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Christmas Carols Around The World. For a start, the motto, the quotation from a poem by Gershom Scholem, is often overlooked or disregarded in readings of this kind. These lines of poetry are, however, an important component of the movement of the text, since they mark a reference point for the constellation in which that movement culminates. If I stayed timeless time, I would have little luck. In this turn back to the origin in search of salvation, it is the tone of disappointment in the quest for happiness in the order of the profane and the pathos of a positively evaluated about-turn that determine the lyrical rhythm.
Benjamin says of him that he is called—that is, that the artist called him—Angelus Novus. His eyes are staring, his mouth is open, his wings are spread. The real movement enters the text, though, with the third angel, the angel of history. The Angelus Novus depicted by Klee is not equated with the angel of history, let it be noted, nor is it interpreted as a pictorial representation of it. What is presented is now a purely imagined image: The angel of history must look like this. His face is turned toward the past. The angel would like to stay a while, awaken the dead, and make whole what has been smashed.
But a storm is blowing from Paradise that has got caught in his wings, and its strength is such that the angel can no longer close them. This storm drives him irresistibly into the future, to which his back is turned, while the pile of debris before him mounts up to the heavens. What we call progress: that is this storm. It is true that this textual movement is tripartite in structure, and yet it does not culminate in a synthesis, but in a constellation of non-synchronicity. Rather, taking as his starting point on the one hand a poetic image and on the other a painted one, both of which can be seen also as wish-images Wunschbilder , Benjamin evolves a thought-image whose figuration can no longer be translated into conceptual terminology or meta-discourse.
He himself describes this work as a reflection in moments of awakening, and it is a reflection that does not neutralize or rationally resolve the desire condensed in these preexisting images. In whatever direction they listen, the words are unspoken. They draw their bodies closer and caress one another. Since the different positions and imagines of men and women within cultural history have become so strongly inscribed in the patterns of thought and modes of expression handed down to us, as well as in the dominant symbolic and imaginary structures, it is a matter of course that theoretical contributions to research in this area in large part reflect the linguistic preconditions of the investigative work in hand.
And so the search for a position from which it might be possible to speak seems constantly to be deferred. What follows is thus not intended as a contribution to the cultural history of gender relations, but as a reflection on the way in which the latter are or can be represented at all within various theoretical conceptual frameworks—and in particular in those of Julia Kristeva and Walter Benjamin.
With this in mind, Kristeva and Benjamin are to be taken as exemplary, and their approaches discussed comparatively in order to mark similarities and differences. And that is why I alone have something to clarify with him—above all, I must and can only clarify myself in front of him. He has nothing to clarify, no, not he. It is no coincidence that it is a literary text which manages to give expression to the complicated position of women and the complex function of the feminine in the dialectic of enlightenment, achieving this through the use of many of the expressive possibilities inherent in poetic language.
The figurations in which the two move are so manifold and multiple that they cannot easily be captured in the singularity of meaning, in the linearity and logical structure of conceptual language and scientific argumentation. This is one reason why interpretations of and commentaries on Malina seem to this day to be as it were on the trail of the text, without ever managing to reach it totally, as a whole.
The example of Malina is introduced here solely for the purpose of providing a foil for the deliberations that follow: on the tendency within feminist discourse to turn to literary and figurative modes of expression, on the frequently employed references to mythical scenes and artistic figures, on the way myths are used, and on the possibilities and perspectives of thinking in images. Often motives are in play which range from the necessary criticism of the predominant rigidity of scientific discourse to the exposition of global anti-academic and anti-theoretical attitudes, whereby literariness and figurative expression are seen as characteristics of a so-called feminine mode of speech and language and as linked per se to the promise of greater subjectivity, more concreteness and vitality.
