiles at all of Adam's old schools.
Can the spies save Adam now overshadowed by C. D and stop this automated monster? In the subplot, Mandy becomes the student court judge and puts the girls on trash duty for minor dress-code infringements. September 3, The girls go to the African nation of Lyrobia to protect the queen Tassara after a strange kidnapping attempt. Tassara is planning to sign a peace treaty with the king of Kenyopia at Geneva. Clover goes undercover as the queen at a party, but is kidnapped in her place.
Sam, Alex and Tassara follow her trail, discovering that the person behind the plot is actually the queen's younger sister Makeda, who plans to escalate the war so that she can be queen of both countries. In the subplot, Clover and Mandy campaign to be homecoming queen, but due to the mission, Clover enlists of the help of nerd Arnold Jackson , who agrees on the condition that she be his girlfriend for 24 hours if she wins.
September 19, On Watchcartoononline. September 20, The girls are called in when random people from different nations are abducted by what looks like aliens. Sam and Clover learn that the evil Sage Hawking has captured a peaceful group of extraterrestrials in order to extort every world government for massive wealth. Can the spies save the aliens and stop Hawking's galactic terror? In the subplot, Alex prepares for her Driver's Ed test. September 23, Jerry sends the girls to investigate the disappearance of the cruise ship Juliet and its passengers.
When the spies land on an uncharted island full of strange animal-human hybrids, things only get worse as Clover becomes affected and turned into a catgirl. The girls learn that formerly famous fashion designer Helga von Guggen has a plan to turn the captured passengers into hybrids to make the world's first collection of seamless fur coats. Can Sam and Alex stop a literal fashion crisis and restore Clover to normal?
In the subplot, Clover buys rubber platform shoes to impress the star of the Beverly High basketball team. September 24, Jerry brings the girls in to investigate the kidnapping of the Honeybees, the ten-year running national cheerleading champions. While at the nationals, the girls find an unusual group known as the Black Widows, whose routine is identical to the missing Honeybees.
When the girls learn that Candy Sweet, a former military robotics engineer who failed her Honeybee cheerleader tryouts in her high school days has built the Black Widows as a revenge scheme, its up to the spies to stop them from killing everyone at the world cheerleading championship. In the subplot, Mandy competes with Sam at a spelling bee , even employing some top scholars, but she gets stage fright at the competition.
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September 27, When various landmarks seem to literally vanish, the spies follow the trail in order to stop these anomalies. However, Clover gets shrunk in the process and gives the villains a new idea. Can Sam, Alex and a 3-in. Clover stop the baddiesfrom shrinking the major cities of the world? In the subplot, Clover searches for the perfect outfit to wear to impress her date Jason Roberts, but her shrinking leads to serious problems. September 25, While the girls investigate who tried to steal a top-secret invisibility formula from a military base, Sam falls for James, an exchange student from London.
While the other girls are happy for her at first, she quickly begins to spend all her time with him and seems to forget their friendship. Clover and Alex soon learn that James is the thief, and catch him and Sam stealing the formula. James soon reveals he was simply using Sam to steal the formula to become the world's greatest criminal. September 26, Sam, Clover and Alex are called in to investigate how famous athletes are seemingly vanishing. While trying to save a famous racecar driver, a mysterious motorcycle rider arrives, kidnapping the driver Dale along with Alex.
Sam and Clover soon meet the former video game creator Carla Wong, and quickly learn of her plan to use the kidnapped athletes who have actually been converted into data , multiply them and launch a new line of games. Can the two save Alex and save the world's greatest athletes from being turned into mindless clones trapped in a virtual nightmare?
In the subplot, Alex's new celebrity crush turns out to be computer animated. December 5, September 18, People start going crazy over Passion Patties, a new brand of cookies sold by the Happy Girl Scouts, eating them like crazy and rioting to get another box. The cookies are extremely addicting, making everyone who eats them obese. Clover helps herself to a cookie as the spies investigate, and becomes hopelessly hooked on them too.
She cannot stop eating them and piles on the pounds, bloating into a blowfish spy in the process. The girls discover that the villain is a disgruntled cookie maker. In the end, they manage to turn the tables on her by literally giving her a taste of her own medicine.
In the subplot, Clover gets upset that she is sized as a large for a new hat. December 3, Several students are discovered to have been mysteriously drained of their youth. They retain youthful, albeit slightly wizened bodies, but have the chemical composition and actions of octogenarians. The girls investigate and come across the principal's diary which he has kept since the 13th century, thus learning that the school's principal is in fact a centenarian.
He has maintained his youthful physique by absorbing the youth of his juvenile fellows to keep himself immortal. When he chooses Alex as his next victim, Sam and Clover are obliged to collaborate in order to stop him and his accomplices from gaining immortality. In the subplot, Sam freaks out when Mandy points out a gray streak in her hair. December 2, Sam, Alex and Clover investigate why stores are abducting people around the world.
