According to Shane, "We did nearly as well with John as we did with Dave. Beginning in , however, the Kingston Trio's dominance in record sales and concert bookings began to wane, due partly to imitators in the pop-folk world and also to the rise of other commercial folk groups like Peter, Paul and Mary whose music had a decidedly more political bent than the Trio's. Without the production facilities of Capitol, however, and the expertise of Voyle Gilmore and engineer Pete Abbott, the Decca releases lacked the aural brilliance of the Capitol albums,  and none of the four sold especially well.
By , Reynolds had grown weary of touring and Stewart wanted to strike out on his own as a singer-songwriter, so the three musicians and Werber developed an exit strategy of playing as many dates as possible for a year with an endpoint determined to be a final two-week engagement at the Hungry i in June Following the Hungry i engagement, Reynolds moved to Port Orford, Oregon and pursued interests in ranching, business, and race cars for the next twenty years. He recorded more than 40 albums of his own, most notably the landmark California Bloodlines , and found chart success in the top forty with "Midnight Wind", "Lost Her in the Sun", and "Gold", the latter reaching number 5 in Bob Shane decided to stay in entertainment, and he experimented with solo work.
He recorded several singles, including a well-received but under-marketed version of the song " Honey " that later became a million-seller for Bobby Goldsboro ,  and with different configurations with other folk-oriented performers. Though finances were not an immediate concern—the Kingston Trio partners Werber, Shane and Reynolds still owned an office building, a restaurant, other commercial real estate, and a variety of other lucrative investments  —Shane wanted to return to a group environment and in secured permission from his partners to use the mutually owned group name for another band, with Reynolds and Werber insisting only that Shane's group be musically as accomplished as its predecessors and that Shane append "new" to the band's title.
Shane agreed and organized two troupes under the name of "The New Kingston Trio". The first consisted of guitarist Pat Horine and banjoist Jim Connor in addition to Shane and lasted from to , the second including guitarist Roger Gambill and banjoist Bill Zorn from until Shane tried to create a repertoire for these groups that included both the older and expected Kingston Trio standards like "Tom Dooley" and " M. The attempt did not meet with any significant success. The only full-length album released by either group was The World Needs a Melody in though 25 years later FolkEra Records issued The Lost Masters — , a compilation of previously unreleased tracks from the Shane-Horine-Connor years , and its sales were negligible.
Though both troupes of the New Kingston Trio made a limited number of other recordings and several television appearances, neither generated very much interest from fans or the public at large. The same year, Shane secured from Werber and Reynolds the unencumbered rights to use the band's original name of the Kingston Trio without the appended "new" in exchange for relinquishing his interest in the still-profitable corporation, whose holdings included copyrights and licensing rights to many of the original Trio's songs.
The Shane-Gambill-Grove Kingston Trio existed from through , when Gambill died unexpectedly from a heart attack on March 2nd at the age of The nine years of this configuration was to that point the longest period of time that any three musicians had worked together as the Kingston Trio, and the group released two albums of largely original material.
It was during this period as well that PBS producers JoAnne Young and Paul Surratt approached Shane and the other principals of the original group with the idea of arranging a reunion concert that would be taped and used as a fundraiser for the network. More than twenty years had passed since Dave Guard had left the group, but residual tension surfaced between Guard and Shane in an article in The Wall Street Journal that appeared in March following the national broadcast of the taped show. Despite the unpleasantness, Shane and Guard reconciled to a large degree even to the point of planning a possible reunion tour  prior to Guard's death at age 56 from lymphoma nine years later in March Following the death of Roger Gambill, Kingston Trio personnel changed several times, though Shane and Grove remained constants.
Bob Haworth, a veteran folk performer who had worked as a member of The Brothers Four for many years, initially replaced Gambill from through and again from through In , original member Nick Reynolds rejoined the band until his final retirement in A year later, following Haworth's departure, Grove and Zorn were joined by Rick Dougherty, who had performed for a time with Zorn as second-generation members of another popular folk group from the s, The Limeliters. Both the Grove—Zorn—Haworth and Grove—Zorn—Dougherty troupes of the Kingston Trio released original CDs and DVDs, and the latter configuration toured extensively for 12 years under the direction of the only surviving original member Bob Shane, now sole owner of the band.
Capitol Records ,  Decca Records ,  Collector's Choice Music ,  and Folk Era Records  have released and continue to release compilations of older albums as well as previously unreleased tapes of both studio and live recordings from the Kingston Trio's first ten years. On August 11, , the case against Grove, Zorn, and Dougherty was dismissed with prejudice in the same Los Angeles court and consequently cannot be re-filed.
In early August, the sole owner of the Kingston Trio, Bob Shane, announced the licensing of the trademark that he owns to a new group of investors who are making changes to the band's personnel. Shane announced on the group's official website www. Rounding it out is Tim Gorelangton, one of the only people Nick ever recorded with outside the Trio. In , Josh Reynolds left the group and was replaced by Bob Haworth, who became a member of the band for the third time. At the end of , Haworth left the group and was replaced by Don Marovich.
Almost from its inception, the Kingston Trio found itself at odds with the traditional music community. Urban folk musicians of the time to whom Bob Dylan referred in Rolling Stone as "the left-wing puritans that seemed to have a hold on the folk-music community"  frequently associated folk music with leftist politics and were contemptuous of the Trio's deliberate political neutrality. Frank Proffitt , the Appalachian musician whose version of "Tom Dooley" the Trio rearranged, watched their performance of his song on a television show and wrote in reaction, "They clowned and hipswung.
Tears came to my eyes. I went out and bawled on the ridge. However, Trio members never claimed to be folksingers and were never comfortable with the label. The liner notes for the group's first album featured a quotation from Dave Guard asserting that "We don't really consider ourselves folksingers in the accepted sense of the word We get new tunes to look over every day.
