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Depending on the jurisdiction and community, prostitution can be legal or illegal. A global statistics shows that there are about 42 million prostitutes in the world. Prostitution is frequently viewed as a form of exploitation of orviolence against womenandchildren. It helps to create a supply of victims forhuman trafficking.

However, there has not been any empirical examination and data of the effects and causes of this social phenomenon in Liberian society, specifically in the in the Center Street community which is the focus of this term paper. Thus, the purpose of this study is to bridge this gap in the literature by providing knowledge of the effects of prostitution among young girls between ages of 18 to 35 in the targeted community.

According to academicians as well as public opinions, there are many reasons why women enter the world of prostitution. While many of these reasons may be important to examine, relatively few capture the experiences of women. As such, I will argue in this paper, after presenting some of the basic underlying assumptions that are frequently associated with this controversial subject, that some approaches to understanding prostitution are more valid than others. Historically, it appears that prostitution is something that is typically looked down upon and viewed as morally repugnant—something in which only women with low self-esteem and low socioeconomic status participate.

This, however, is not always the case. Prostitutes as well as the men who use them come from all walks of life; in fact, some prostitutes make a great deal of money. Many people have difficulty in understanding how individuals end up in the prostitution industry. Similarly, many prostitutes have a difficult time leaving prostitution.

This paper moves beyond common perceptions of prostitution and examines this topic from an academic perspective. Such an approach will provide a more valid understanding as to the different reasons why women end up in a life of prostitution. Because of the nature of their job, it is fair to say that many individuals in society tend to look down upon prostitutes. The tunnel at the end of the light, in: Review of African Political Economy, no. International interventionism, democracy, and peace-building in the Great Lakes of Africa, A regional perspective to the challenges, in: African and Asian Studies, vol.

Congo, The long road from war to peace and challenges for peaceful transition and national reconstruction, in: Africa Insight, vol. Use of force and civilian protection, Peace operations in the Congo, in: International Peacekeeping, vol. Not breaking the rules, not playing the game, International assistance to countries at war, Zed Books, London. Congolese military cultural change, A necessary condition for peaceful democratic transition, in: Peace, Conflict and Development, An Interdisciplinary Journal, May , S.

Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot, S. Congo, The prize of predation, in: Journal of Peace Research, vol. Advisory services and technical cooperation in the field of human rights, Report summitted by the expert on the situation of human rights in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mr. Praetorians or profiteers? Roadblock ethnography, Negotiating humanitarian access in Ituri, Eastern D.

Congo, , in: Africa, vol. Democratic Republic of the Congo, Undoing government by predation, in: Disasters, vol.

Liberia : Land Of Liberty (1958)

Guerrillas in the midst, The former government of Rwanda and the alliance of democratic forces for the liberation of Congo-Zaire in Eastern Zaire, in: Clapham, Christopher ed. The privatisation and criminalisation of public space in the geopolitics of the Great Lakes region, in: Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. Sovereignty and personal rule in Zaire, in: African Studies Quarterly, vol.

Conflict of interests or interests in conflict? Military intervention and the myths of collective security, The case of Zaire, in: Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. Mobutu or chaos? A green place, a good place, Agrarian change, gender and social identity in the Great Lakes Region to the fifteenth century, Heinemann, Portsmouth. Women and structural adjustment in Zaire, in: Gladwin, Christina ed. Complex political emergencies, the international community and the Congo conflict, in: Review of African Political Economy, no.

Zaire , Vor dem Zusammenbruch oder vor dem Neubeginn? Wahlen im Kongo, Das Ende einer langen Transition? Migration and poverty alleviation strategy issues in Congo, in: Review of African Political Economy, vol. Condemned to repeat? The paradox of humanitarian action, Cornell University Press, Ithaca. The political economy of sacrifice, Kinois and the state, in: Review of African Political Economy, no. Theories of conflict and approaches to conflict prevention, Brill Publishers, Leiden, S.

His personality dare righteousness — is given and the routine pious practices not be discounted in assessing free of charge and free of woven into daily life as means how he came to his formulation condition to the God who of relating to the Ultimate and of the biblical message. Could speaks to us in Jesus Christ. Not only his hierarchy ; and finally the element of personal commit- personality, but also his scholastic education molded his ment that binds the first five together faith for Christians, theology in profound ways.