They travel to Australia and find a villain bent on getting rid of all the malls by building an army of men and women programmed to hate and destroy malls but when Sam is kidnapped and later brainwashed into becoming one of the attackers, it falls to Clover and Alex to stop the villain once and for all and rescue Sam.
In the subplot, Clover gets framed for shoplifting thanks to Mandy. September 30, When extremely valuable art seems to literally "disappear", the spies are sent in to stop the thief. The journey leads to Alex vanishing along with the art. Can the spies stop the thought-to-be deceased Kandinsky before he pulls off his biggest heist yet?
In the subplot, the girls' entry for a photography competition is ruined by Mandy's opening the darkroom door. December 6, The world starts to experience extremely cold weather and Jerry sends the spies to uncover the source. When the weather starts to turn even worse, the girls find that the evil Dr.
Gelee plans to freeze the Earth's core to wipe out humanity and all of the environmental damage with them. Not only that, he kidnaps Clover to stay with him as a prisoner. Can Sam and Alex reverse the effects of the machine before the start of the next Ice Age? In the subplot, when Clover turns down a geek, she gets labeled an Ice Queen.
December 4, The spies are sent on a mission to observe the strange behaviors of world leaders when they suddenly begin to build thrill rides in their countries' landmarks. The girls learn that Dr. Eisenstein has replaced himself and the world leaders with robots to turn the world into a giant theme park. Can the spies put the world back into its rightful order and stop this madman? In the subplot, Alex and Clover accuse Sam of being too serious and no fun. April 7, Psychopathic director Lumiere has kidnapped Alex and forces Sam and Clover to endure a series of deadly riddles and traps.
In the subplot, Sam learns that her secret admirer's initials are A. April 8, An archaeologist fakes his disappearance, then plots to use ancient magic to give himself eternal life and power. The spies, with the help of the professor's assistant, must stop him. In the subplot, Clover accidentally ends up with Mandy's ring and ponders when she can return it. June 9, Redheads start vanishing worldwide after visiting the new Cutting Edge Hair Salons.
Sam has Clover and Alex dress up as redheads to investigate the salon, but they are turned down. However, Clover is invited back as her blonde hair attracts the shop owner's assistants. Inside, Clover is kidnapped and taken to a place where the abducted women have been forced to grow their hair to be harvested. In the subplot, the girls plan a surprise party for Jerry. April 10, Noting that Jerry is acting strangely, the spies discover that an evil scientist named Dr.
V has taken over Jerry's brain. V is microscopic in size, so the girls get into a vehicle and shrink themselves to micro-size to search for the doctor inside Jerry's body before he uses Jerry to take over W. In the subplot, Alex tries to evade having to dissect a live frog. April 11, The nation of Zanzibar has been winning a number of events in the Winter Olympics despite hardly training.
The spies go undercover as reporters where they discover that the team's coach has developed metal bugs that implant into the athlete's bodies, giving them amazing talent, and is using them to make up for his own Olympic failures. When the spies try to stop him, Clover is captured and bugged.
In the subplot, the girls fall in love with a classmate named David and fight for his affection. April 13, Sudden spikes in global warming and ozone holes start occurring at the same time that a new suntan lotion labeled "Sun Block SPF 10," goes on sale. Just a coincidence or a somewhat apocalyptic marketing plan?
The girls try to find the culprit fast since the Earth is getting hotter and hotter by the minute. In the subplot, Clover wants David to choose her as his painting model. April 14, The girls are entangled with a mission when they learn a new cologne , designed by Natalie Valentine, is causing men to go wild in search of their "true love".
The spies go undercover as men and figure out how NV makes her perfume. In the subplot, the girls bicker over who gets to invite David to the dance, only to discover to their horror that he eventually chooses Mandy. April 15, The Spies investigate the hottest new pop band, Teensicle, when one of the band members mysteriously disappears.
When he resurfaces seemingly safe and sound, the spies detect strange changes in his personality and talent. It turns out a group of washed up pop stars named Boy Candy are stealing the current pop stars' faces in order to revive their has-been careers. Also when Alex makes a snide remark about the band's mother, they swap her face for the red-haired smoking woman while she gets Alex's face. In the subplot, Alex ponders whether to get a tattoo in order to look more cool after Mandy brags about hers. April 16, When tsunamis begin to trash beach-side resorts, the spies are sent to Australia to investigate.
It turns out that Frankie Dude, an evil surfer who lost his pinky toe and career thanks to a new pier, has been cutting down glaciers and sending large waves to the five biggest surf spots in the world with the last one having the possibility of destroying their beloved Beverly Hills.
