In Protestant Germany the words of the vox Christi are in German: when the vocal work contains a sung Gospel reading, such as in Bach's Passions, the words are taken from Luther's Bible translation, but the words may also be free verse, as for instance in the Brockes Passion. In either case the composition may also contain a setting of an Evangelist's words, which are traditionally set for a tenor voice. Apart from a difference in voice type, settings of Jesus' words in recitatives can be further differentiated from surrounding text settings by, for instance, giving them a more arioso character, or setting them accompagnato while the Evangelist and other characters sing secco.
Passions and Oratorios. Der XI. Psalm Salvum me fac, p.
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It was published as one of eight songs in in the first Lutheran hymnal, the Achtliederbuch, which contained four songs by Luther, three by Speratus, and one by Justus Jonas. It was contained in in the Erfurt Enchiridion. Mozart used one of its tunes in his opera The Magic Flute. History and text At the end of , Luther paraphrased Psalm 12 Psalm 11 in Vulgata numbering , Psalms 12, in Latin Salvum me fac, attempting to make the psalms accessible to Protestant church services in German.
Luther's poetry first follows the verses of the psalm exactly, th. The author reflects the Passion, based on the Four Evangelists, originally in 23 stanzas. The lyrics were written for an older melody, "Es sind doch selig alle, die im rechten Glauben wandeln" Zahn No. Catherine Winkworth translated it as "O man, thy grievous sin bemoan". Hymn Sebald originally wrote a reflection of the Passion based on the four gospels in 23 stanzas of 12 lines each. Contrived example of a canon in three voices at the unison, two beats apart. The initial melody is called the leader or dux , while the imitative melody, which is played in a different voice, is called the follower or comes.
The follower must imitate the leader, either as an exact replication of its rhythms and intervals or some transformation thereof see "Types of canon", below. An accompanied canon is a canon accompanied by one or more additional independent parts that do not imitate the melody. History During the Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque—that is, through the early 18th century—any kind of imitative musical counterpoints w.
It became an inherent part of major Christian ceremonial occasions, mainly as a conclusion song.
Due to its memorable melody and theme it is one of the most popular hymns and prevalent in German-speaking communities. As a result of the German emigration in the 19th century, the song became known in the United States and was translated to English by Clarence A. Walworth in , except verse 7 translated by Hugh T. Henry , which accounted for its wide spreading around the country. History of the hymn The first printing of the hymn was made in Vienna , where it became part of the Catholic hymnal Katholisches Gesangsbuch upon the order of Her Apostolic Majesty Maria Theresia.
Late church cantatas by Johann Sebastian Bach refers to sacred cantatas he composed after his fourth cycle of — Whether Bach still composed a full cantata cycle in the last 20 years of his life is not known, but the extant cantatas of this period written for occasions of the liturgical year are sometimes referred to as his fifth cycle, as, according to his obituary, he would have written five such cycles — inasmuch as such cantatas were not late additions to earlier cycles e. Other cantatas of this period were written for special occasions such as the th anniversary of the Augsburg Confession in June , funerals and weddings.
Obviously some of the information and compositions of this period of writing and performing of cantatas are missing, leading to different ways of presenting and connecting what is known about them by Bach-scholars. For instance, in the 19th century Spitta considered almost all of Bach.
Der XIII. It was published as one of eight songs in in the first Lutheran hymnal, the Achtliederbuch. It was also published later that year in the Erfurt Enchiridion. It has appeared in many hymnals, both in German and in translation. The text inspired vocal and organ music by composers such as Johann Pachelbel. History and text At the end of , Luther paraphrased Psalm 14 Psalm 13 in Vulgata numbering , in Latin Dixit insipiens in cor, attempting to make the psalms accessible to Protestant church services in German.
As he did with "Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein", Luther expanded the content of the psalm to show the precise situation of the early Reformation as a time of conflict. Throughout his life as a musician, Johann Sebastian Bach composed cantatas for both secular and sacred use. His church cantatas are cantatas which he composed for use in the Lutheran church, mainly intended for the occasions of the liturgical year.
The listing below contains cycle information as available in scholarship, and may include cantatas that are or were associated with Bach e. Before Leipzig Bach's earliest cantatas date from more than 15 years before he became T. It is a song of thanks, with the incipit: "Nun lasst uns Gott dem Herren Dank sagen und ihn ehren" Now let us say thanks to God, the Lord, and honour him. The melody, published by Nikolaus Selnecker, appeared in History Ludwig Helmbold was a pedagogue who chose a simple meter of four lines of equal length for the hymn, a format that he used for most of his hymns.