The presuppositions he learned submission for Muslims, the longing for nirvana for Bud- from instructors schooled in the tradition of William of dhists. Ninian Smart, Worldviews. He had learned bits and pieces of the Bible from childhood on, perhaps initially not being able to distinguish its stories from the stories of the saints in the Legenda aurea, the collection of tales of miraculous deeds performed by historical or mythical figures who substituted in the popular imagination for the gods and goddesses banned temporarily from the conception of the world that the missionaries brought with them.

In school Luther had memorized Psalms in Latin to be sung by the choir in the church. In the university dormitory he had heard Bible readings at mealtime, a custom taken over from the monastery. Once in the monastery this lectio continua continued, as well as the singing of the psalmody in the seven hours of prayer each day. But Luther truly learned Scripture as he began to teach it in He began with the Psalms, naturally, not simply because he had learned to love the deep-seated expression of human feelings that arose out of his own inner depths, which the psalmists had captured in graceful poetic fashion, but also because instruction in the Psalms had long since become a standard core of the theological curriculum.

He went on to Romans, then Galatians and Hebrews, and returned to the Psalms before political events and social turmoil interrupted his lecturing for half a decade, from to Rather than a 7. Luther learned from personal experience what it meant to try to deal with the God created by the mix of Scripture and Aristotelian concepts of an Unmoved Mover. He had received his theological instruction in a world where order depended on human conformity to an eternal law, which served as the only guarantee of the security of the world and the individual in the absence of the Creator.

His Ockhamist instruction cultivated in him, however, a suspicion of the Aristotelian definition of the human being as animal rationalis. Being a living human being involved more than just reason although Aristotle himself had made clear that the will and emotions with reason constituted being human. The God whom Moses and the prophets introduced to him was not Unmoved but on the move, moving through the passage of time which he had created, always moving as the utterly faithful Creator and conversation partner, in relationship with the human creatures fashioned in his image, with reason, will, and emotions.

No doctrine of the Deus absconditus was possible since there was no reliable basis for wrapping the human mind around God without his own revelation. He has been present and continues to be present, exercising His power through His use of human language. The God whom Luther encountered in Scripture showed a full range of emotions, from raging wrath in His disgust over children who would not listen to Him, to tender, gentle, loving, kind comfort and caressing those whom He lifted to cuddle on his lap. Gerhard O. Forde, On Being a Theologian of the Cross. Luther also departed radically from medieval perWhat Luther saw then in the pages of Scripture speaks ceptions of human righteousness, single-faceted as they volumes now.

Aquinas, too, above all else. That volume is a less than sucgrace is necessary for becoming righcessful attempt to apply Freudian theory to a person from teous, this one-dimensional understanding of human another culture and another time. Our definitions of our own personhood that there are two facets to human identity. The first spring from the trust or mistrust engendered in us in the aspect or facet of human righteousness is passive, the core first two years of life, according to Erikson.

Luther into our nature. Luther labeled his distinction of these recognized that trust in God, not performance of good two facets of our identity, or two kinds of human righworks, is the foundation and framework of our humanity. See, e. He gave the aliena — righteousness from outside ourselves — from gift of being human without condition. Although by the definition of his own theology active righteousness.

But these two kinds there. Parents give grace, should it be necessary. Par- brought a sack of his good deeds with him, was ready ents expect their children to perform in the manner the with the proof. You cannot really explained. They give life through soon receive a clearer understandfeelings of guilt itself. The obligation. But the expectanext person in line stepped up. God did not wait some exclaimed.

I thought they belonged on earth with my neighbors. I left them down there. Robert Kolb and Timothy J. Wengert Minneapolis: to Peter. He will tell you that he Has given me the gift of righteousness through his own blood and his own resurrection. This can foster a sense of peace and joy that people have never been able to dream of before. What Luther saw then in the pages of Scripture speaks volumes now. The Enlightenment tried to return to something of an Aristotelian vision of the human being as a living being who can manage life successfully through reason. But the Enlightenment is coming crashing down all around us.

Central and northern Europeans seem to be the only people who are not noticing. It is interesting that the Enlightenment is hanging on longest where Lutheran theology failed to hold onto the popular imagination. In fact, for all the national worries, U. In such a world the mastery of reason seems diminished. Rationality also falls increasingly into conflict with the desire to feel good. But feeling good proves also to be elusive. Around the world optimism is dimming about human capabilities to preserve order and peace, harmony and prosperity, shalom in Hebrew terms, the likes of Eden.