In the subplot, Sam and David go on a hunger strike to protest the firing of their lunch lady to an automated machine. Looking for Mother's Day gifts for their mothers, Clover, Sam and Alex find a flier about a special offer at a spa. But after they get there, they notice that their moms are not behaving normally when they make ruthless attempts to do them in. They find out that their nemesis Tim Scam has escaped from prison and has turned their mothers into cold-blooded assassins and plans to abduct them. In the subplot, Jerry spends Mother's Day at his mom's in England.
June 17, Clover's little cousin Norman is an avid fan of "Zooney", a television show which has become a favorite among children. When some of the children have been reported missing, Jerry sends Sam, Alex and Clover to track them down, but before they can launch into their mission, Sam and Alex must figure out how to get Clover out of being grounded. June 18, Jerry is invited to go fishing with the President, while the girls are charged with taking care of the President's year-old daughter, Madison, who proves to be quite troublesome.
But when Madison is kidnapped, the girls must find a way to get her back without making it a national crisis. April 21, Seemingly ordinary women across America keep going berserk and attacking men and unaffected women. All of the berserkers turn out to be descendants of the Sisterhood, a guild of warrior women who intended to wipe out all men and inferior women. They failed but one of the descendants named Ariel has been reviving the idea using their descendants and Sam's falls prey to her magic. In the subplot, Clover learns of a secret club, and insists on joining, only to discover at the end of the episode that is a fan club for Mandy.
April 22, Sebastian escapes from prison and he plans to use his music to hypnotize peoples to crush the spies' favorite places. When the girls discover that Sebastian is the villain behind this, he hypnotizes the girls to help with crushing Beverly High School. Luckily, Jerry rescues the girls and then they stop Sebastian by crushing his music signal which was hidden in the school's sign. In the subplot, Alex gets worried that she may get bad luck for breaking a mirror. April 24, A new spy agency called S. But Sam does not feel like abandoning her spy career easily, and investigates inside S.
But then she gets captured by the S. Can Clover and Alex save her and stop S. In the subplot, Alex and Clover apply for part-time jobs at Chic Boutique. April 27, Animals at the Beijing Zoo start developing human intelligence and anthropomorphic features while humans regress into a state of animalistic retardation. Of these, all but belt press filters have been used recently in Yokohama.
The dewatering devices employed at the sludge treatment centers were chosen to meet the following requirements: a. A high sludge treatment capacity necessitated by the massive volumes of sludge collected from the different sewage treatment plants; b. A low manpower requirement to derive maximum benefit from the centralization of sludge treatment; c. Production of low-water-content dewatered cake to facilitate incineration; and d.
Maximum recovery of solids. It was decided on the basis of practical results to employ a centrifuge at the Hokubu Sludge Treatment Center and a high-pressure belt-press filter at the Nanbu Sludge Treatment Center. The utility of sanitary sludge fertilizer is well known. Sludge recycling to agricultural and park land is not only beneficial to the soil but an excellent method of sludge disposal. For sludge to be easily used as a fertilizer, however, its water content must be lowered considerably.
Driers serve this purpose. Plans are for about one-third of the sludge treated at the Hokubu Sludge Treatment Center to be dried for conversion to fertilizer. The various types of sludge incinerators include flash-drier incinerators, vertical-multistage incinerators, rotary-drier incinerators and fluidized- bed incinerators. The type most widely used today is the vertical-multistage incinerator, followed by the fluidized-bed incinerator.
It was decided to use these two tried-and-tested types at the Hokubu and Nanbu sludge treatment centers. The fluidized-bed incinerator produces exhaust gases with temperatures in the area of C. An economical and energy-saving incinerator has been developed by installing a drier at the previous stage which uses the incinerator's hot gases to dry dewatered cake before incineration.
Sludge treatment requires the full exploitation of the features of each process as well as an intelligent combination of the processes themselves. Figure 8 is a flow sheet showing the processes determined to be most effective at Yokohama's sludge treatment centers. A Digestion-Pelletization process Sludge arrives from. Sludge flow at the sludge treatment center 5. Present facilities The Hokubu Sludge Treatment Center is Yokohama's largest, treating about 60 percent of the sludge produced in the city.
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Facilities built to date comprise a waste water facility and two fluidized-bed incinerators burning powdered coal. The segments of the planned sludge pipeline network already in operation are Route 1 from the Midori to the Kohoku plant and Route 3 linking the Hokubu I and Hokobu II plants. Other pipelines are now under construction. The Kohoku and Kanagawa plants are equipped with dewatering facilities. Until their pipelines are completed, they will continue to send dewatered cake to the Hokubu Sludge Treatment Center by truck. Sludge piped from the Hokubu I and produced at the adjacent Hokubu II plants is incinerated immediately following dewatering at the center.
Selection of treatment process Table 7 shows treatment processes and volumes handled at the Hokubu Sludge Treatment Center. Collected sludge is first thickened by gravity and centrifugation. Then one-third is subjected to anaerobic digestion, dewatering, and incineration; one-third to anaerobic digestion, dewatering, and drying; and the remaining third to wet air oxidation and dewatering.