This particular dilemma manifests itself, as is so often the case, in its opposite poles. For woman cannot simply catch up on the process of individuation, nor can the reverse side of history simply be turned into, or declared to be, the obverse. The sacrificial structure of the history of enlightenment6 not only repeats itself more corporeally and closer to the bone, as it were, in the female subject, but woman at the same time also has a share in both the reverse and the obverse sides. As a result, the female variant of a dialectic of enlightenment, in addition to reason and its Other, which may from time to time take on a female countenance, introduces what might be described as a third position into the dialectic.
The position of the female subject is not only far more complicated than that of the male one, it also introduces a doubly reversed perspective into the dialectic: namely, the perception and speech of the second sex which wishes to occupy the position of the first, but which cannot simply shake off its provenance from the dark reverse side—and which is anyway not altogether certain how desirable that position, so long denied it, really is. The complexity of this constellation seems constantly to elude conceptual articulation.
While this explains the search in some areas of feminism for a third position beyond myth and enlightenment, as also the efforts to come up with an alternative concept of female subjectivity, neither approach seems particularly promising; for both, at least as far as women in European and North American cultures are concerned, seem more suited to evading than to resolving the problems in question.
Instead, out of the acknowledgement of the inadequacies of prevailing academic discourse for the complex constellation of a female dialectic of enlightenment there follows the need for a specific mode of thought and representation: the introduction of a polyperspectival and topographical dimension to dialectical thinking.
Since the position of woman in and in relation to enlightenment cannot be clarified completely and wholly, with final and universal validity, in a single analysis, what remains is a— probably infinite—series of observations, in which the many and varied situations and moments of transition may be illuminated in detail.
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It is not that the past casts its light on the present or the present casts its light on the past: rather, an image is that in which the has- been comes together in a flash with the Now to form a constellation. In other words: image is dialectic at a standstill. Only dialectical images are genuinely historical, that is, not archaic images. The read image, by which is meant the image in the Now of cognizability, bears to the highest degree the stamp of the critical, dangerous moment which is at the basis of all reading.
In testing his method on a range of subjects and situations from cultural history, most extensively on the Baroque Trauerspiel, on nineteenth-century Paris, and on the Berlin of his childhood, he always proved to have a watchful eye for and to pay considerable attention to the positions and functions of the feminine in the world of images and signs which he examined.
His home [Heimat] is not where he was born; rather he comes into the world where his home is. He is the male first-born of the work that he once conceived. GS IV. The question as to what consequences this model of creation would have for a female artist is another story, which Benjamin naturally did not write. According to Kristeva, the articulations of the semiotic belong to the pre-Oedipal phase, which is characterized by an archaic relationship to the mother. To this extent they are understood as pre-symbolic and prelinguistic functions, precursors of the discourse which is in turn based on them, but which dissociates itself from them.
Yet these two modalities of the signifying process cannot empirically be isolated from each other, as it is only through their dialectical relationship that the signifying process becomes possible. Referring to the second version of the myth of creation in the Bible and in derivation from the creative language of God, he conceives human language before the Fall as both cognitive and denominative. Its magical character lies in its being able to recognize the silent language of Nature and of things by naming them. This corresponds to the description in the biblical myth of a prior state of language as one of immediacy, as a state in which the communication and the communicated were not yet separated: language magic Sprachmagie , mimesis.
Thus immediacy crosses over into abstraction, giving rise to a new, no longer immanent magic, the magic of judgement, which has its roots in the judging word GS II. After the original magic of language has disappeared and the language of signs has taken over, the magic aspect manifests itself in certain constellations or moments within the communicative mitteilend side of language, through which, in a flash, similitude becomes apparent. It is in this instant that the picture- puzzles Vexierbilder of the unconscious and of the not-yet-known are made apparent.
The magic side therefore requires the communicative side of language in order to become visible. But as a prior, submerged element of language which reappears in modified form, it cannot empirically be isolated as such. However, despite the analogies between their respective theoretical understandings of language and signification, and despite the fact that both focus their attention on the break with the creation myth and the consequences of this break, and on lost or prior aspects of writing which, having undergone transformation, now express themselves differently, there are nevertheless significant differences between them which must also be considered.
