Tusk also claimed that the introduction of transnational lists would require an amendment to Article 14 2 TEU, and not just a revision of the Act which introduced direct elections. The MEPs propose to use 27 of the 73 vacated British seats to render the composition of the next Parliament degressively proportional, as the Treaty ordains. Here the European Council followed the lame example of the European Parliament itself, which preferred political fudge to mathematical rigour.
The European Council also failed to take up the invitation of Jean-Claude Juncker to grapple with the question of reducing the size of the next Commission. Weary of trying to run a bloated college of 28 Commissioners, President Juncker recommends returning to the formula of the Treaty of Lisbon Article 16 5 TEU which prescribes a college of two-thirds the number of states. Donald Tusk, however, is hostile to the idea of reducing the state-based character of the Commission, and the European Council as a whole evinced its opposition to any reform that might reinforce the role of the Commission as the European executive authority.
And the Commission as an institution will risk becoming just yet another Brussels-based ambassadorial committee playing second fiddle to the heads of government. It is an important suggestion with far-reaching consequences, and deserves serious consideration. The European Council might at least have established a group of experts to report back on the proposal.
It did not. The idea that a merged two-hatted presidency would be simpler and clearer than at present, and lead to stronger EU governance, does not seem to trouble Tusk. The summit debate on repeating the Spitzenkandidat experiment went much as expected. In this respect at least, Donald Tusk is correct that the Treaty logic establishes a dual legitimacy for the Commission president based on nomination by the European Council by QMV and election by the Parliament by absolute majority.
This time around, helped by Macron who does not yet have a European political party, the heads of government will be more wary of being ambushed by the Parliament than they were in It is at least clear, however, that the EPP will again promote a Spitzenkandidat to lead its election campaign, as it is bound to do by its statutes. The Socialists, Liberals and Greens will all then have to follow suit. There are new, trembling fast repetitions of a single staccato note in groups of hemidemisemiquavers only in the clarinet parts, which are added to the contrapuntal web. It is a very dense movement.
This represents Orpheus surrounded by the calmed Furies. Structural divisions are A-B-A 1 -A 2. A sequence of melodies with few notes with broken pure F major chordal material. There is a contrasting four-bar B section in three parts, with solo viola and two violoncelli. Compositionally, this is depicted by ostinati and repetitions in motoristic semiquaver movement without thematic development, each of the three parts with few notes.
This depicts Orpheus waiting and the entrance of Pluto Hades. There is a short rising bassoon solo at figure 97 3 in the natural range of a fifth F to C, presumably conceived as the scene in which Eurydice is led. The entry at figure marks the end of the static, motoristic, running string accompaniment, and the trumpets are no longer used. Dislocation of the semiquaver movement, without the strings, in two flutes and two clarinets, superimposition of the broken chord material in two note chords leading rhythmically in parallel in the flute and clarinet parts. This represents the event of the two people reunited and now put on themselves who are abandoned to their emotions.
The scene ends with three string chords, an upward double-bass line and a confluence into an uncertain mixture of sounds made up of D-A-F sharp-B-E; this is a depiction of the start of the ascent to the Overworld and an expression of its questionableness. The three-section division A-B-A 1 A: b. This division also allows the scene to be proportioned using the Golden Section, because the four sections then become smaller in relationship to one another by 1 : 5 , 1 : 6 and 1 : 7.
The Pas de Deux between Orpheus and Eurydice is the formal and structural centre of the entire ballet and unites in itself all the previous and subsequent thematic elements including the formal ones. After the catastrophe has taken place, there are no further changes of meter.
A complete collapse is represented by unison string movement at figure 1 — 2. Orpheus goes ahead and Eurydice follows, depicted by fugue-like imitative technique at figure 3 ff , retaining the harmonic stepwise movement. Grief and confidence in the A section is turned on its head in the B section to become happiness. Eurydice begins with her rash and careless wooing of Orpheus and dances for him Balanchine has her play an invisible flute at this point in the choreography. The orchestration, in addition to the strings, flutes, oboes, clarinets and horns, is dominated by a solo duet between the 1 st Flute and 1 st Clarinet, representing Orpheus and Eurydice.
Bars 65 — 76 in the A 1 section correspond to bars 18 ff. The high-rolling [Hochrollen] in the music reaches fortissimo, which in comparison with the general mezzo dynamic of this ballet is an unprecedented outbreak of feeling, as a representation of the passion which neither can withstand, and the general pause is a representation of Death, awaking in horror, irreversibility, understanding and dumb despair.
Large leaps in the peaceful flow of the final 5 bars. Feeling of despair and exhaustion. Dotted rhythms and upbeats are used to characterise the reverse direction of the action. The harp no longer plays any role. Orpheus is helpless. The curtain of fog, which must be played to and which must be driven through in order to find the way into the Underworld, is impenetrable.
At first the trumpets and trombones paint the picture, followed by the oboes and clarinets. Strong dynamics. Additional sharpening of intervals by the use of minor seconds, which are inverted into a different register, becoming major sevenths. Strong layering of thirds, chords containing disturbing notes and the isolated sound of fifths create a hectic, movement of masses of people. Extension of pitches and sound colour up to the highest registers. Gradually slowing of the Tempo. It is not the original, even if it seems to be.