The center is careful to recover energy from the collected sludge and to use it effectively. These methods are essentially combinations of unit processes already in use for a long time, but they incorporate new technologies. Table 7. Piped sludge is particularly prone to acidic fermentation. It becomes anaerobic after several hours. The resulting deterioration of its properties makes thickening especially difficult.
Recent poor results with gravity thickening require gravity thickened sludge to be further thickened by centrifugation. This lessens the amount of sludge sent to the digestion tanks and the amount of heat needed to warm it. It has long been known that their shape enables the contents of egg-shaped tanks to be stirred thoroughly and that they afford highly efficient sludge digestion. They have not been used in the past, however, because of the high cost of installation and scaffolding and the underdeveloped state of prestressed concrete construction methods.
The solution of these problems led to the construction of the first Japanese egg-shaped digestion tank. It has been in use at the Hokubu Sludge Treatment Center since Design requirements: low-cost construction, email surface area, seismic structure for safety during earthquakes b.
Type: anaerobic two-stage digestion c. Water content of thickened sludge: 95 percent d. Water content of digested sludge: 95 percent e. Digestion period: 30 days f. Heating method: external heat exchanger, mesophilic digestion at about 35 C g. Mixing method: mechanical and digestion-gas stirring h. Dimensions: inside diameter Number of tanks: 2k k. Material grade: fissure-resistant, high-strength, water- and air-tight prestressed concrete 1. Methane gas utilization: power generation using digestion gas; incoming sludge heated by waste heat from gas engine Figure 9 shows the layout of the Hokubu Sludge Treatment Center and Figure 10 the digestion and incineration flow sheet.
Construction plans Figure 11 shows the construction plan and trends in sludge volumes treated at the center. Quantitative data were obtained from the growth in sewage amounts coming from the sewage treatment plants. All the sludge produced at the Hokubu I Sewage Treatment Plant has been sent to the center since the summer of and treated by gravity thickening, centrifugal dewatering and incineration. In fiscal piping of sludge is to begin from the Midori, Kohoku, Hokubu I and Kanagawa sewage treatment plants, increasing the total volume of sludge treated to 95 metric tons of dry solids per day; sludge from these plants will be treated by gravity thickening, centrifugal thickening, anaerobic digestion and incineration.
Sludge volumes will increase linearly as the number of flush toilets increases, but for the time being priority will be given to expanding the digestion and pelletization processes. Centrifugal thickening and wet air oxidation processes are scheduled for adoption later. Because sludge pipes to the center are still under construction, dewatered cake produced at the sewage treatment plants is trucked to the center for incineration.
Even after the sludge pipelines to the Nanbu Sludge Treatment Center begin operation, these plants will continue to treat their own sludge, in the interest of efficient use of existing facilities, and the excess will be piped to the Nanbu center. Equipment at the plants will not be replaced, however, so that the volumes they send to the center will gradually increase over time. Treatment process selection The processes used at large-scale collected sludge treatment facilities must allow for both the efficient treatment of large quantities of sludge and substantial economies of scale.
At the same time, they must satisfy such requirements as adaptability to load fluctuations and back-up capability in the event of trouble elsewhere in the network. The processes used in the system must also ensure flexibility in future sludge treatment. There is room for improvement in current sludge treatment and unit processes, and remarkable new sludge treatment technologies are still emerging. Table 8. The remaining two-thirds is to be treated by thickening, wet air oxidation and pressure dewatering.
A gravity thickening tank will be used to concentrate Figure 12 shows the layout of the Nanbu Sludge Treatment Center. Construction plans Figure 13 shows the construction plan for the center and trends in sludge volumes treated there. Quantitative data were obtained from the growth in amounts of sewage arriving from the sewage treatment plants. The center will begin to receive sludge in Until this time, it is scheduled to treat only the sludge from the adjacent Kanazawa Sewage Treatment Plant using a gravity thickening, wet air oxidation process.
When sludge piping begins, the volume of sludge will roughly double, and the existing process will be combined with a centrifugal thickening-digestion process not yet constructed. Thereafter, sludge volumes will increase linearly as the number of flush toilets in the service area grows.
Initial expansion will focus on the use of digestion processes. Centrifugal thickening and wet air oxidation processes will be added later. Both of Yokohama's sludge treatment centers were designed for optimum utilization of the energy derived from sludge. This figure also indicates rough rates of energy conversion.
Analysis of the possible uses of energy recovered at the center revealed that thermal energy could be used to heat the digestion tanks and for local heating and air conditioning, and that mechanical energy could be used to drive the blowers and pumps at the center. The study showed these uses to be limited, however. Electricity, on the other hand, was found to offer a broader sphere of applications, including lighting and driving machinery. This suggested that the most effective system would be one that used digestion gas to generate electricity and made use of both this electric energy and the thermal energy derived from waste heat.