Canon triplex a 6: first printed in below , it appears on both versions of the portrait Haussmann made of Bach , — above. In the 19th-century Bach Gesellschaft edition the canon was published in Volume , p. The edition of that catalogue BWV2a mentions Haussmann's paintings as original sources for the work p. Johann Sebastian Bach composed cantatas, motets, masses, Magnificats, Passions, oratorios, four-part chorales, songs and arias.
His instrumental music includes concertos, suites, sonatas, fugues, and other works for organ, harpsichord, lute, violin, cello, flute, chamber ensemble and orchestra. There are over known compositions by Bach. As a general song of thanks, the song has appeared in several hymnals, including the German Protestant hymnal Evangelisches Gesangbuch and the Catholic hymnal Gotteslob. It has inspired musical settings by composers from the 17th to the 21st century.
History When Paul Gerhardt wrote "Nun danket all und bringet Ehr", he was 40 years old, had completed his theological studies but had not found a suitable position as a pastor yet.
He worked as a private teacher in Berlin. The Thirty Years' War was in its final year. When he was thirteen, he was sent to study in Schneeberg, where he was taught music, including thoroughbass, by cantor Christian Umlaufft, a former student of Johann Kuhnau. The 66 Chorale improvisations for organ, Op. The composition was dedicated to "the great organist Alexandre Guilmant". It was widely known, and aside from its Pentecostal origin was also used as a procession song and in sacred plays.
The most prominent form of today's hymn contains three further stanzas written by the Protestant reformer Martin Luther. He recommended the leise in his liturgy to be used regularly in church services. The request to the Holy Spirit for the right faith most of all "um den rechten Glauben allermeist" suited Luther's theology well.
In , possibly for Pentecost, he wrote the additional stanzas. The song's themes of faith, love and hope render it appropriate not only for Pentecost but also for general occasions and funerals. Luther's chorale. Johann Sebastian Bach's chorale cantata cycle is the year-cycle of church cantatas he started composing in Leipzig from the first Sunday after Trinity in It followed the cantata cycle he had composed from his appointment as Thomaskantor after Trinity in Bach's second cantata cycle is commonly used as a synonym for his chorale cantata cycle, but strictly speaking both cycles overlap only for 40 cantatas.
Two further chorale cantatas may belong to both cycles: the final version of Christ lag in Todes Banden, BWV 4, and the earliest version of Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott, BWV 80; it is, however, uncertain whether these versions were first presented in Bach's second year in Leipzig. Bach composed a further 13 cantatas in his second year at Leipzig, none of them chorale cantatas, although two of them became associated with the chorale cantata cycle.
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After his second year in Leipzig, he composed at least eight further cantatas for inclusion in his chorale cantata cycle. Around the start of the Bach. Opening of the Wanderer Fantasy, Op. Franz Schubert 31 January — 19 November was an extremely prolific Austrian composer. He composed some works or, when collections, cycles and variants are grouped, some thousand compositions.
The largest group are the lieder for piano and solo voice over six hundred , and nearly as many piano pieces. Schubert also composed some part songs, some 40 liturgical compositions including several masses and around 20 stage works like operas and incidental music. His orchestral output includes a dozen symphonies seven completed and several overtures. Schubert's chamber music includes over 20 string quartets, and several quintets, trios and duos.
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This article constitutes a complete list of Schubert's known works organized by their genre. The complete output is divided in eight series, and in principle follows the order established by the Neue Schubert-Ausgabe printed edition. The works fou. It is his last theological text before he was executed on 9 April It became a frequently sung hymn, with different melodies, which has appeared in current German hymnals.
History Bonhoeffer was arrested as a prominent opponent of the Nazi regime on 5 April , and was kept at different prisons. His writings in prison showed a new dimension in his theology. From mid, around the time of the 20 July plot, he began to also write poems. From there he wrote on 19 December to his betrothed M.
Star singers from Hochfranken. Star boys. Children singing Christmas carols.
Star singers also known as Epiphany singers, or Star boys' singing procession England , are children and young people walking from house to house with a star on a rod and often wearing crowns and dressed in clothes to resemble the Three Magi variously also known as Three Kings or Three Wise Man. The singing processions have their roots in an old medieval ecclesiastical play, centred on the Biblical Magi of the Christmas story in the Gospel of Matthew Mt 2, , appropriate to Epiphany. It is observed usually during the period between 27 December and 6 January the feast of the Epiphany.