Directional movements, the starting note and type of scale are changed from [I]. The harp part in bars 5 ff. The movement takes place slowly and solemnly. In the face of future hope, the reality of the past regresses back to what is to come.. All that remains of the lyre of the dead Orpheus is a memory, which interrupts the canonic writing in the horn parts several times.
Orpheus weeps for Eurydice. He stands motionless, with his back to the audience. Figure 2 1 up to the end of Figure 3. Some friends pass bringing presents and offering him sympathie. Figure 2 1. Figure 4 up to the end of figure Figure 28 up to the end of figure The Angel leads Orpheus to Hades. Figure 36 1. Figure 41 up to the end of figure The Angel and Orpheus reappear in the gloom of Tartarus. Figure 43 1. Figure 47 up to the end of figure 61 with a repeat of figure 50 2 up to the end of figure. Figure 63 up to the end of figure 76 6 [ attacca forward to figure 77 ].
Figure 77 [ attacca from figure 76 6 ] up to the end of figure Figure 80 up to the end of figure 88 6 [ attacca forward to figure 89 ]. The tormented souls in Tartarus stretch on their fettered arms towards Orpheus, and implore him to continue his song of consolation. Figure 89 [ attacca from figure 88 6 ]. Figure 90 up to the end of figure 91 5 [ attacca forward to figure 92 ]. Hades, moved by the song of Orpheus, grows calm. The Furies surround him, bin his eyes und return Eurydice to him. Die Furien umringen ihn, verbinden ihm die Augen und bringen Eurydice zu ihm].
Veiled Curtain [ ] Tulles [Schleiervorhang]. Figure 92 [ attacca from figure 91 5 ] up to the end of figure Figure 94 up to the end of figure 6 [ attacca forward to figure ]. Orpheus and Eurydice before the veiled curtain. Figure [ attacca from figure 6 ] up to the end of figure 5 [ attacca forward to.
Orpheus tears the bandage from his eyes. Eurydice falls dead.
Eurydice tombe morte. Orpheus nimmt die Binde von seinen Augen.
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Veiled curtain, behind which the decor oft the first scene is placed. Figure [ attacca from figure 5 ] up to the end of figure 4 [ attacca forward to figure. The Bacchanten attack Orpheus, sieze him and tear him in pieces. Figure [ attacca from figure 4 ] up to the end of figure [ attacca forward to Figure. Figure [ attacca from Figure 7 ] up to the end of figure 6.
Apollo appears. He wrests the lyre from Orpheus and raises his song heavenwards. Er nimmt die Lyra des Orpheus und erhebt seinen Gesang zum Himmel]. Corrections: In the original version, there are several printing errors, for which it remains unclear as to whether they are printing, manuscript or correction errors that were subsequently corrected in a separate, enclosed errata sheet. This contains 22 corrections necessary for performance, which statistically means that there is at least one mistake to every 2 pages of music.
Full score 76 — 1. This was even a mistake in the errata, as the third semiquaver note is f sharp, not. It was meant to refer to the fourth semiquaver note. For all of pages 57 — 59 [figure up to the end of figure ], instead of solo violin, it should. The last issue cannot be made sense of from the score alone, because it refers to the relationship.
The repeat between figure 50 and the end of figure 60 was. Bassoon: quaver rest instead of crotchet rest. Oboe: 1. Oboe: semiquaver ligature c 3 -b 2 -b 2 -b 2 instead of d 3 -c 3 -c 3 -c 3. Clarinet: the two large phrasing marks should be removed and replaced by small. The 2 nd and 5 th. Clarinet: quaver d 1 has to be marked with staccato dot. Trumpet, 1. Trombone: the first values semiquaver-semiquaver rest—. No annotation in the full score. Style: Strawinsky characterises the events in the plot either as foreground or background, meaning that compositionally identical moments can have different expressive value, such as the use of rests.
Rests are composed into the ballet music beyond their normal functions, for example, indicating the ends of phrases or giving breathing possibilities, as a structural element,. The dynamic level remains almost exclusively in the region of piano and mezzoforte with additional sforzati. The Apotheosis also has piano and mezzopiano markings throughout. The Orpheus ballet contains no humorous scenes or corresponding single scenes, and no caricatures or contradictory interpretation, which Strawinsky had been using constantly even in tragic contexts up to that point.
The orchestration is like chamber music, not orchestral. The combination of the small groups is dependent upon the situation in the plot. It is only at the dismemberment of Orpheus that there is a tutti. The harp is assigned to Orpheus. The solo trombone and solo trumpet correspond to certain entries of the Angel of Death and Orpheus. The woodwinds are, with the exception of the framing movements, used in all types of ways, but are especially used to describe the characters and situations, likewise the timpani in the entrances of the Furies and Bacchantes.
The music of Orpheus is consciously written by Strawinsky to be predominantly dark and even threatening, and in being so corresponds to the established conception of the Underworld. Strawinsky however also placed value on its smoothness, because the scene takes place in darkness.