Each one of us has his ears open constantly to new material or old stuff that's good. We never called ourselves folksingers We did folk-oriented material, but we did it amid all kinds of other stuff. But they didn't know what to call us with our instruments, so Capitol Records called us folksingers and gave us credit for starting this whole boom. Over the years, the Kingston Trio expanded its song selection beyond the rearranged traditional numbers, calypso songs, and Broadway show tunes that had appeared on its first several albums.
In an obituary for Nick Reynolds d. Looking at their repertoire now, it is apparent that the Kingston Trio was far more adventurous than is generally supposed. They introduced "It Was A Very Good Year" in , later a standard for Frank Sinatra, and they were one of the first to spot the potential of English language versions of Jacques Brel's songs by recording "Seasons in the Sun" in Best of all, in they introduced listeners to one of the most poignant songs ever written, the anti-war ballad "Where Have All The Flowers Gone?
Further, Peter Dreier points out that "the group deserves credit for helping to launch the folk boom that brought recognition to older folkies and radicals like Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger, and for paving the way for newcomers like Joan Baez, Bob Dylan and Phil Ochs, who were well known for their progressive political views and topical songs. By the time these younger folk singers arrived on the scene, the political climate had changed enough to provide a wide audience for protest music.
Writing in the British daily The Guardian , again in an obituary for Reynolds, Ken Hunt asserted that "[the Kingston Trio] helped to turn untold numbers of people on to folk music The Kingston Trio carried the torch overseas, most notably with their international hit of , Tom Dooley. They were the greatest of the bands to emerge after the McCarthy-era blacklisting of folk musicians and breathed new air into the genre. The Kingston Trio's influence on the development of American popular music has been considerable.
According to music critic Bruce Eder writing for Allmusic. In the history of popular music, there are a relative handful of performers who have redefined the content of the music at critical points in history—people whose music left the landscape, and definition of popular music, altered completely. The Kingston Trio were one such group, transforming folk music into a hot commodity and creating a demand—where none had existed before—for young men sometimes with women strumming acoustic guitars and banjos and singing folk songs and folk-like novelty songs in harmony.
On a purely commercial level, from until , the Kingston Trio were the most vital and popular folk group in the world, and folk music was sufficiently popular as to make that a significant statement. Equally important, the original trio—Dave Guard, Nick Reynolds, and Bob Shane—in tandem with other, similar early acts such as the Limeliters, spearheaded a boom in the popularity of folk music that suddenly made the latter important to millions of listeners who previously had ignored it.
Discussing his earliest musical influences in a Rolling Stone interview, Bob Dylan remembered:. There were other folk-music records, commercial folk-music records, like those by the Kingston Trio. I never really was an elitist. Personally, I liked the Kingston Trio. I could see the picture Even though their style was polished and collegiate, I liked most of their stuff anyway.
In February , Chicago Tribune writer Eric Zorn praised the Kingston Trio's impact on the popular music industry, claiming that "for almost five years, they overshadowed all other pop groups in America. Jac Holzman , co-founder of the originally folk-based Elektra Records , remarked that his formerly struggling company's new-found prosperity in the late s resulted from "The Kingston Trio which has the ability to capture the interest of a large number of people who have never been conscious of folk music before.
In this respect, the Kingston Trio has put us on the map. In her memoir And A Voice To Sing With , singer and activist Joan Baez recalled that "Traveling across the country with my mother and sisters, we heard the commercial songs of the budding folk boom for the first time, the Kingston Trio's 'Tom Dooley' and 'Scotch and Soda. When I became one of the leading practitioners of 'pure folk,' I still loved them They got us interested in trying to put the good stuff out there—the Kingston Trio.
They got me interested in it! Among the many other artists who cite the Kingston Trio as a formative influence in their musical careers are comedian, actor, and banjo player Steve Martin ,   Lindsey Buckingham of Fleetwood Mac ,  Timothy B. The C. The Kingston Trio changed everything about popular music—and the entire acoustic guitar industry along with it The Kingston Trio wasn't just a musical group.
It was a phenomenon, as influential in its time as The Beatles would become in theirs. Satirist Tom Lehrer has acknowledged the Trio's pioneering of college concerts, observing that before the Kingstons "there was no real concert circuit The Kingston Trio started all that,"  and in Time magazine, critic Richard Corliss asserted, "In my youth, they changed pop music, and me with it.
Grammy Hall of Fame Award. Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award . Vocal Group Hall of Fame. This symphonic piece is played with both a full orchestra and a choir. The symphonic piece is played with both a full orchestra and a choir. Although Williams conducted "Duel of the Fates" to appear as a concert suite in the end credits rather than the film , Williams did record similar cues using the ostinato motif, and in one instance, a 'cut down' version, labelled the "Great Duel".
John Williams stated the chorus was introduced to give a religious, temple-like feel to the epic lightsaber duel. However, he decided not to use it mainly because it did not match the tragic mood of the duel between Anakin Skywalker and Obi-Wan Kenobi. For this instance, John Williams re-recorded the choir and layered it over the vocal-less recording from Episode I. Count Dooku plays the music on a radio during a demonstration of the Sith clone Jek's power.
Darth Maul complains that Duel of the Fates is his theme song, to which Asajj Ventress replies "Can somebody say diva? The music video for this theme debut on Total Request Live , leading the London Symphony Orchestra to become the only classical group to have a video debut on Total Request Live.
Tottenham Hotspur F. The music of the Star Wars franchise is composed and produced in conjunction with the development of the feature films, television series, and other merchandise within the epic space opera franchise created by George Lucas. The music for the primary feature films which serves as the basis for the rest of the related media was written by John Williams.