It is interesting that what the Germans describe with Zufriedenheit — being at peace — English-speakers describe as satisfaction — making enough for ourselves, or fulfillment — getting full of what we want. And that is still the goal of all those who live the lifestyle of democratic capitalism, whatever continent they may claim. Nonetheless, more and more people speak of their vulnerability and the frailty and futility of life. Some turn to fatalistic explanations. Others blame someone or some other group. Of the making of scapegoats, there is no end.

But casting blame solves nothing. Luther knew that. And Luther knew that evil has deeper roots and sin more profound implications than any casual brush with bad luck or unfortunate accident can drive home for people. Luther experienced that the good that he wanted to do did not get done because without trust in the God, who provides a haven in every need and truly supplies all good, he was inevitably turned in upon himself, relying on creatures rather than Creator to secure his identity, the reality around him and his life.

Any other creature or creatures that they marshal as their supporting force and foundation fail as well. He argues that most Western Europeans and North Americans spend much of their lives justifying themselves to spouses, parents, children, neighbors, employers, fellow employees, referees on the sports field, traffic police who stop us — we are continually justifying our actions if not our very existence, also to ourselves.

Most people feel compelled to present and defend our own merit and value, our own rights to be the person we want to be and the person we are. Usually, what we have accomplished and achieved is the underpinning and substance of our argument. No sixteenth-century Christian was any more insistent on a Pelagian view of human merit than the typical Western European or North American of today.

Many of them are just as beset by selfdoubt, self-accusation, self-denial or despair as were the super-conscientious monks of whom Luther was one. God is still calling out to precisely this kind of person, to those who fear that they have not performed to standard, or have not forged the right connections to further their children or snag a promotion.

God creates a new reality for them by filling the hole at the center of their lives, where fear, love and trust in Him had been replaced by fear, love and trust in some unworthy, unworkable substitute for the Creator. God comes to say that He no longer views them with the distaste and disgust that parallels their own distaste and disgust for their former way of life.

His concept of justification does seem rooted in Romans 6 and Romans , where Paul asserts that Christ was handed over into death for our sin and was raised to restore our righteousness, to justify sinners. They are buried as sinners so that they may be re-created through the resurrection. The forensic judgment of God kills before it makes alive. The founder of this school, Tuomo Mannermaa, and many of his followers sincerely wanted to cultivate devout Christian living, but they misinterpret Luther both historically and theologically when they Jonathan D.

James M. Stayer, Martin Luther, German Saviour. That Word of forgiveness restructures our entire way of thinking and therefore of acting. The new creature it has called into existence produces the fruits of faith, the fruit of the Holy Spirit. If one finds that not to be the case, it is time to hear again the Law that calls to repentance.

Some accuse Luther of being fixated on the concept of justification to the exclusion of other biblical descriptions of salvation. Those who say that have not read his catechisms. Small Catechism, his primer and confession of faith for German children. In fact, his primary treatise on his teaching on justification bears the title On Christian Freedom The lamb died on the altar of justification.

That is what redemption means also in the Large Catechism, where Christ tears hell apart and drives Satan out of the lives of those whom he had imprisoned. Without any merit of their own, he made them righteous, gave them life, and saved them, so that they were given peace and brought back to God. And they also proclaimed His liberation from fears that had nothing to do with their own responsibility for perpetrating evil but rather from the threat from.

Ian D. Everything falls into its proper place when Christ comes to the center of life and our trust in Him embraces all we think and do, the Wittenberg reformer insisted. All reality flows from the creative, sustaining, re-creative Word of the Lord, according to Wittenberg theology. Luther asserted. That means that nothing can be more real than the person whose righteousness has been restored to the Edenic identity enjoyed before the fall by Adam and Eve. But we should also look at the modus operandi of the Wittenberg theologians, which can provide vital models for us as we give witness to the biblical message in their train in the twenty-first century.

Luther was a translator. He not only rendered the Bible into the sterling German that helped shape how Germans talk and write to this day, he translated the message of the Bible into the culture of German-speaking people. In Christianity God has translated Himself into human flesh; the gospels translate almost all that Jesus said into Greek from His native tongue; and missionaries immediately set to translating Scripture and other books into native languages when Oswald Bayer, Theology the Lutheran Way, trans. Jeffrey G. Silcock and Mark C. Mattes Grand Rapids: Eerdrmans, , — Luther recognized that the never-changing, always-moving Creator depicted in the Old Testament is deeply involved in the flow of human history and that on Pentecost He addresses a host of tribes and nations in their own tongues.