In light of this analysis, electric power generation using digestion gas was chosen as the basic method for both centers. Results of trial calculations concerning energy recovery with the digestion gas-fueled generator system in use at the Nanbu Sludge Treatment Center are described below.
The system centrifuges 95 metric tons of dry solids per day of incoming sludge to a concentration of 5 percent solids and subjects it to high-concentration digestion. Most of the resulting digestion gas is burned by a gas engine to generate electricity, and the waste heat from the gas engine is recaptured by an external heat exchanger and used to warm the digestion tank. Table 9 shows the conditions under which the system's energy balance was calculated.
Figure 15 shows the heat balance in the digestion gas cycle. The data are grouped in three rows. The top row shows data for summer and the middle row for winter. The bottom row shows the average. The remaining 11 percent of the digestion gas can be used as fuel in other systems or facilities, as auxiliary fuel for the vertical multistage incinerator or as fuel for the wet air oxidation system's deodorization equipment, for example.
Although the boiler is not necessary to the heat energy balance, it was included in the system design to serve as a back-up during start-ups and system malfunctions. This contributes substantially to energy savings by providing about 33 percent of the electricity used at the Nanbu Sludge Treatment Center. Table 9. For comprehensive integrated sludge control, the units must be organically interconnected.
This is accomplished at the centers through a centralized supervision and distributed control system. The data processing system at the heart of the supervision and control system consists of two side-by-side bit computers for reliability and ease of maintenance. One of the computers is usually on standby. Distributed local stations control the various complex automatic functions and perform the necessary computations.
The local stations have microcontrollers and sequence controllers with data transmission capability to the main computer. Fiber optic cables are used for data transmission between local stations and the main computer. They are linked by an N:M transmission method. The system that pipes sludge from the sewage treatment plants to the center for centralized treatment also involves a remote data transmission link between the center and the various plants.
The sludge piping system is an integral part of the centralized supervision and distributed control system. It is treated at the control level in the same way as the other local stations. Figure 16 is a diagram representing the sludge treatment centers' instrumentation system. Overview Sludge produced at sewage treatment plants is pumped to the Hokubu Sludge Treatment Center through pipelines. To facilitate planned, efficient treatment of the sludge collected from these plants, the sludge pumps are remotely controlled from the sludge treatment center.
Thus the center also acts as the central control station for the system, with the various sewage treatment plants acting as local or site piping control stations. The local facilities are equipped with microcontrollers and sequence controllers which receive operating instructions from the central control station and control the equipment according to fixed control procedures.
The central and local control stations are linked by remote data transmission equipment using telephone lines.
Instructions concerning volumes of sludge to be sent and methods of transporting it are sent from the central control station to the local station via this remote data transmission equipment. The local microcontrollers take the instructions and convert them into specific control procedures for the sequence controllers which activate the pumps and valves. Information concerning such things as the operating status of the pumps and valves at the local station, volumes of sludge being piped, amounts of solid matter and equipment problems is transmitted from the local station back to the central control station.
At the center, the central computer system batch-treats data received from the local stations and displays them in diagrammatic, numeric and character form on the CRT displays which function as the man-machine interface. Control Sludge feed pumps can be controlled in three modes: monitoring sludge storage tank levels, presetting and timer setting.
These modes determine the values at which control functions are activated from the central control station. Level control Tank levels can be controlled to achieve a balance between the sending and receiving side. The sending pumps begin operation when storage tank levels on the receiving side fall below a predetermined value. Pumping continues until either there is no more sludge on the sending side or tank levels at the receiving side have reached a predetermined maximum level.
Preset control In this control method, total daily quantities and the overall frequency of sludge piping at a given sewage treatment plant are set in advance. Based on this setting, the microcontroller calculates quantities for a single sludge piping session and a piping schedule, then begins regular consecutive piping according to the program it has established.
Since the quantity of sludge piped in one day is determined according to its solid content, solid concentrations are measured and converted into equivalent sludge volumes. This preset control method is extremely effective in keeping track of the amounts of sludge piped daily. Timer control The timer sets the frequency of sludge piping and the number of hours that the pipes are in operation for each piping session, then carries out piping consecutively. This method is a very effective in keeping track of piping time.
Once a piping session is over, secondary effluent is piped through the pipeline to flush it clean. Piping operations can also be controlled from the central control station by manually starting and stopping the pumps. Supervision Information concerning the state of sludge piping equipment operation is sent by the remote data transmission instruments to the central control station. At the central control station this information is input to the computer for observation on CRT displays and instrument boards. It is also recorded on output typewriters and recording instruments.