Williams' scores for the nine saga films and a suite for a spin-off film count among the most widely known and popular contributions to modern film music , and utilize a symphony orchestra and features an assortment of about fifty recurring musical themes to represent characters and other plot elements: one of the largest caches of themes in the history of film music.
Meeting's a Pleasure, Volumes 3&4
Released between and , the music for the primary feature films was, in the case of the first two trilogies, performed by the London Symphony Orchestra and, in select passages, by the London Voices chorus. Williams also scored the seventh and eighth episodes in the franchise's sequel trilogy , and he is currently slated to score the ninth and last episode as well.
Additional composers have since contributed music to Star Wars. The music for several animated television series spin-offs has been written by Kevin Kiner and Ryan Shore. The scores are primarily performed by a symphony orchestra of varying size joined, in several sections, by a choir of varying size. Throughout all of the franchise, which consists of a total of over 18 hours of music,  Williams has written approximately fifty themes in one of the largest, richest collection of themes in the history of film music.
Spencer . Both properties loosely use some of the original themes and music by John Williams. Kiner's own material for the film includes a theme for Anakin Skywalker's Padawan learner, Ahsoka Tano , as well as a theme for Jabba the Hutt's uncle Ziro. Kiner went on to score the TV series' entire six seasons, which concluded in A soundtrack album was released that same year by Walt Disney Records. Kiner continued his work with the franchise for the animated series Star Wars Rebels , which also incorporates Williams' themes.
The scores utilize an eclectic variety of musical styles, many culled from the Late Romantic idiom of Richard Strauss and his contemporaries that itself was incorporated into the Golden Age Hollywood scores of Erich Korngold and Max Steiner. The reasons for this are known to involve George Lucas's desire to allude to the underlying fantasy element of the narrative rather than the science-fiction setting, as well as to ground the otherwise strange and fantastic setting in well-known, audience-accessible music.
Indeed, Lucas maintains that much of the films' success relies not on advanced visual effects, but on the simple, direct emotional appeal of its plot, characters and, importantly, music. Lucas originally wanted to use tracked orchestral and film music in a similar manner to A Space Odyssey , itself a major inspiration for Star Wars. Williams, however, advised to form a soundtrack with recurring musical themes to augment the story, while Lucas's choice of music could be used as a temporary track for Williams to base his musical choices on.
Williams often composed the music in a heroic but tongue-in-cheek style, and has described the scored film as a "musical". Star Wars was one of the film scores that heralded the revival of grand symphonic scores in the late s. One technique that particularly influenced these scores is Williams' use of the leitmotif , which was most famously associated with the operas of Richard Wagner and, in early film scores, with Steiner.
A leitmotif is a phrase or melodic cell that signifies a character, place, plot element, mood, idea, relationship or other specific part of the film. It is commonly used in modern film scoring as a device for mentally anchoring certain parts of a film to the soundtrack. The more varied and nuanced the use of leitmotif is, the more memorable it typically becomes. A good example of this is the way in which Williams subtly conceals the intervals of " The Imperial March " within "Anakin's Theme" in The Phantom Menace , implying his dark future to come.
Also important is the density in which leitmotifs are used: the more leitmotifs are used in a piece of a given length, the more thematically rich it is considered to be. Film music, however, typically needs to strike a balance between the number of leitmotives used, so as to not become too dense for the audience being preoccupied with the visuals to follow.
Williams re-recorded some of his suites from the first trilogy with the Skywalker Symphony Orchestra as an album. Several of his later themes were released as singles and music videos, and were later released a collection of suites from the six films as a compilation that played to a series of clips from the films, with sparse dialogue and sound effects. These became the basis for a series of hour-long concerts which featured Star Wars music to images from the films, Star Wars: In Concert , which took place in and The scores of the first trilogy in the form of its Blu-Ray release and The Force Awakens are performed as Live to Projection concerts, but with greatly reduced forces.
The performances follow the music of the finished film, with some of the music looped, tracked or omitted entirely, and do not feature any of the diegetic pieces and often omit the choral parts. John Williams sketched the score for his various orchestrations and wrote the music for a full symphony orchestra ranging from 79 to players overall  and, in several passages, chorus ranging from 12 to singers overall and a few non-orchestral instruments.
The orchestration is not consistent throughout the different films,  but generally the score makes use of a considerable brass section over a comparatively smaller string section, giving the series its heraldic, brassy sound. Several of the scores require larger forces, including a large over piece romantic-period orchestra, a mixed choir and even a boy choir, although none of the scores call for particularly immense forces compared to larger film or theater works.
The former called for a third harp and fourth bassoon, while the latter and all prequel scores utilized a fuller string section. Revenge of the Sith also utilized a second set of timpani. Comparatively, the original Star Wars trilogy and the sequel trilogy films call for much smaller forces of as little as 82 players, and small choral accompaniment in select cues. In live performances, the forces are usually greatly reduced: Official Star Wars Concerts were held with as little as piece orchestras and piece mixed choral ensembles or with the choir omitted altogether. John Williams wrote a series of themes and motifs for certain characters and ideas in each of the Star Wars films.
The multiple installments allowed Williams to compose some fifty themes and counting and reprise some of them extensively, continually developing them over a long period of screen time. Williams introduced a few themes in each episode six themes on average and focused on making each of his principal themes long-lined and melodically distinct from the others so as to increase their memorability. Williams occasionally forges small connections between some of these themes, sometimes for a narrative purpose and sometimes in the more general favor of cohesion.
This technique allowed him especially in his scores to the first trilogy to have each theme play out for a large number of occasions the Force Theme plays over one hundred times in the series and over long periods of time. Each score can be said to have a "main theme", which is developed and repeated frequently throughout the film, often to unusual extents such as the frequency in which The Imperial March is revisited during Empire Strikes Back. A main theme for the franchise exists as well which is the music of the main titles , but a main theme does not exist to represent a particular trilogy.