Therefore, while he stood fast on the doctrine of justification by grace through faith in Christ alone, Luther was able to express it in a host of ways, applying and formulating the Gospel for specific situations as he encountered them. He was open to a variety of forms of polity for the church, and he did not try to impose uniformity in ritual as Rome did, with more ease than ever, through the agency of the printing press. Lutherans have proclaimed the Gospel of Jesus Christ into at least four different cultural situations. In the sixteenth century the Lutheran Church became the establishment church in large parts of central and northern Europe.

But also in the sixteenth century Lutherans lived in churches under persecution, particularly in Eastern Europe. Before the end of the sixteenth century, Lutherans had also begun mission churches in northern stretches of Sweden, and soon thereafter brought the Gospel to the Delaware, and in the course of the seventeenth century tried to establish mission churches in western Africa and the Caribbean. By , mission efforts began to establish enduring Lutheran churches in Asia as well.

Also in the seventeenth century, immigrants from Europe began establishing immigrant churches, first in the Americas, then in South Africa and Australia. He did not see the potential of movable type for serving the reform of the church, but printers saw the potential for the marketing of his thoughts on indulgences and then quickly on a host of other subjects. The cultural appreciation that came naturally to Luther also led to his recognizing the value of other disciplines for aiding theology, including the study of literature and history, and above all of the arts of communication, rhetoric and dialectic.

His friend Philip Melanchthon drew upon the developing so-called humanistic program to lead a return to ancient sources and to emphasize the necessity of using the skills God implants for the service of proclaiming salvation in Christ. Luther recognized both the promise and the ambiguity of new technology and new modes of communication. Further complicating matters, disciplines always carry ideological baggage and need Christ critique. As our people assume more and more responsibility in a range of disciplines and societal positions, this emphasis can serve us well as we use these gifts to exercise the responsibilities of leadership and learning which God gives us in Church and society.

That means that the crushing force of the Law that produces true repentance, as Luther depicted it with the image of rock and hammer in the Smalcald Articles Jer. Our second and pri WA ,14—10,18, 25,1— It does that by accusing, to be sure, but it begins the process often by crushing and cracking the false gods in other ways as well. Amnesia is a terrible thing, yet far worse are counterfeit memories, changed to fit our predilections, altered to teach history what we wish it could teach us.

That is certainly the case when we reflect on the career and message of Martin Luther. Above all, we need to heed his call to repent as part of our lives as Christians. Neither forgetting nor condemning, neither idolizing nor merely praising, but engaging Luther in earnest dialogue — this should be the goal of our reflection on our own tradition. If he cannot critique what we are doing and offer suggestions for what we might do in the future, our gaze back five hundred years will be no more than entertainment, and little more than basking in our own image.

The form of his address was molded within his own culture and experience and bound by sixteenth-century forms. Maurice E. In many ways, Lutheranism as a movement is As he related his experience to Cardinal De Medici in a an unlikely success story. It was born in an out of the letter from Worms dated Feb.

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But God uses out of the way places, meated German life. There is even a press maintained here, where hitherto this art has been unknown. God really is. In many before I could get one. Starting from Electoral Saxony, was truly supportive of Luther is likely an exaggeration.

Lutheranism first reached Hesse. It then made its way into Yet there is no reason to doubt that Aleander, the Papal East Friesland as early as By Lutheran communities were in evidence in Treptow, Pommerania this 1 For a most helpful overview of the extension of Lutheranism in the through the work of the great Johannes Bugenhagen.

In Bremen all the churches, with the excepsent by Lutheran rulers, churches, and mission societies; and 3 Lutheran congregations established by immigrants. Anhalt and Westphalia followed in , Society, , A portion of the letter is also quoted in the fine new biography of the Elector Frederick the Wise. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, , Implicit in the preceding is the importance of that But Lutheranism was to spread into other lands. In the seveninto Brandenburg Prussia, ; Sweden, ; Denmark teenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Small and Norway, ; Iceland, In Livonia and Esto- Catechism appeared in various languages in the Amernia it first appeared in and had come to dominate ican Colonies and the United States.