Table 10 shows the main items observed. Measurement Data readings at the sending facilities on piped sludge volumes, sludge concentra- tions, sludge storage tank levels and so forth are sent by the remote data transmission instruments to the central control station. At the central contml station, this information is input to the computer and displayed on the CRT display, as well as continuously recorded by recording instruments. Detection of pipe clogging and leakage Obstructions in the sludge pipes are detected by logic circuits as shown in Figure These conclude a pipe is blocked if a pump's outlet pressure exceeds a certain value and sludge flow either reaches a certain minimum value or drops suddenly.
When an obstruction is detected, the feed pump is immediately shut off and an obstruction warning buzzer sounded. Supervision items Equipment 1. Feed pump 2. Outlet valve 3 4, 5. Preparations complete 3. Level control 2. Timer control 3. Preset control Ground fault, overvoltage, voltage, temperature rise, power failure, sequence controller trouble under- control 1. Fire 2. Pipeline abnormality 3. Transmission abnormality Building or ancillary facility trouble High pump outlet pressure Low flow Sudden drop in flow Obstruction Figure Obstruction logic circuit Sludge pipe leakage is also detected by logic circuits as shown in Figure They conclude a pipe is leaking if its outlet pressure falls below a certain level and sludge flow either exceeds a certain normal value or registers a sudden increase.
On detection of a leak, the feed pump is immediately shut off and a leakage warning buzzer sounded. Low pump outlet pressure High flow Sudden rise in flow Leakage Figure Conclusion In the past, sludge treatment in Yokohama was performed at the sewage treatment plants where the sludge was produced. A plan is being implemented in stages, however, to centralize sludge treatment at two sludge treatment centers located on the coast. Centralized treatment is considered necessary in view of the growing quantities of sewage and sludge requiring treatment, the impact of treatment on the environment surrounding sewage treatment plants, and the need to increase the efficiency of sludge treatment and disposal.
There are, however, disadvantages as well as advantages to centralized sludge treatment. Problems requiring solution include the following: a. Transport of sludge over long distances Linking the eleven sewage treatment plants requires 88 kilometers of pipe. The magnitude of this network makes detection of leaks and other problems extremely difficult. Stability and safety of the sludge pipe network The network is currently designed for single-lane pipelines. This leaves much to be desired in terms of system stability and safety in the event of earthquakes or other disruptions.
One possible remedy is to lay double piping between all the sewage treatment plants and to develop the system into a network of two-way links between plants. Ways must also be found to use all the facilities at all of the plants in the event of earthquakes or other emergencies.
Recycling of process water from sludge treatment centers Recycling of process water was not a problem in the past when sludge was treated at individual sewage treatment plants. However, at the sludge treatment centers, the enormity of the recycling load is expected to cause problems. In response, experiments have been performed in search of methods to treat and recycle process water, including pressurized aeration, deep shaft aeration, and other biological processes.
These are the problems we face. Several years will be required before the sludge treatment centers are completed, and we hope that in the meantime new sludge and recycled process water treatment technologies will be developed and put to use. We wish to be able to adapt flexibly to such new technologies and thereby establish a more efficient sewage and sludge treatment system. In the s when Japan achieved a miraculous economic growth, odor problems took on a pandemic phase. In , statistical survey was initiated about the odor complaint cases; the number of cases filed with the public bodies in was 3, As demonstrated, the number of cases rose six times in the first six years from till Concerned about the situation, the Government put into effect the Offensive Odor Control Law in to authorize the local municipalities to control odor concentrations.
From afterward, the number of complaint cases had been on the decline; in , it fell to about 13, At present, local municipalities are empowered by the offensive Odor Control Law to control eight odorous substances at the metes and bounds of every odor source, as shown in Table 1. According to the Law, the prefectural governor is authorized to determine the regulated areas and standard odor concentrations after hearing out the opinion of local municipalities.
Ever since the enforcement of the Law, the complaint cases have been decreasing. According to the statistics for FY , livestock farming and service industry led the list of odor complaints with IS Waste water treatment plants, 0. While the siting conditions are important for the prevention of odor problems, there are many wastewater treatment plants adjacent to residential quarters that have obviated odor problems with proper measures. One of the most viable measures is to cover up the odor source.
Thirty percent of rather larger facilities such as aeration tanks and primary settling tanks are also covered with covers made of FRP and other plastic materials. At present, the open yard drying beds have been replaced almost totally by mechanical sludge dewatering processes installed indoors. Sixty-nine percent of sludge cake hoppers are totally sealed.
About a decade back, it was a common practice to scrub odors simply with a sodium hydroxide solution or water. Today, many wastewater treatment plants use absorbents such as activated carbon and ion exchange resin or sodium hypochlolide to remove odors. With the progress of deodorization technology, there are few odor problems with the existing wastewater treatment plants, except for some special cases.