Instead, each trilogy and to a lesser extent, each film has its own style or soundscape. Williams' Star Wars catalog remains one of the largest collections of leitmotifs in the history of cinema, [b] although — for comparison — it still falls short of Wagner's use of leitmotifs in the Ring Cycle or even Howard Shore 's work on the Hobbit and Lord of the Rings films. Shore and Wagner's themes are also inter-related and arranged into sets of subsets of related themes through various melodic or harmonic connections, whereas Williams prefers greater distinction between his themes.
Williams' use of his themes in Star Wars is at times romantic rather than strictly thematic,  the themes sometimes being used randomly because their mood fits a certain scene, rather than for a narrative purpose. For instance, the theme for Luke Skywalker is also used as the main theme for the entire franchise, as well as a generic "heroic theme" in conjunction with various characters without any connection to its namesake.
Princess Leia's Theme is used for the death of Obi-Wan Kenobi in the original Star Wars , which has little to do with her character even though she is present in the scene.
Multiple uses of the Force Theme are also non-thematic. It is also used for R2-D2's heroics during the opening action scene in Revenge of the Sith. Kylo Ren's secondary theme, meant to evoke his more conflicted side, but since he quickly makes his allegiances clear, its generally used in tandem with his fanfare to evoke his menace, instead. Even the melodic connections between some of the themes sometimes do not represent a straightforward dramatic purpose, such as the connection of "Across the Stars" to Count Dooku 's motif and the Battle of Geonosis in Attack of the Clones.
In fact, Some of Williams' themes are written from the outset purely to convey a certain mood rather than evoke a character or setting, such as the Throne Room music of the original Star Wars or the Pursuit motif from The Force Awakens. Some of this music was re-tracked into other parts of the film, or even another film in the series, by the filmmakers.
Attack of the Clones , the first film to be shot digitally, had major edits made after the scoring process, leading to the inclusion of tracked music over many of the digitally created sequences such as the Droid Factory on Geonosis or the Clone Army's arrival to the battle. These scenes used music such as Yoda's theme or incidental music from The Phantom Menace with little dramatic connection to what is occurring on screen. In the original Star Wars , some of the music for the Death Star's Trash Compactor scene was used over an extended shot of the arrival into Mos Eisley inserted in the film's Special Edition.
Musical similarities exist between the final scenes of The Phantom Menace with Finn's confession to Rey in The Force Awakens , probably a result of temp-track choice. Other composers for the franchise used Williams' principal themes in their own compositions, whether it be for the trailers to the main films, spin-off films, television series, or video games. More often than not, these composers also use the principal themes more for their emotional effect for their respective projects. The same can be said about some themes only composed for the prequels such as Duel of the Fates , which would have been perfectly applicable to the films in the first trilogy, had they been produced in the narrative order.
In fact, since the prequels featured both their own stock of leitmotifs and recurring themes from the previous films, they boasted a larger catalog of themes, whereas the use of the leitmotifs in a cycle of works typically involves increasing density towards the later installments in the narrative order. Also, the themes in the prequels appear in shorter, blockier statements and the motives themselves are often short, rhythmic ideas, as opposed to longer melodies used in the first trilogy. Also, in the prequels the motives are often associated with places and events, rather than with characters as they are in the rest of the scores, creating a further discrepancy in the musical narrative.
Even within each trilogy, Williams often abandons a motif after a single score or two as he did with Anakin's theme , writes across several films multiple motifs that serve a similar function e. In other cases, a motif is supplanted by a new one, as the Imperial March replaced the original, Imperial motif — a problem only confounded when he returned to that theme with the prequels, only for it to disappear entirely for what is now supposed to be the fourth episode; sometimes, the existing motif simply changes its thematic meaning: Ben Kenobi's theme turned into a theme for the Force by The Empire Strikes Back , and Luke's theme — into the "Star Wars theme".
Meeting's a Pleasure
The Last Jedi , specifically, departs from Williams method of relying primarily on new thematic material, and instead relies heavily on pre-existing themes, in keeping with Johnson's temp-track choices. As a result, a number of themes and motifs from the previous films are constantly repeated, often in very familiar settings, such as statements of Yoda's and Leia's theme that are lifted from the concert arrangements, a reprise of the Binary Sunset rendition of the Force theme, and recurring statements of Rey's and Kylo's themes.
There are some incidental phrases similar to existing themes such as Battle of the Heroes, The Immolation scene, et cetera, and some deliberate, tongue-in-cheek references, such as a quote of the Death Star motif for a scene with a clothes iron that is shot to look like a landing Star Destroyer. Listed below are as 51 recurring themes or leitmotifs, of which about 49 leitmotifs are clearly identified in Williams' scores; [c] as well as two leitmotifs written by Williams for John Powell's score to Solo see Themes in the Anthology films: Solo.
Williams is expected to expand upon this catalog further in his upcoming composition to Episode IX. Whether that score will merit as many themes as his most sparse efforts The Last Jedi at three themes , his most dense The Force Awakens with eight or in-line with his average six themes , Williams will have written between 54 and 60 themes for the series.
Since neither Williams nor his office ever provided a full list of the leitmotifs used in every Star Wars film, there is some controversy around the exact number of themes, with some taking an inclusive approach that identifies various leitmotifs, even where the composer probably never intended for,  and others taking an exclusive approach. One of the key differences between the two approaches in the way in which Williams' main, long themes are approached: some view them as composed of several leitmotives that can appear for the very least once in isolation i.