In Scandinavia and Central Europe a special set of songs, distinct from Christmas carols has developed in this context. In England, the liturgical drama developed from being performed by cathedral schoolboys in the 16th century to become a more secular mystery drama, containing also some ordinary Christmas songs and carols. Historically per. I can surely say without any arrogance that since J. This is not the same as Genre, the latter listed under Opus such as oratorio, opera buffa, song, etc.
Rating : This is a purely subjective personal overall rating for the work, 0 to 10, listed only if it is nonzero. I have not completed adding ratings for all works, including many with which I am familiar. Librettist : The author of the sung or spoken text for a vocal work, shown only if explicitly included in the database. Ashkenazy" or " Covent Garden". Subwork Names : For works having subworks included in the database, a listing of the subworks is given which may be a selective or incomplete list.
Subwork line items are indented deeper than are works. Subworks are listed sorted first by the contents of Opus and then by Subwork Name, then by Version. Subworks names may pertain to overlapping sections of the work. The first, in which purely instrumental shapes and fragments are disciplined into relatively loose fugal structures, where the virtuoso element is strong and there is considerable reliance on lengthy episodes, is represented here by BWV, , and The dance fugue finds the subject characteristically rhythmical BWV, but shares also the purely instrumental devices of the Spielfuge , especially sequence both rhythmic and figurative.
With the allabreve fugue we see an altogether more serious intellectual intent; the nature of the smoother, more vocally-orientated subjects admits a regular use of up to five parts often with two subjects , a wider harmonic palette derived from the greater use of suspensions, and closer-knit episodes, as we see here in BWV, , and Other fugues, of course, may be seen to combine elements of more than one of these types, and the masterly synthesis of styles achieved with the approach of maturity is clear in BWV and The prelude, too, whether based on the many-sectioned rhetoric of the north, the sequential figuration of the south, or powerful five-part writing from France, became a personal synthesis of styles within a greatly increased spectrum of different formal devices, and, in the end, the prelude and its fugue were written for, and entirely complementary to, each other, which was by no means the case as Bach developed his handling of the form, revising either prelude or fugue, adding new preludes to old fugues, and the like.
What, then, did Bach write these works for, and what did he expect them to sound like?
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While the present-day notion of organ music before and after a church service was not as widespread in eighteenthcentury Germany, there is some evidence of a rather limited tradition Scheibe of Hamburg mentions it in , though not necessarily in those parts of Germany where Bach was active. The second type concerns the prelude or postlude, in which the fugue acts as either a part or an ending. Certainly, although he held no official position as organist after leaving Weimar in , Bach maintained an active interest in the prelude or fantasia and fugue form, not only composing new examples in Leipzig, but revising and retouching old ones there.
Often organists were terrified when he wished to play on their organs and drew the stops in his manner, since they believed it could not possibly sound well in the way he wanted; but little by little they heard an effect that amazed them. Clearly a variety of imaginative and even unconventional colour is required, but whether this is achieved by changing manuals is another difficult question. Certainly Bach expected changes of manual sometimes.
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He asks for them in the Prelude BWV and the two strongly contrasted ideas in the Fantasia BWV invite them, but there are many instances, especially in the closer-wrought fugues, where it seems possible to travel to a secondary manual only to find no musical moment at which it is digitally possible to return.
Again, Bach often achieves a change of colour by altering the density of the texture or character of the writing in such a way as to admit, in addition, changes in the type of articulation that can be employed. The Toccatas and Passacaglia The present works may all be said to stand apart from the types of music for organ associated with use in a liturgical context. Other opportunities for solo organ playing were as introductions to the choral parts of the service—motets and cantatas—the purpose of this last being picturesquely described by Mattheson in as to fix the ensuing pitch in the minds of the singers, and to allow the players, under the cover of the organ sound, to tune their instruments.
We can see here, then, a regular use of more than one chorale prelude in each such service, and a less clearly regular opportunity for extended preludes and fugues played either separately or together. It is unlikely, therefore, that such flamboyant, extended, and technically demanding works as the four Toccatas and the Passacaglia would have found an easy place in such an austere liturgical context. For what purpose, then, were these pieces written? Throughout his life, Bach was in regular demand as the examiner of new instruments, and it was in large measure through this activity that his fame as a virtuoso player with an original and piquant command of registration spread.