Many of technologies applied in deodorization are originated from paper and pulp industry and night soil treatment plants. In the municipal wastewater treatment plants, malodorous substances are lean in concentration as compared with those in paper and pulp mills or night soil treatment plants, but the volume of air to be handled is quite large. The study was prompted to review deodorization measures for the wastewater treatment plants according to the following topics.
First, two scent bags are purged with the room air cleaned through activated charcoal, and another bag is prepared purged with an odor which is diluted with clean air. These bags are then numbered 1 through 3 at random, and are sniffed at by the members of a test panel, all having a sound sense of smell, through a nose cone. They are asked to take down the number of the bag that stank most. If the panel answered correct, the dilution ratio is increased a notch. Table 2 Six-grade of odor strength Odor strength 0 1 2 3 4 5 Description No odor Barely detectable detection threshold level Barely identifiable level of odor identification threshold level Easily identifiable Strong odor Very strong odor 3 Ammonia Several milliliters to several hundred liters of ammonia gas is blown into 20 milliliters of 0.
The odor strength is then measured according to the indophenol method. In this way, sulfur compounds are concentrated and subjected to gas chromatography for fractionation. Formic acid is then added to the column, and the eluate containing lower fatty acids is fractionated through a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. The extract is then concentrated 20 times and gas-chromatographed. The above two substances are also ascribable to the odor from the sludge dewatering machines.
When digested sludge is dewatered with lime, alkaline odors like trimethyl amine are produced which, together with the irritating odor of ammonia, produce a peculiar odor. In the aeration tank, methyl mercaptan is most blamable, and its observed concentration often exceeds the estimated one; this suggests that there may be some odor-contributing substances other than chemically analyzed.
The sludge incinerator is found to give off nitrogen dioxide and aldehydes, and requires odor-preventive measures different in nature from those for other facilities. The open channels of grit chambers, weirs of primary settling tank, aerated channels of aeration tank, etc. Usually, odors ar cut off at source by cover-up, and the concentrations of malodorous substances in the open air are governed by the rate at which the freeboard space of the covered odor source is ventilated.
When there is a temperature difference between the freeboard and the open air, the thermal convection effect asserts itself, and the ventilation rate required to prevent odor release should naturally be controlled. At the grit chamber and primary settling tank, the inlet and outlet are exposed, and the ventilation rate needs to be considerably large. However, this ventilation rate can be reduced successfully by covering such exposed parts with a canvas sheet to minimize the opening. Using the test system illustrated in Fig.
It is estimated from above result that the overall mass transfer coefficient of odor substance assumes a characteristic value of the channel under normal conditions. The overall mass transfer coefficient of a volatile substance not dissolved in the water is expressed by Eq. The system shown in Fig. Tap water laced with 0. Dissolved oxygen was measured with a DO meter, and the decline of the test subject was measured by a gas-chromatograph by real-time sampling.
The substances other than carbon disulfide and methyl sulfide inhibited the oxidation of sodium sulfite, and the mass transfer coefficient of oxygen measured with such oxidation-inhibiting substances was discarded, and the transfer coefficient obtained in the measurement of carbon disulfide alone was accepted. Table 4 shows the mass transfer coefficients of various substances measured.
The overflow loading was changed over a range of 58 to mVm. The depth of the waterfall was fixed at 50 mm. This system was covered with an acrylic resin covering, and ventilated 7. According to the same procedure as with the channel, carbon disulfide test was conducted. At the weir, mass transfer is considered to take place at the gas-liquid contact layers as offered by bubbles at the waterfall basin. The change of 6 may be explained by the fact that the hypothesis ii above does not hold good for the bubbles.
A solution to this problem is naturally to cover the odor source for facilitating local forced ventilation. If accommodation quarters such as administration office are present in the same building that has an odor source, it may be necessary to ventilate the accommodation space as well as the covered odor source as illustrated in Fig. A simple cover is suitable for outdoor plants such as sludge thickners, Where odors are to be collected from sources in a building, a double cover double decked cover is preferrable.
Thus, the types of covering and the feasibility of covering should be studied with care. As the test results in Chapter 4 suggest, the forced ventilation for the covered freeboard will be enough if the air velocity at the opening is about 0. For those facilities like sludge thickner, it will be advisable to install a draft tube of about 50 mm in diameter in order to check excessive depressurization within the cover.
They are: a wet chemical method using an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium hypochlorite; an absorption method using activated carbon or ion exchange resin; an incineration to burn out odors; and a biological method using soil microorganisms or activated sludge. Table 6 is a classification of the methods recommended for applications.
While the wet chemical method can be applied at a large ventilation rate, chemicals to be used must be selected properly. There are a wide variety of absorbents for the adsorption method, in the wastewater treatment plant, however, activated carbon and chemical absorbents lead the others. Activated carbon is available in two types.
Table 8 shows the adsorption capacity of the various types of activated carbon. Incineration is effective in burning out high-concentration odors of small ventilation rate, and is not so common in the wastewater treatment plant. The biological method using soil microorganisms has come to stay mainly in the livestock rearing industry for deodorizing animal wastes.