Its also, largely, the approach taken by Matessino, Adams and Lehman. A particularly noteworthy but ultimately incidental instance is the ostinato accompaniment to the Rebel Fanfare: its only used isolated from the fanfare in lifted material that appears in Return of the Jedi. Otherwise, it always precedes and accompanies the Rebel Fanfare, but often again it extends to underpin large sections of on-screen action and the respective material in the original Star Wars. Certain analysts will also list a single melody multiple times under various guises.
For instance, the emperor's theme can also be labeled separately in the same glossary as the "dark side" theme, Darth Sidious' theme, etc The inclusive approach also tends to identify leitmotives even where they don't meet the criteria of recurrence. These individual pieces of music — whether they consist of a full melody, ostinati, diegetic pieces or a certain timbre — have sometimes been described as having thematic significance,  occasionally in fleeting comments even by Williams himself,  but since they do not recur in a different part of the narrative, nor are transformed from or into another motif, they do not comply with the definition of a leitmotif, even if they form the highlights of their respective scores or even featured prominently in the "making of" material e.
Chase through Coruscant. For instance, his use of tritones often denotes mystery, a device he uses for the droids landing on Tatooine and again in the concert arrangement of "The Throne Room. However, similar devices are also used in Indiana Jones to represent the mysteries of the Ark  and the Crystal Skull. Hence, it is more of a way for Williams to evoke mystery, than a motif conceived specifically for any one of these scores. Similarly, other gestures taken from pre-existing music such as Williams' use of the Dies Irae melody to denote impending doom have been falsely identified as leitmotifs, even though Williams clearly described sections of music that rely on this gesture, such as his original take of the binary sunset, as non-thematic.
In fact, sometimes the supposedly recurring material is similar, but not in fact identical. A good example would be the variety of gestures relating to the dark side, following a piece of music used in the opera-house scene. Lehamn however clarifies that those alleged following statements are "similar but inexact" to the earlier gesture. Similarly, the proposed motifs for Mustafar  or Anakin's Dark Deeds  are in fact variations on Grievous' material, redirected to the evil Anakin.
Sometimes, the recurring material is question is not part of the original composition but is rather tracked after-the-fact, or at least lifted, from existing material into a different section of the film, or from material that is recapitulated in a concert piece or end-credits suite. This includes the Podracing fanfare and the ostinato accompaniment of the Rebel Fanfare,   which otherwise doesn't appear isolated from the unabridged theme more than once; the mournful writing for French horn at Shmi's funeral, the Arena March from Attack of the Clones   etc.
Occasionally, track titles are mistaken for themes. Williams had created themes out of none-recurring material by quoting them again in a following score: e. This, however, does not extend to such gestures being quoted in spin-off scores e. It has its own catalog of themes, independent from Williams' material, including a new, third theme for the Empire, although Giacchino also quotes both the original Imperial Motif and The Imperial March. In the process of composing the theme, Williams ended up using two separate ideas, each conveying a different aspect of the character, and went as far as to spot the film for places to use each motif; all other leitmotifs and other material were written and adapted by John Powell , the main composer for the film.
Instead of offering a full recording release of a particular film, Williams typically releases a condensed score on album,  in which the music is arranged out of the film order and more within the veins of a concert program. These album releases typically include several concert suites, written purely for the end credits or the album itself, where a specific theme is developed continuously throughout the piece.
Williams also re-edited some of his existing cues after the fact in order to "concertize" theme on the behest of conductors such as Charles Gerhardt. From The Force Awakens . Diegetic music is music "that occurs as part of the action rather than as background , and can be heard by the film's characters". Some of this diegetic music was written by John Williams; some by his son, Joseph; and some by various other people.
The score for the original Star Wars film of won John Williams the most awards of his career:. Williams's score for the sequel, The Empire Strikes Back , also earned him a number of awards:. Williams's subsequent Star Wars film music was nominated for a number of awards; in his score for Return of the Jedi was nominated for Best Original Score at the 56th Academy Awards.
In the soundtrack for Star Wars was voted as the "most memorable film score of all time" by the American Film Institute in the list AFI's Years of Film Scores , based on the assessment of a jury of over artists, composers, musicians, critics and historians from the film industry. Together with " Yoda 's Theme", "The Imperial March" was premiered on April 29, , three weeks before the opening of the film, on the occasion of John Williams' first concert as official conductor-in-residence of the Boston Pops Orchestra.
It is also played during Palpatine 's arrival on the Death Star in Return of the Jedi , though it does segue into the Emperor's own theme as he appears. Its major opening occurs as Star Destroyers amass and Darth Vader is first presented in the film, 19 minutes into the movie. The theme and related motifs are also incorporated into tracks such as "The Battle of Hoth " and "The Asteroid Field".
Return of the Jedi makes similar use of the theme, though its final statement is significantly different, making quiet use of a harp as a redeemed Anakin Skywalker dies in his son's arms. Nevertheless, grave danger I fear in his training". It is also heard softly at the end of the final credit roll, where it fades into the character's signature breathing, showing the rest of the prequel trilogy will reveal how Anakin became Darth Vader. It is played most prominently and recognizable during the final sequence when clone troopers assemble and depart Coruscant , foreshadowing that they will become the Imperial stormtroopers.
Although "Across the Stars" is featured most prominently in the film's end credits, several notes from "The Imperial March" are heard beneath it near the end. The track can also be heard when Anakin tells Mace Windu about Palpatine's true identity.
A few notes of the "March" are played when Vader arrives on Mustafar to kill the Separatists. The piece is played more clearly during the "Battle of the Heroes" scene between Obi-Wan and Darth Vader at the movie's climax and in the simultaneous battle between Yoda and Palpatine. It is also played when Darth Vader receives his armor and when he looks up at the first Death Star. For example, in episode 62 "Citadel Rescue", Anakin and Captain Wilhuff Tarkin both mentioned during their escape their good relationship with the Supreme Chancellor Palpatine.