At the same time, the reception of Kristeva has partly compensated for the lack of attention to Benjamin in imparting to feminist theory an obviously psychoanalytical orientation. The reference to the Oedipus myth is here no longer intended as an actualizing identification with the figure of Oedipus or as a re-telling of the old story; rather, the myth is read as the primal scene of a constellation that has become a structure. In contrast to Lacan, Kristeva is particularly interested in the consequences of this constellation for women, both for the girl child13 and for the fate and the significance of the repressed, prohibited body.
That Kristeva is able to describe the history of the constitution of the female subject, with all the conflicts and contradictions necessarily inscribed into it, is explained by her projection of the conflicts she examines onto the topological model of the subject offered by psychoanalysis, the triad. Thus conflicts which occur in the dimension of the history of the subject and of culture are represented in a triadic configuration. In contrast to popular feminist reception of myths, however, which seeks to lend meaning to the present through the aura of classical mythology, Kristeva does not identify or equate mythical figures or situations with present-day ones.
A metaphorical application which actualizes and reinterprets mythical figures tends to remain within the structure of the imaginary in which, through operations on the level of identification, differences are not discerned or are erased. It is a different matter if we reflect upon the structuring of our perception and experience through the patterns of the imaginary, and read mythical constellations as primal scenes of our history that are preserved in memory.
Whereas Horkheimer and Adorno essentially describe magic, myth, and enlightenment as the consecutive stages of an historical development, Benjamin places more emphasis on their non-synchronicities Ungleichzeitigkeiten. However, his theory is also shaped by the knowledge of the historical logic of this loss. In seeing, through the category of body- and image-space Leib- und Bildraum ,17 the physical materiality of the human being, the corporeality of the collective as providing the basis for a materialist viewpoint, he distinguishes between the technical organization of the physis and its political and factual reality, so that the generation of the physis is seen as taking place in an image-space.
In other words, he reflects on the significance of the imaginary for the reality of the physical. His dialectical images create an historical topography independent of a graphic model such as that of the triad; they can be read as differently projected superimpositions, as double-exposures of now-time Jetztzeit and the has- been das Gewesene , in which historical constellations, including those of a history of the female subject, become readable in all their contradictoriness.
In such a way as neither to repress them nor to deny their magic, the elements of the mythical and of the unconscious are thus made accessible for reflective viewing. The semblance of complete facticity which clings to the philological study and which puts the researcher under its spell dwindles according to the degree in which the object of the study is constructed in historical perspective. The vanishing lines of this construction converge in our own historical experience. In this way the object is constituted as a monad. In the monad everything comes to life which, regarded as the data of the text, lay frozen in mythical rigidity…and so you will find that criticism of the attitude of the philologist is an old concern of mine—and inherently identical with my criticism of the myth.
Benjamin in a letter to Adorno dated 9 December ; Benjamin —5; see Benjamin —8 With regard to history, this is linked to a renunciation of the idea of continuity and progress. When women read this image today, it becomes immediately evident how difficult it is to find a position within its dialectic. This would be a version of stepping out of history, as is also figured, for example, in a retrogression to a supposedly happier matriarchal prehistory.
Read in political, or indeed feminist, terms, it can, however, also point towards the participation of women in the concept of progress qua emancipation. It is they who are chiefly concerned with bodies: both as those who conceive and bear children and as those who care for the sick and the dying and mourn for the dead.
But they are not to be compared with the angel of history; for in that they are survivors, participants in this history and this culture, they are forced to turn their eyes away from those of the angel. Here it becomes evident that images of femininity, creation myths, and metaphors of sexuality form one of the most important archives from which the genesis of dialectical images in his work can be reconstructed, and in which his work on the transformation of images into dialectical images is most clearly profiled.