Succeeding Reorus by By it was in Courland, Russia. It gained Torkillus as pastor in the colony of New Sweden in , a footing in Transylvania in ; in Poland in ; in Johann Campanius — intentionally engaged Hungary in ; in Bohemia and Moravia in And Lutheranism was to appear in other tongues. In through his prolific literary output, as well as that of his time he was able to transliterate their words, numbers colleagues.

Students from countries outside of Saxony and common phrases. The mission dimen- Michigan, began to translate the Small Catechism into the sion that Luther had communicated language of the Ojibwa Indians. These were all important tools ans together in confession, even while they remained for mission work. One of the more interesting instances isolated from one another geographically.

This and the previous paragraph are summarized from J. Milwaukee: Lutherans in All Lands Company, , 19, Dean Apel St. Edward R. Baierlein and Harold W. Arthur C. At the same time, Lutheranism was not received well prison and death. But others were to follow. Given Contarmi, and Antonio Venier, to cooperate with the his uncertain parentage he may have been a bastard , clerical members, the Patriarch, the Father Inquisitor, and it is not surprising to find that he entered the Cistercian Della Casa as Sages on Heresy.

Shortly Following the last trial he was officially degraded and thereafter he became a supporter of Luther and was driven executed, likely during the night of Sept. He used the opportunity to study at Wittenberg Olson describes the execution as follows: under Luther and Melanchthon, and At the dead hour of midnight the later served pastorates in Goslar and prisoner was taken from his cell Witzenhausen.

He advised Philip of and put into a gondola or Venetian There is a rich Hesse, drafted a church order and led boat, attended only, besides the missiology that has the Reformation in northern areas of sailors, by a single priest, to act as moved the Reformation Germany. Augsburg Interim. Corvinus, along two gondolas, upon which the with other Lutheran pastors, proprisoner, having his body chained, tested vigorously against the Interim, which led to his and a heavy stone affixed to his feet, was placed; and, arrest and jailing on Nov.

Happily for Corvion a signal given, the gondolas retiring from one nus, his conditions were relatively comfortable, perhaps another, he was precipitated into the deep. On Oct. He both religious and political reasons. It is said that they are going through hard persecutions only because they embraced the Lower Labin. During Lent in he openly advocated Gospel and because they want to glorify it and spread it everywhere.

Lutheran ideas, denying the freedom of the will and argu- Therefore we, who carefully try to follow the letter of the Holy Gospel and uphold it in all churches, are overwhelmed with deep and honest ing that Christ had fully atoned for human sin. He also sympathy toward those God-loving men; because our Christian hearts reportedly addressed the doctrine of predestination.

He understand the great suffering and bitter tears of those who suffer for was arrested in December and tried in , the evangelical truth. As we have been notified that, by the order of the Roman Pope, among other men Baldo Lupetino has also been charged, and , where he was variously sentenced to life in a man with noteworthy virtues and profound knowledge, and that he is. See, for example, Oliver K. Martin Luthers Briefwechsel, vol. Further executions followed, spreading Helding and the Lutheran Johann Agricola, which was in both Sweden and Finland.

The bloodbath outraged the pronounced by the emperor May 15, The purpose Swedes and acted as a catalyst for resisting the Danes. By of this document was both theological and political in Gustav I Vasa was able, with the help of the peasants orientation; it sought to regulate outwardly and tempoof the Dalarna region and the Hanseatic League, to drive rally the affairs of the Church until the Council of Trent the Danes out of Sweden.

These known as the Gustav Vasa Bible. Catholic fold. The Great Reformer harwho reconsecrated the cathedrals bored misgivings about the future of the evangelical of the South to the Roman Catholic Church. Cities such movement preceding his death; he feared that shortly as Strassburg, Ulm and Constance were subjected to the after his death dissension would overtake the evangeli- Interim and political power was transferred from Protescal party with disastrous effects.

Charles, elated with his victory over the War. Lutheran Saxony. Interim, failed. He leading to a tenuous peace, which was declared on Sept. For treatments of the Smalcald League see Thomas burg brought the battles to an end, its solution would have A. Brady, Jr. The fear that motivated Moritz toward this end should not be underestimated; he expected the emperor to invade Saxony at any time and subject it to the same treatment that southern Germany had experienced. In the late nineteenth century, Gustav Warneck wrote, in his long and influential article in the New Schaff-Herzog encyclopedia, that among the Orthodox Lutherans.