Anakin shakes hands with Tarkin at the end of the episode, while Tarkin said he would inform the Chancellor of Anakin's good performance. During that handshake, a hint is to be heard in the music referring to "The Imperial March". The theme is used prominently during the sixth and final season. In "Empire Day", the episode's title referring to the Empire's anniversary, " The Imperial Anthem ", an arrangement of "The Imperial March", is heard during the parade.
Trailers for Rogue One: A Star Wars Story featured the track prominently; the first notes of "The Imperial March" can be heard at the end of the trailer as the letters turn to reveal the name of the upcoming movie. Prior to this, Darth Vader can be heard breathing and his appearance is seen in the reflection of the floor. In the film proper, scored by Michael Giacchino , the theme can be heard when Vader emerges from his sanctum to confer with Director Orson Krennic, and again after Vader warns Krennic about overstepping his bounds.
The theme can be heard once more when Vader attacks the Rebel soldiers trapped in a hallway; it is slowed down enough to not be obvious and married with a chorus reminiscent of that from Revenge of the Sith. The theme is finally heard outright when Vader witnesses the Tantive IV fleeing into hyperspace. The track appears early in Solo: A Star Wars Story as diegetic music in the Corellia spaceport as part of a commercial encouraging viewers to join the Imperial Navy , encouraging Han Solo to enlist as his ticket off the planet.
This brief appearance marks the first and thus-far only in-universe appearance of "The Imperial March" in a theatrical film. The music has been used as emblematic of sporting rivalries. Numerous high school and college marching bands have taken to playing the march during football games, particularly when a home team's defense is on the field or has made a big play or to question a penalty call made by the official.
The defensive cheer "Vader" is an excerpt from "The Imperial March" and is a popular stand tune played by the Auburn University Marching Band during football and basketball games. The first regular use of "The Imperial March" was in the s, when John Thompson led the Georgetown Hoyas men's basketball team onto the floor with "The Imperial March" being played by the Georgetown band.
Rather than shy away from the bad-guy persona, Georgetown embraced the image, perpetuating the sullen, intimidating identity of the Hoyas. Music Director, Donato Cabrera. The Blackhawk Chorus joins the orchestra to bring the full force and power of the Star Wars battle scenes that Williams calls for in his original scores. The Program Olympic Fanfare and Theme. That pastiche ended up being what gave everyone goosebumps, so it was later re-recorded as "Olympic Fanfare and Theme. Did this have something to do with legalities, or did NBC just figure Arnaud's was more recognizable?
I didn't watch the telecast this year, so I'm not aware of any format changes, but they may just make less of a big deal all around for the Winter Olympics. Superman March from Superman. This article is about the music in dramatic works featuring the character Superman. For songs about the topic of Superman or references to Superman in popular music, see musical depictions of Superman. Main article: Superman III soundtrack. Main article: Superman Returns soundtrack.
Main article: Man of Steel soundtrack. Main article: Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice soundtrack. Retrieved 4 December Retrieved Superman franchise media. Superman Atom Man vs. The Elite. It's a Bird It's a Plane It's Superman. Lego Superman. Lois Lane in other media Lex Luthor in other media Supergirl in other media. A selection from the iconic "Hedwig's Theme" from the Harry Potter films. Archived from the original on 17 August Retrieved 19 August January Edition] PDF.
The Record Bulletin in Japanese. Archived from the original PDF on 16 January Retrieved 22 January Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved 25 November Harry Potter portal. Harry Potter by J. Wizarding World. Book Category Portal. John Williams. Discography List of compositions. John Williams Greatest Hits — Theme from Schindler's List. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 28 April British Phonographic Industry.
Select albums in the Format field. Select Silver in the Certification field. Recording Industry Association of America. Adventure's on Earth from E. Not to be confused with E. Mein Blog. Atari video game burial E. Adventure Night Skies. The Cowboys Overture. This article is about the film. For the film, see The Cowboys film. For other uses, see cowboy disambiguation. Main article: The Cowboys TV series. The Numbers. Retrieved May 22, Films directed by Mark Rydell. DreamWorks Records. Digital download. Dreamworks SKG. Autotelics, LLC. Archived from the original on September 5, Retrieved February 12, The Washington Post.
SnagFilms, Inc. Archived from the original on September 7, Classic FM. Global Limited. Archived from the original on March 5, Boston Globe. Boston, Massachusetts. National Post. Rovi Corporation. Archived from the original on August 8, The Daily News. Associated Press. Retrieved September 6, Calgary Herald. The Sun. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Edmonton Journal. New York, NY. XXIV 1 : 68— Intentions by Eugene Novotney is a Percussion ensemble Piece scored for a trio of players. Instrumentation: 6 triangles pitched high to low , 3 tambourines each Ostinato Pianissimo by Henry Cowell may be played by eight percussionists; woodblocks, tambourine and guiro may be taken by one player.
Only one professional player is needed; Bayport Sketch by Jared Spears for percussion ensemble. Drumming Part One by Steve Reich begins with two drummers building up the basic rhythmic pattern of the entire piece from a single drum beat, played in a cycle of twelve beats The composer says, "although many universities have school colors, the University Home Trilogy by Michael Burritt for solo marimba and percussion quartet. The title is a reference both to the composer's home in Rochester and "our collective home", the earth White Pines by Michael Burritt for solo marimba and percussion sextet.