The Benjaminian attitude of redeeming critique rettende Kritik with regard to the desire bound up in these images might also be made productive for contemporary theories of gender difference. It is seldom that moments of clairvoyance thus illuminate the wreckage of our strength, past which time has flown. Among the notes which date back to the time of his student activities and his association with the Youth Movement, this is not the only image, nor the only formulation or figuration, to link his early writings to his last major project in this curious way.
The concept of experience Erfahrung , reflections on the structure of time, including the concept of Messianic time, closeness and distance, the movement and the look of things, the concept of revelation Offenbarung , of a non-instrumental language, the connection between eroticism and cognition Erkenntnis , various female figures, particularly that of the whore Hure , here still consistently referred to as prostitute Dirne : all of these are motifs which already characterize the structure of the early essays, articles, and notes, and which we encounter again in his writings of the s.
Other constellations, however—ones that do not refer to the position of the writer, but are to be read as textual constellations—foreshadow paradigmatic thought-images of the later writings in their scenic dramaturgy and their topographical arrangement. The figure of the beloved woman, part of a mythical scenery, for in it events are perceived as a landscape, emerges out of this scenery—sometimes quite clearly, sometimes as a shadow—to point the way through the labyrinth of texts in which that ungrasped symbolism is transformed into the great archive of a dialectical thinking- in-images.
In the essay on language, where Benjamin discusses the Adamite language of the Book of Genesis, women are completely absent. That which mourns feels itself thoroughly known by the unknowable. To be named—even when the namer is Godlike and blissful—perhaps always remains an intimation of mourning. This pair is carried over in the fifth section into a conversation between genius and prostitute, and in the sixth into general reflections on the difference between the sexes in language.
If the female position is here associated with silence, it is in relation to two distinct aspects. Their conversation has liberated itself from subject-matter and from language…Silence and sexual pleasure—eternally divided in conversation—have become one. Reader for City Dwellers 5. It was they who earned him his fame and whom he bought off.
His readings of Baudelaire could, however, just as easily be read as comments on his own early writings. There the motif of the prostitute as well as that of non-procreation take on central significance for the figure of the genius or for the concept of intellectual creation without procreation. While the imagery of his texts bears witness to his fascination with the transitions between the corporeal-erotic and the intellectual,6 in his argumentation the author takes pains to prevent the two becoming intermingled or one being subjugated by the other.
And we will talk about the sexualization of the spiritual: this is the morality of the prostitute. She represents culture in Eros, Eros which is the most vehement individualist, the most hostile to culture, it, too, can be perverted, it, too, can be of service to culture. It is true: the existence of the feminine is the guarantor of the asexuality of the intellectual in the world. The problem is that women remain silent, banished to that mute region of a different productivity.
Those who go to the prostitute are, namely, those who were not begotten by anyone and who themselves do not want to procreate—precisely the qualities which characterize the genius. This image, by virtue of the notion of a virgin mother, places the genius in the position of competing with the Son of God, thereby citing a traditional myth concerning genius.
May I tell you about her? She gave birth like you: to a hundred dead poems. Here we can observe the gradual transformation, over a period of twenty years, of an image by which the author seems fascinatedly enthralled into a dialectical image—a shift which can be understood as a dismantling of the misrecognizing, imaginary structure of the image.
While the speaker is obsessed with the present, the women appear as the guardians of what is past, which makes them superior even to the genius, who is described as having cursed his recollection in the process of creation, as being poor in memory and perplexed GS II.
Just as I, no sooner had I seen you for the first time, travelled back with you to where I came from.
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GS VI, The woman is no longer situated in the past here, nor does she have the past; rather, she opens up the way to the past, or to the recurrence of what has been. It is in this sense that we encounter women as guardians of the past in many texts of the late s and the s. Yet in these texts their position has been transposed unequivocally onto the scene of writing, and becomes decipherable against the foil of a signature of the feminine in the imaginary. There, the structure of recollection and the significance of locations with female connotations in the imaginary were always already interconnected.