Luther did not think of proper missions to the heathen, i. Nicolai expected the parousia to take place around the year The urgency of the imminent end of the world still acted as a motivation for mission in his case. In the course of the seventeenth century this would change. The situation in the church became so lamentable, particularly in the eyes of Gottfried Arnold — , that the focus was no longer on the conviction that Christ and his reign would be triumphant, but on the fearful question whether Christ, when he returned, would find any faith on earth.

This question destroyed all possibility of joyfully witnessing to Christ. In respect to the latter, they identify the worst expressions of this lack of mission mindedness with the following. For an exploration of the roots of this thinking in Luther, see Lewis W. James A. See also James A. Lyle L. Revell, , original German edition published in , 9— Jahrhundert Leipzig: O. Schmidt, , 6, 15—16, 27, Philipp Nicolai, Commentarii de regno Christi, vaticiniis propheticis et apostolicis accommodate Francofurti ad Moenum, Schulz, Mission from the Cross, Second, Gerhard reproduced Nicolai and then furthered it by developing theological implications of the work in Loci Theologici.

Finally, and perhaps most notoriously, was the gutachten, or opinion, of the theology faculty of the University of Wittenberg, publicized on April 24, First, it has to be recognized that there is some legitimacy to the critiques, as Schulz rightly notes. Nevertheless, we need not be threatened by such critiques. Nevertheless, God is gracious and accomplishes His purposes despite our weaknesses. Rather, even as we remember this day, we also repent and rejoice.

For if the Orthodox Lutherans were as opposed to mission as more radical interpreters claim, it is unlikely that any of us would be gathered here today. Without the extension of the Lutheran confession into other lands and tongues, if it was limited simply to Germany, this would be, at the very least, a significantly smaller gathering this week. Yet here we are, gathered together from the ends of the earth and representing some forty Lutheran church bodies spread throughout the world. One exam David P. It was never an easy matter.

But perhaps no single person embodies the sense of the title assigned to me more than Peter Heyling. He truly established Lutheranism in other lands and other tongues. His destination was the monastery of Saint Makarios, where he intended both to learn Arabic and to read in its extensive manuscript collection. He later added Syriac to his languages and used both tongues to introduce Lutheran teachings to the Copts and Syrians.

After a period spent in Jerusalem, he received a letter of introduction from the Coptic Patriarch to the Emperor of Ethiopia and, in the late or early , arrived in Gonder. There he practiced medicine and quickly became an influential minister, teacher and doctor at the court of King Fasilides — He used his influence to reform the Church, particularly by teaching the clergy Greek and Hebrew and instructing them in the finer points of theology.

The extent of his translation work is not certain, but when Gorgorios visted Gonder in , the Gospel of John was not only available in Amharic, but in great demand. Lutheran Ecclesiastical Culture — Leiden: Brill, , — What is clear, however, is that while passing through Suakin after having left Ethiopia, the Turkish pasha confronted Heyling and demanded that he deny Christ and convert to Islam. Heyling refused and the pasha beheaded him. His teaching is said to have been a leaven which compelled the Ethiopian Church to issue a doctrinal statement in Amamrinya Amharic to vindicate her own position in face of Lutheran views ….

I mean that both facetiously and seriously. Facetiously, in that, if one were to take the remarks of some of the more radical critics of Luther and Lutheranism as cited above, there should not be a Lutheran Church at all — and we would all be thankful for that given the horrible missiology to which they supposedly held. However, I mean it seriously, because there is a rich missiology that has moved the Reformation into other lands and expressed its confession in other tongues.

For it is only through the proclamation of the Gospel that God miraculously works faith when and where it pleases Him. In Jesu Namen! Sehr geehrte Damen und Herren! Im Namen der 2. Verzeihen Sie mir mein schwaches Deutsch. Remember, repent, rejoice. Indeed, as confessional Lutherans celebrated the great anniversaries of the Reformation, this theme was a recurring one.

And for good cause. In the midst of the years revive it; in the midst of the years make it known; in wrath remember mercy. It was Jan. It would be his third trip to attempt reconciliation in his hometown, Eisleben. The copper miners were at odds with the dukes about the confiscation of their property and mining rights, and to top it off, there was great conflict about who had the right to call preachers. At Halle they could not cross the ice-swollen Salle River.