This piece was inspired by the energy, crispness, and majesty of these snow covered trees in the winter The work consists of 4 parts. Solo prepared piano II. Trio 9 tom-toms, pod rattle III. Trio 7 woodblocks, not Chinese IV. Solo prepared piano. Adam Vidiksis' Drum Amalgam for Percussion Trio focuses on how separate rhythms can form to create a whole greater than the sum of its parts - the "resultant rhythms" Heads Up! This new composition is an excursion into further possibilities of a five-member percussion ensembl Stormbreak was written by Jim Casella for intermediate ensembles as a sequel of sorts to Technology , another moderately simple piece for percussion octet by Case Mas Fuerte by Stephen Rush for percussion sextet.
This piece is a study in non-pitched loudness, and reflects a strong Afro-Carribean influence, specifically influences of Con Rite of Passage by Jesse Monkman for solo marimba and three percussionists with multi-percussion setups. This high energy work is sure to challenge performers and please audie If Branches is performed as a solo, it begins with a performance of Child of Tree. Cage employs amplified pods, cacti and other plant materials such as pod rattles from a poinc Written for nine players, Katraterra by Jim Casella is a concert piece which uses a variety of textures, instruments, and techniques to create a driving and intense feel.
Septet by Daniel Levitan for percussion ensemble.
This piece features a soloist part for bongos and timbales with roto-tom, triangle, cymbals, cowbells, and cabasa providing t Originally conceived and written by Clif Walker as a marimba solo with small ensemble accompaniment, Promise Music was later revised and expanded to seven, the Composed in collaboration with Lou Harrison, indepedantly from eachother.
Cage composed parts 1 and 3 soprano and tenor , Harrison parts 2 and 4 alto and bass. Dynamics are Canticle No. Instrumentation: Player 1 - Tambourine, or sistrum; 2 woodblocks; 3 high bells Player 2 - Gourd rattle; African Welcome Piece by Michael Udow for percussion ensemble and optional chorus. Udow takes many facets of African music and molds them into a unique experience for performe Identity Crisis by Michael Aukofer features sections of extreme contrast on form and in style.
Number of Players: 7 Difficulty: Grade 5 Instrumentation Scored for bells, xylophone, vibraphone, and 4. Each part requires Exploration of Time be Eckhard Kopetzki for six percussionists. Instrumentation: Player 1 The opening of the piece features energetic trades between the pitched The five movements depict different mythological beings from Brazilian folklore. This work is a comical rhythmic journey for body percussion that has a special lilt. Benson uses the eigh Short Circuits by Lalo Davila is written for eight players but can be adapted easily for four players.
This piece was inspired by Jonathan Bendrick's Geometrics. As with Geome An impressive follow-up to Burritt? Mambo Africano is a groove based work for 6 percussionists. It is accessible for all levels of musicians. Whispers by David Skidmore for percussion ensemble. Instrumentation 9 players : glockenspiel, glass wind chimes, 2 wind gongs, bass drum, 2 octaves crotales, eleph Percussion Music by Michael Colgrass is a six minute percussion ensemble piece scored for 4 players.
Open Window by Robert Chappell is a duet written for 4. The marimba part may be adapted for 4. This duet was the winner She is Asleep is constructed in two parts. Both parts may be played separately or together and in any order. Cage planned more parts to be added. The voice in the Duet should Hoo-Daiko by Robert J. Damm is a percussion sextet that was inspired by traditional Japanese Taiko drumming. This piece is based on typical rhythm patterns found in the Matsur Vic Firth's Encore in Jazz for percussion septet would be a great closing piece for a good high school level percussion ensemble.
It features a drum set solo dance dr Fire by Pete O'Gorman for percussion ensemble. Nordic Peace by Tobias Brostrom is a percussion quartet that takes ideas from a drumset fill. One of the set-ups calls for a drum set without toms. The other set-up use Vagabond of Light by Blake Tyson is a trio scored for 4. This piece was inspired by the image of fireflies transforming a dark f Me Tarzan by Chris Crockarell is a unique percussion ensemble piece that requires no instruments!
Written for 8 to 12 players, everyone claps, snaps, taps, raps, and does all Jazz Variants is a large work for percussion ensemble that showcases different treatments of one main jazz theme. This piece starts of with a cadenza like jazz section that is Variations upon Steve Reich's Clapping Music. This is a musically and intellectually intriguing exploration of the rhythmic motives of Clapping Music. Glenn Kotche uses numero On June 6, , at dawn, British and American forces landed on the beaches of Normandy in an elaborate amphibious operation.
A total of , American, British, and German Recycled is a great novelty percussion ensemble piece by Julie Davila. Each player plays on a 5 gallon bucket in some very creative ways!
Number of players The work was origin Grab your 30 gallon cans and get ready to let loose. This garbage band classic will leave your concert hall smelling like trash and sweet beats. Number of Players: Inspired by the Book of Revelation, David R. Gillingham's Angels of the Apocalypse is a dramatic work for 5 keyboard percussion and 3 battery percussion that features l The piece is built around a running D minor motive that is echoed around the keyboards and augmented throughout the piece Powell for percussion quintet. It read, Samba Cenas Brasileiras 3 or Brazilian Scenes 3 for percussion sextet by Ney Rosauro is an ideal piece to introduce the style of samba.
All the phrases are notated, The work was composed in the phraseology of the dance by Cunningham and Erdman. For the first time Cage uses records or radios, incorporating music of other composers in his o A delightful piece for five percussionists playing Afuche and pocket change! Ney Rosauro's Japanese Overture is an excellent concerto overture work. This piece is a real tour de force at 9 minutes in length.
If you're looking for a Thank You by Ivan Trevino for percussion ensemble. This piece was written as a "thank you" to Alan Hunt for his service to the community and students. Board Games is a work for thress percussionists playing on wooden boards while wearing metal tipped gloves. Notes on construction of the boards and gloves is included. It may be performed with one or with both slow movements. The Q Written by Jacob Remington to depict the chaotic events surrounding the end of days described in the Book of Revelation, Prelude to Paradise uses the player ensemble Ceremonium by Jared Spears for percussion ensemble.