Though they are still marked by their origins in the sphere of the forgotten, they no longer inhabit that sphere, but rather, through the figure of the return of the repressed, become embodiments of the representation of the forgotten in the image archive of modernity. In his works, created things appear at the stage which Bachofen has termed the hetaeric stage.
The fact that it is now forgotten does not mean that it does not extend into the present. On the contrary: it is actual by virtue of this very oblivion. The topos of distortion in the Kafka essay does, however, provide a link with the whores of the Paris arcades, the allegories of modernity.
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But the places are countless in the big cities where one stands on the threshold to nothingness, and the whores are as it were the lares of this cult of nothingness and stand in the doorways of the tenement blocks and on the more softly resounding asphalt of the railway platforms. Here she is chiefly to be found on the threshold—she has, then, moved out of the primeval world into that sphere of the transition between dreaming and wakefulness which appears as a condition of possibility for awakening.
As threshold-dwellers GS V. The distortion into allegory of the world of commodities resists the deceptive transfiguration of the latter. The commodity seeks to look itself in the face. The whore is not only seller and commodity in one, she is also at one and the same time body and image. Indeed, the figuration of looking oneself in the face describes both an incarnation Verleiblichung or personification of the image and a self-reflexive relation of the image to itself or to its embodiment in real bodies. Moreover, the formulation recalls not only the famous quotation from Kraus about the word, to the effect that the more closely one looks at it, the more distantly it looks back GS I.
The coming together of representation and perception in this way, and of body and image, predestines the whore to become the central figure of the Passagen project. For it is not only that, in her and through reflection on her, images become dialectical images and allegories become distorted representations in which the imaginary structure of figurative representation is dispersed from within. And the recourse to topo-graphical structures taken from early mythical representations of the city in the writing of modernity is connected to the return of the repressed elements within those personifications.
These questions are seldom addressed, or else quickly disappear in what is probably the most common concretization; namely, that what is meant is a figurative form of speech. If this implicitly defines the relationship of the image or figure to the concept as one of alterity, it is nevertheless precisely in the gap between the two that the whole play of meanings is made to disappear, a play of meanings which is constituted precisely out of the heterogeneity of logos and materia, of signifier and signified, out of the most manifold and multifarious differences therefore.
On account of differing points of departure, however, concrete, visible signs are sometimes—namely, when viewed from the perspective of representation—characterized as other in relation to meaning, while elsewhere and conversely—namely, when viewed from the perspective of reading—the concrete image or literal sense of a text is seen as pointing towards another meaning.
Adopting a semiotic view, one might say that, on the one hand, it is the signified that is seen as other while the signifier appears to be unambiguous, proper eigentlich , and original, whereas, on the other, it is the signifier that is taken as the point of departure and which, apart from its proper sense, points towards another signified. The relationship of translation translatio between word or image and meaning thus has its basis in specific knowledge, which raises the problem of access to this knowledge. Academic interest in allegory is focused primarily on the way such systems are established—and, together with this, on efforts towards achieving a sufficient range of differences that constitute meaning within figurative representation5—or, alternatively, on the reconstruction of historical keys and codes.
This means that scholarship on allegory is very largely characterized by an encyclopaedic approach. And in the case of many images one is tempted to ask whether the allegorical meaning did not simply provide the moral occasion for an artistic representation, and whether the desire of artist and viewer is not primarily directed towards this other representation—for desire is always the desire for the other. Quite apart from the question of access to a knowledge-system which regulates the allegorical relationship between text and meaning, allegories permit different readings in which either the system of translation or the concrete representation may provide the central focus.
In the meantime, the reverse side of this process remains outside the field of vision: namely, disembodiment, such as takes place in respect of the material and of the images which are used —and consumed—in the allegorical representation.