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In recent years, it has become increasingly appealing for wastewater treatment plants, though it has some problems that a wide tract of land is required and that preliminary tests are necessary because the optimum gas feed rate varies depending on the type of soil. If these problems were solved, the method will spread for its simple operation and maintenance and high deodorizing efficiency.
Table 9 shows the design particulars and operating conditions of a subterraneous deodorizing system at the Tarumi Wastewater Treatment Plant, Kobe. The deodorizing performance of Tarumi's system is quite impressing as demonstrated in Table Table 9 Design example of soil deodorization facility Facility to be deodorized! Soil bed: m2 Void velocity: 4. The biological method can use composted sludge instead of soil, and its deodorizing peformance is as good as soil. Another biological method is a simple one in which odors are blown into an aeration tank.
There, foul air from the sludge processing systems such as sludge thickners is used as an air source for the aeration tank. The system shows a very high efficiency in removing malodorous substances, and the odors generated from the aeration tank are almost on a level with the system using fresh open air for aeration. The valuer in parentheses denote the number of vent t I a ti on;, pL'i Ix-uj. The odor gas pipe needs drain wherever water is likely to be condensed because the odor gas contains much water.
The metal fittings of the dry filter, gas flowmeter, etc. The replacement of dry filter element usually is once every five years, but its frequency must be increased to once every several months when handling odorous gases. Activated carbon is used for deodorization of the aeration tank, and. Therefore, it is possible to absorb the odor only by making the air pass through the absorption tower, and life of the activated carbon is long.
The catalytic reduction process is the method that removes nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in the discharge gas from sludge incinerator. In this case, the activated carbon is regenerated once a year, but since it is possible to operate for almost 2 years without regeneration, the cost could be reduced to half of the cost shown. In the case of soil deodorization, construction cost and operation and maintenance costs are rather low although it is effective.
In this facility, aeration tank is installed in the building and the roof is used for deodorization, so land cost and building cost are not included in the cost shown in the Table. For instance, the site area is m3 and if it is possible to secure the site, the construction cost would be less than other methods. The aeration process by activated sludge is to modify the ventilation of the ordinary sewage treatment plant, so accurate construction cost and operation and maintenance cost are not obtained. But it is certain that this method is less expensive compared with other methods.
Reference 1 S. Introduction 2. Outline of Sewarage Service 3. Outline of Sludge Treatment 4. Composting of Sewage Sludge 4. However, during the past several years sludge to be carried off for ultimate disposal has remained at almost the same level. This is due to the introduction of high-performance dehydrators capable of removing far more moisture than ever, the progress made in composting, and more dependance on incineration for sludge disposal. However, over the past several years it has become increasingly difficult to find sites for landfill.
At the same time, voices calling for effective use of resources have been mounting. These two factors have prompted local authorities to study various ways of turning sludge into something reusable - building material, compost, etc. When the results of the studies showed that pro- duction of compost required less energy than that of building material, emphasis has been placed on the development of composting technology. The progress made in this field has now brought the number of municipalities which embarked on composting to approximately Fukuoka City took a lead in this move when it decided in to launch a "Sewage for Agricultural Use Project" - a project aimed at recycling sewage waste.
In , the City completed the construction of the "Sludge Control Center," a composting facility, which has enabled a systematic implementation of this recycling project. At present, all sludge produced in the City is recycled into compost. Sludge disposal in Fukuoka City. In the following pages are reported the details of the "Sewage for Agricultural Use Project," general information on the Sludge Control Center including operational data and the quality of compost produced in this Center, and future problems of composting.
The City, bounded by Hakata Bay on the north and mountains on the other sides, is full of scenic places. Being close to the Chinese Continent, Fukuoka has been a gateway to foreign politics, economies, and cultures since 2, years ago. Fukuoka became a city in with a population of 50, Now it has developed into the 8th largest city of Japan with 1. It has a total area of The population density in the urban areas is 80 persons per hectare. To promote internationalization of the City, Fukuoka went into a sister- city-relationship with Oakland, U.
It is now affiliated with two more major cities of the world - Kuangchou in China and Bordeaux in France. These affiliations have been greatly helping the citizens living in different countries to exchange ideas and information in wide-ranging fields. The project in those days dealt only with domestic sewage water and rainwater. It was in when the first 5-years sewerage improvement project started that the construction of a treatment plant came to be included in the sewerage planning.
Since then, efficiently coping with the expansion of urbanized areas, the City has been carrying out well-planned projects to improve its sewer system. With approximately 40 billion yen allocated annually for building related facilities and equipments, sewerage improvement project is now one of the three major public works undertaken by the City.
Fukuoka City has planned to expand sewer-system-service areas to 14, ha. As of March, , 7, ha. Combined 3.