Brooms Hilda by Chris Crockarell is one of those pieces that shows just how versatile percussionists are. This six part broom ensemble comes with optional choreography and ver This is Cage's first composition using fixed rhythmic structures. The composer uses standard as well as many unc Whirlwind by David Gillingham is based on motives derived from a mixture of the Lydian and Mixolydian modes using the lower pentachord of the Lydian scale and the upper The Glory and the Grandeur by Russell Peck for percussion trio and piano.
This concerto for three percussionists has been performed across America - by the Boston Symphony O Metalworks is a sextet for young percussionist that features metal sounds exclusively. Barber uses the metallic sounds to create a soundscape that will be full and intriguing It was developed to excite a wider range of ens The Christmas Gig is a festive potpourri for a happy holiday concert at the school, church or mall!
Each piece in The Christmas Gig is skillfully arranged f Written for keyboard percussion sextet, Aquarium is an arrangement of Saint-Saens' enchanting m This is the first composition in a series of percussion quartets from Warren Benson. The second and third composition are no longer available. This piece features a limited Tumbao Talk is an exciting piece for hand drums by Julie Davila.
This piece incorporates several split parts and visuals to keep the audience riveted. Davila has also Breakdown by Bradley Slayter is a percussion ensemble piece written for four percussionists. The main theme throughout the piece is aggression.
It starts off strong and evnds Synergy by Chris Crockarell is a percussion quartet scored for bongos, 3 concert toms, snare drum, 4 timpani, 2 jam blocks, triangle, brake drum, ride cymbal, suspended cymbal The dynamic duo of Chris Crockarell and Chris Brooks have teamed up again to compile a collection of 6 grooves for trash cans.
These grooves are perfect for the Pep Rally, Bal Quartet for Paper Bags by Larry Spivack. It's a quartet for paper bags. Fanfare for the Common Percussionist is a sextet for your percussion ensemble that utilizes unison rhythms for a loud fanfare like mood. This ensemble is perfect for advance e This piece has four main section and is highly virtuosic, containing several home-made instruments and many whistles and calls to give the piece a light hearted and humorous e Ice Dance was composed in for the dance company Barents Dansemsemble. Latin Fantasy is a great way to get your young percussion ensemble off to a great start in the Latin world.
This composition features tutti and imitative sections that are al This unique piece by Eugene Novotney entitled "Scratch" features four players playing scrapers or guiros. The piece is constructed with three accompaniment lines, with player Fidget by Nathan Daughtrey for percussion octet. Atenteben was composed by Bob Becker in The melodies in this piece are based on a few of the tunes played by the atenteben flute ensemble of Ghana. The patterns p Conservatory Garden by Daniel Levitan for percussion quartet.
Instrumentation: Player 1 - roto-tom, two cowbells, splash cymbal Player 2 - roto-tom, snare drum, Scuttlebutt by Jim Casella for percussion octet. This piece is the third in a series of groove-based pieces for intermediate and developing percussion ensembles. It follows Te Inventions on a Motive by Michael Colgrass is a percussion ensemble piece scored for 4 players. The short 42 measure motive has 6 inventions and a finale. This piece is access Ritmica - dur. Romantica Gert Bomhof's fun ensemble book, Twenty Duets and Trios will prove especially useful in teaching young percussion players how to listen and play as a team.
It is intend This piece contains a trio of snare drums which toss the flams, paradiddles, and rolls to each other as they run the music. Unlike a real race, where someone wins, this tag te Suite for Percussion by William Kraft is a five movement work for percussion quartet. Instrumentation: Percussion 1 - bongos, glockenspiel, tambourine, song bells, Dave Hall's Doors represents the best of what is being written for the contemporary large percussion ensemble.
Hall's complex textures, engaging harmonies and heart-pou For six players. Written for the James Caldwell High School Percussion Ensemble, it calls for three snare drums, cymbals, triangle, and bass drum. Instrument selection is the key to Knock on Wood. Twelve different wooden instruments are required for the execution of this ensemble work.
Each player is responsible for thre Excalibur is a noble work for your percussion ensemble. It highlights complementary lines between snare drum and xylophone. Section of unison ensemble work are contrasted by s Hemispheres by Kevin Bobo was commissioned by Dr. The pieces is an exploration of Nalu by Francisco Perez is a quartet for two marimbas and eight hands. In the Hawaiian language, the word "nalu" stands for wave, in reference to those in the waters surroundi Barnstormer by Chris Crockarell is a fun trio that can be used to introduce new players to the world of percussion ensemble.
Duration: 2'58" Instrumentation Tinplay is a percussion quartet by the composer Per Andreasson. For solo marimba and percussion quartet. The marimba part can be played on either a 4. A perfect opportunity to feature an advanced high school or c Triskaidekaphobia by Josh Gottry is a percussion trio that serves as a tribute to all those who cast off unusual fears and superstitions.
- Full text of "Americas Music".
- Big Nate Compilation 1: What Could Possibly Go Wrong? (US edition) (Big Nate)?
- Percussion Ensemble!
- Boum-Boum ! Les filles qui promenaient les statues (Livres numériques jeunesse) (French Edition).
This piece features 13 pulses in ever Heartbeat is a work for intermediate percussion ensemble. It is based off of a heartbeat like ostinato that carries through the piece in many realizations. Number of P Afterthoughts is an intermediate work for percussion ensemble. Number of Players: 8 Dif Fugue for Percussion by Lou Harrison Instruments: 1.
Flexatone, cor saw, claves, maracas -- 2. Metalaphone 7 tones , box, cowbells 5 -- 3. Meditation bells 5 , bra The fifth and sixth called for eleven pe