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The whole of nature is personalized, not so as to be made more inward, but, on the contrary—so as to be deprived of soul. And the characters of the Trauerspiel die, because it is only thus, as corpses, that they can enter into the homeland of allegory. GS I, —2; OGT —17 This devaluating tendency in allegorical representation has its counter- part, too, in allegorical exegesis. For the genesis of allegorical reading— whether in the debate concerning allegorical interpretation of myth, sparked off in relation to Homeric epic, or in the allegorical extrapolation of certain passages in Holy Scripture—lies in the assumption of another sense, an assumption which has its basis in the rejection of the literal meaning of the textual passages in question—the story of Lot and his daughters, for example, or the story of Susanna, or the Song of Songs.
In this respect, precisely this field of allegorical interpretation is one in which an explicit or hidden battle for control over knowledge is fought out, a knowledge which, with the aid of the structures of the imaginary and through the interpretation of all forms of imagistic perception, becomes inscribed in the experience and everyday life of individuals.
It is for this reason that allegory plays such an important role in the tradition of cultural memory, and not only in that trace of tradition to which Frances A. Yates has called attention in her examination of the specific connections between the ars memoria and the allegorical paintings of the Renaissance Yates 91ff. Rather, wherever they form a repertoire of established topoi which structures memory and experience, allegorical images and schemata become building blocks in the archive of cultural memory. And it is precisely this kind of writing which loses its dominant role at the inception of the Classical age according to Foucault, in the seventeenth century.
Thus the allegory provides a memory trace for a similitude which has been lost, a trace for that literature with which Foucault associates a kind of counter-discourse, a recollection and—with modernity—reappearance of lost similitude. It is always an allegorical one. What constitutes his historical index? This is what determines the character of allegory as a form of writing. It is a schema; and as a schema […continuation as above]. Traces of a prehistory of this allegory of modernity are to be found wherever allegorical reading—not a learned, typologically ordered, or systematically regulated exegesis—permits the images or texts to become writing, the deciphering of which is passed into the responsibility of the subject.
That is, the allegory of modernity is constituted through the practice of reading, through the observation of texts and images as writing. All of his reflections take as their basis an existing affinity between allegory and the conception of the unconscious in psychoanalysis. For Freud very frequently avails himself of allegorical methods in order to make the processes of the psychic apparatus representable, first and foremost for the reason that he rejects the localization of psychic processes in the body in favour of seeing the body as a scene Schauplatz in which psychic disturbances manifest themselves Starobinski This reading is, however, only made possible by a text which reads the metropolitan experience of modernity as allegorical writing, where-by the arcades of Paris are the paradigmatic locations, because it is with respect to them that the writing of the city architecture and topography and the experiences of the subject intersect in the most manifold ways, producing the most complex multiplicity of meanings: they are rites de passage, dream-places, threshold, and transition point.
Here, as in many texts by other authors, topographical schemata dominate the image- writing Bilderschrift of modernity. In them, topographical models from myths make their reappearance, whereby these can be understood as quasi pre-allegorical image-writing. Yet in so doing, the allegory in modernity as it were dissolves into a form of writing which opens up a space for the structures of the unconscious. Yet the traces of his work on a concept of memory go much further back, attaining a particular concentration above all between the first phase of work on the Passagen —29 and his resumption of the project from onwards.
Many of the texts within the radius of the Passagen contain reflections or single thought-images on the complex of recollection and memory, and may be seen as testing out different models and possibilities for representing this complex. Within this model, the reading of the traces and images of history is located in the scene Schauplatz of individual and collective memory which are regarded as being analogous in structure and understood as a perceptual activity on the threshold between receptivity and action, between revelation and historiography, between dreaming and philosophizing.