Luther joked that the river Sally was an enormous Anabaptist lady who wanted to re-baptize him! On the 28th, Jonas joined him as they made it across the river to be met by 60 horsemen from Eisleben. He suffered dizziness and pain in his chest and arm along the way. His last letters to Katie are beautiful testimony to his confidence in Christ and love for his wife. He despised the lawyers and got into a heated fight with one of them.

He was confident in Christ and ready to die. He was too weak to participate on the final sessions on the 17th. He preached to celebrate the resolution of the conflict. His text? The Lord here praises and extols his heavenly Father for having hidden these things from the wise and understanding.

That is, he did not make his gospel known to the wise and understanding, but to infants and children who cannot speak and preach and are not knowing and wise. Thus he indicates that he is opposed to the wise and understanding and dearly loves those who are not wise and understanding but are rather like young children. But to the world it is very foolish and offensive that God should be opposed to the wise and condemn them … For they are always exerting themselves; they do things in the Christian church the way they want to themselves.

This may be seen in all heretics from the beginning of the world … ;they are not satisfied with what God has done and instituted …. They think they have to do something too, in order that they may be a bit better than other people and be able to boast: This is what I have done; what God has done is too poor and insignificant, even childish and foolish; I must add something to it.

This is the nature of the shameful wisdom of the world, especially in the Christian church, where one bishop and one pastor hacks and snaps at another and one obstructs and shoves the other, as we have seen at all times in the government of the church to its great detriment. This and much more might be said concerning this Gospel, but I am too weak and we shall let it go at that. He was taken to a home across the street. On the night of the 17th after supper, he went to the window about p. Soon he suffered deep pains in the chest. At a. It was the last thing he ever wrote.

Under the law, we are beggars. We only receive. First Commandment: You have idols; you are discontent. Second Commandment: You misuse the name of God. Third Commandment: Your worship and prayers falter. Fourth Commandment: You despise authority. Fifth Commandment: You hate your neighbor. Sixth Commandment: Your sexual thoughts words and deeds are a stench. Seventh Commandment: You steal, and you are miser and lack generosity.

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Eighth Commandment: You say what ought not be said. Ninth Commandment: You want what is not yours. Tenth Commandment: You desire everything but God. AE 51, Are you repentant? Are you a sinner? Then rejoice. I have good news in a simple message. Jesus was slain from the foundation of the world for you. Jesus was foretold by the prophets for you.

Jesus was conceived in the womb of Mary for you. Jesus was born for you. Jesus was circumcised for you. Jesus taught the scholars in the temple for you. Jesus was obedient to His parents for you. Jesus was baptized in the river Jordan for you.


Jesus was cast into the wilderness for you. Jesus healed the blind, the lame, the demon possessed, for you. Jesus fed the thousands for you! Jesus raised Lazarus for you. Jesus rode into Jerusalem for you. Jesus instituted His supper on the night when He was betrayed for you. Jesus was betrayed.

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Jesus was tried for you. Jesus was shuffled back and forth between Pilate and Herod for you. Jesus was beaten and mocked, wore a crown of thorns and purple robe for you. Jesus carried His cross to Golgatha for you. Jesus was nailed to the cross for you.

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Jesus rose on the third day, bodily, for you. Jesus proclaimed victory in hell for you. Jesus appeared to Peter and all the rest for you. Jesus ascended into heaven for you. And Jesus will come again at the last day for you. This is the simple Christian faith. Jesus rejoiced exhomogoumai soi that this has been revealed to the little children and hidden from the wise.

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  • And we rejoice this day to be little children with the simple faith of Luther and Jesus. This shall be our message in everything we do in this city and around the world. In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. That would at least be an indication of the fact that the ongoing division within Western Christianity is no cause for jubilation. But the question that generally arises is whether the objectives laid out by Wolfgang Huber in for the Luther Decade1 go far and deep enough, or rather whether the more deeply rooted and ultimately biblical-theological motifs can actually be received into Church and society.

    Thomas Schlag: Protestantische Bildungsprogramme in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland zwischen und , ibid. Aribert Rothe: Herausforderungen: protestantische Bildung und Atheismus seit Protestantische Erwachsenenbildung in der DDR, ibid. Die Reformation als Bildungskatastrophe.