What better music could Bach have designed for such purposes than these many-sectioned pieces with their ample opportunity for display—pedal solos, manual dexterity, textural variety, contrapuntal virtuosity, as well as exploration of an instruments potential—emphasis on departments both individually and in tandem, opportunities for frequent registrational changes, from blend-searching light combinations to a densely-textured pleno to challenge any wind supply. Within this small group of works it is easy to see the extent to which Bach assimulated, enriched, and synthesised the formal antecedents and national styles which fell under his gaze.
Organ Miniatures In his biographical essay on Bach published in Nikolaus Forkel divides the organ works into three categories: Grand Preludes and Fugues twelve in all, including those in E minor BWV , G minor BWV and D minor BWV which appear in this collection plus the Passacaglia; works based on chorale melodies requiring obbligato pedals, of which he had discovered some seventy examples; and the six Trio Sonatas and a few additional works of similar type—of interest, but not quite up to the standard of the rest. We see the young composer assimilating and synthesizing elements from the North and South German organ styles as represented on the one hand by Buxtehude and on the other by Pachelbel, together with coloristic and formal elements from the French keyboard composers.
The problems relate to authenticity both of text, in certain instances, and of attribution, in the same and other cases. To add to all this, the Second World War and its aftermath entailed dispersal of much crucial source material in chaotic circumstances which may be readily imagined. Of the composers here represented, the least known exercised the most direct influence on Bach, though in a particular fashion.
Prince Johann, an assiduous student musician, sent copious consignments of Italian scores home to Weimar while attending the University of Utrecht between February and July at a remarkably tender age by present-day standards. After his return he received tuition as a composer from Johann Gottfried Walther , an almost exact contemporary of Bach. The latter view, expressed within the past twenty years by Hans- Joachim Schulze, accords with received knowledge of the general status quo at Weimar, but has been questioned on more specific grounds by Peter Williams in his formidable study, The Organ Music of J S Bach Cambridge, Yet another layer of confusion descends when we consider Vivaldi, to whom the same arguments do not apply.
Even the possibility that Ernst and Vivaldi were transcribed for wholly separate reasons cannot be definitely ruled out. Belated posterity has lent Bach a near-divinity which easily deludes us into rejecting any notion of youthful development, any acknowledgement of a time when he knew less than everything; and this ironically does less than justice to his scholarly appetites and his capacity to feed burgeoning genius on elements of received tradition.
In the case of Vivaldi, Bach undoubtedly recognized that he could learn much, and did so. We should bear in mind that in he was a young man of twenty-eight. This, he considers, had begun by Behind this sweeping announcement lies more than a hint of truth. Bach is thought to have made approximately twenty concerto arrangements.
In three cases the original composers are unknown. The remainder are assumed to be intended for harpsichord. Questions as to authenticity arguably persist, owing to the scattering of documentary sources, and Williams emphasizes that the transcriptions are in no sense an integrated group. As has been shown, the puzzles and questions attending this corpus of works are legion, even when one ignores for the moment the imponderables arising from registration.
These transcriptions, however, are of value in perpetuating the rather forlorn figure of Prince Johann Ernst. Of course this approach can ultimately only be subjective. However, we should lay aside questions of authorship for the moment and simply enjoy a succession of little gems which provide pleasure for listener and performer alike.
The melodies and words, often barely altered since Martin Luther and the Reformation two hundred years earlier, were closely associated and only occasionally did one tune serve more than one set of words. Together they came to reflect the general symbols of the relevant season or sentiment; they were the very fabric of the liturgical music which organists provided and in which congregations participated.
Performance practice was notably different from what we take for granted today. The main service on Sunday the Hauptgottesdienst at which Bach would have seen his weekly cantata performed lasted a full five hours, from seven in the morning until midday. Secondly, when the organ was used in the accompaniment of chorales, it could participate in a number of ways, though even today we are uncertain about how many of the options were used regularly in any one place or the extent to which local conditions dictated the number and kind of practices.
The orders of service which have come down to us at least from the first half of the eighteenth century tend to detail unusual or special occasions rather than standard routine. First, it could accompany the singing by providing the harmony, and probably interludes made up of extempore flourishes between verses, or even lines of verses, in a manner simple enough to ensure that the harmony was not so sophisticated, or the interludes so brilliant and unexpected, that the congregation would collapse into confusion as did once happen under the young Bach at Arnstadt, an occurrence for which he received a strong reprimand from the church council.
Secondly, it could provide, besides accompaniment for the sung verses, longer and more formally worked-out interludes between the verses chorale partitas, or sets of variations, may well have been used in this way, as well as in their documented domain as recital pieces.