As his thoughts develop, a clear paradigm shift becomes evident from a topographical-spatial model of memory, such as is characteristic of the first phase of the Passagen project, to a scripto-topographical concept of memory, bearing the imprint of psychoanalytical thinking, such as structures the work of the s on the Passagen. Fruitless searching is as much a part of this as succeeding, and consequently remembrance [Erinnerung] must not proceed in the manner of a narrative or still less that of a report, but must, in the strictest epic and rhapsodic manner, assay its spade in ever new places, and in the old ones delve to ever deeper layers.
GS VI, ; OWS Under the heading of memory as a scene, this attempt at representation, taking as its starting point a narrative structure the repeated return to the same , and leading on from here to the movements of excavation which are on the trail of meaningful individual pieces, culminates in a catalogue of the places where the findings are made or even of the vain search. This catalogue—in that it is distinguished from the inventory of retrieved objects—appears as it were as a different form of written record Niederschrift , in relation to which the movement of the search is now also described in terms of a different form of repetition: in ever new places and at ever deeper levels.
Thus in this representation of the memory-scene—a thought-image par excellence—a model of writing is superimposed upon an archaeological allegory. And if the archaeological allegory introduces the association of a model of levels, the model of writing is like that proposed by Freud in his topographical concept of memory in which memory is described as a different, or other, scene ein anderer Schauplatz.
Here he tests out a variety of different representational allegories, not only that of excavation, but also, for example, that of the family tree and the labyrinth. And the aim in what follows is to reconstruct the development of this Benjaminian model of memory. And every dream is related to the waking world. Everything previous must be penetrated historically. It is rather the case that Benjamin compares certain phenomena, figures, and locations in the real topography of the city with dream and consciousness.
Our waking existence is also a country in which there are hidden places which lead down into the underworld, a country full of inconspicuous locations where dreams open out onto the world. At pm Whether it's about political accuracy, migration, feminism, or failing utopias: Martenstein is not afraid to become unpopular and disagree with the mainstream.
However, the new book is always about private failure and everyday problems, as a father, as a berliner, as a man or German. Brilliant glow - intelligent and fun. Harald Martenstein, born in , is the author of the column "Martenstein" in the magazine and editor at tagesspiegel.
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In , he received the egon erwin kisch prize. His second novel "felt close" received the highest praise. Last appeared " Nettsein is also not a solution " and " in the cinema ". Berlin Translated. This opportunity shouldn't miss a chance! AUG Magnus Heier: brain worlds - the fake brain Monday At pm The Neurologist, book author and radio columnist Dr. Magnus Heier leads through the brain - an organ that provoke, disillusioned, irritated and thrilled. Where we love, murder Where is the memory actually? The love? The hate? The inner pig dog? Why are women so different from men?
Because on average you have grams of brain less? Or because your brain is better linked? Why doesn't it hurt anymore when you blow? Why do pain disappear when you're scared of panic? Or when you're in love? Is the brain resting at some point? In your sleep? While meditating? Or just then not? Does it live longer if it is spared?
Or is it aging faster then? Questions about questions! Questions about the brain to the brain. Why do expensive wines taste so good? Why do less and less people tolerate lactose, gluten and mobile radiation? What is the morbus and why could it only be eliminated after 40 years?
What do back pain have to do with your head, and how can you cure it? And Finally: how could 63 million Americans vote Donald Trump? Neuroscience gives irritating answers: the brain does not produce an objective image of the world - not at all: perception is in a bizarre way. Out of hate becomes love, from duel becomes pleasure - if only the around is changed several experiments and one movie will prove it. This has consequences: in the choice of partner. On the phone purchase.
At the doctor's office. And on the ballot. Too much thinking just hurts. The gut feeling is a good guide - but doesn't get out of the belly. You have it yourself in your hand at least in part! Magnus Heier is a laid-down neurologist in castrop-Rauxel. And for years Sunday breakfast guest of Sven Oswald and Daniel finger at "two on one" at rbb. He writes weekly newspaper column and journalism articles - from cologne's city newspaper to geo, from the faz to the taz.