He wanted through this to express that in the darkness contrasts are increased, and he suggests this compositionally and in the orchestration. Strawinsky defines the place and time musically. Orpheus finds himself in the course of the ballet at different places at different times, on the Earth, on the way to the Underworld, under the Earth, on the path back into the Overworld and again on the Earth.
Strawinsky captures the three time zones before, in and after the Underworld by means of different tonal polarisations and motific formations. Musical figures such as C-B-F, intervallic constructions such as B flat-D flat become structurally definitive for the scenes before the descent. In unfolding the B flat-D flat interval melodically, Strawinsky creates the starting notes of the theme of the fugue.
After Orpheus turns round in the plot, the characteristic B-D flat interval is reorganised registrally. As a result, the identical interval accommodates another emotional content. The central section of composition inside the composition is the Pas de deux between Orpheus and Eurydice, which is also the structural centre, and which at the same was written dramaturgically correctly at the temporal centre of the work. This number can therefore be characterised just as much as an entity in itself, which is synthetically constructed out of the elements of the others, as the structural centrepiece out of which single structures are taken, and the various other movements are derived individually from this.
Alongside this, there is a second manner of functional interweaving, developed through overreaching motific writing, which binds together separate movements between one another in terms of compositional construction, creating reference points of meaning. When Strawinsky also condemned the Wagnerian technique of the Leitmotif, he was working on Orpheus himself again with motific techniques that reach across the separate movements, which interpret aligned moments of mood, create musical connections and enable structural links.
This includes not only the melodic writing in the harp of Orpheus, which is a leitmotif throughout, and certain moments of characterisation achieved through instrumentation, colour and gesture, which are defined by the plot, but also the more important elements of proportionality, framing devices and correspondences of tempo and dynamic. In his musical version, Strawinsky followed much more strongly the mythological originals than in the scenario, in which he had to take Balanchine into consideration and in which he was not able to make clear crucial plot points.
This attack from distance does not succeed however. Orpheus has his lyre and plays. His song makes the branches gather round him but not injure him, and the stones soften and fall down in a circle before him. The Maenads are powerless. They now pit music against music. Orpheus can no longer be heard, and his songs therefore become ineffective. Nearby, farmers are ploughing with their cattle. In the face of the inferno of noise made by the wild mob, they cast aside their tools and flee horrified, leaving their animals behind.
The Maenads arm themselves with hoes and slaughter first the cattle and then Orpheus, who no longer has anything with which he could defend himself. When the head and lyre are washed ashore and a snake tries to bite, Apollo intercedes. Since his murder also breaks the laws of Dionysos, the Maenads are punished awfully. They lose their freedom to move and their human feelings. The silence yields to the noise, sober-mindedness to overflowing hatred, idealistic existence to reality, and with it, optimism to pessimism. The Apotheosis, his transfiguration at the end into divinity, virtually amounts to a theatrical self-calming against this background.
It is also a capitulation in the face of a world from which justice must flee, in order to resettle in an afterlife of whatever form, whence it throws points of lights onto the Earth. Five years later, Strawinsky left all these considerations behind him and after his bitter experience gained from his court trial that there is no justice in this life he devoted himself completely to theologically orientated music. Dedication: There is no dedication indicated. The duration is always dependent on the interpretation and remains stated approximately with a circa.
The performance duration can be defined exactly to the split-second by taking into account the number of single beats and the metronome markings. Orpheus opens up, like all the other later compositions, extensive possibilities for games with numerical proportions, without wishing to imply that interpretations of that type are correct and should not be construed as being a corollary.
Date of origin: Hollywood 20 th October up to 26 th September First performance: Then followed the Elegy for solo viola. The evening was so successful for the ballet troupe that Morton Baum, the Chairman at the time of the Executive Committee in charge of the City Center of Music and Drama offered Kirstein and Balanchine that their ballet ensemble be incorporated as a regular ensemble, with an agreement of 20 years of support into their company. Warburg, became the soon-to-be-famous New York City Ballet, which made its debut on 11 th October , dancing Orpheus again at this opportunity as well as the Symphonie en Ut.
Kirstein had become General Director and Balanchine, whom Kirstein had brought to America in and who had been treated extraordinarily badly in Paris, with bureaucratic disdain, a sort of chief choreographer who in the course of his life oversaw more than thirty Strawinsky productions. Kirstein regarded him as the greatest painter of his generation.
The sum was ludicrous for the circumstances of a free troupe and it would have been impossible to realize under the circumstances of the time even if they had wanted to. As Kirstein described the situation to Strawinsky in a letter of 16 th October , the supposition could not be ignored that Tschelitshev himself had not been seriously interested for a long time. Finally, the choice fell on the Japanese-American sculptor Isamu Noguchi, whom Kirstein described in his letter to Strawinsky dated 4 th January as an artist, who was not greatly original, but could work well with light and space, and that was just what Balanchine was looking for.
Noguchi chose elegantly formed lyres and golden masks, which also played a pivotal role in the choreography. Pluto symbolises Hell, but was not portrayed as Greek but Indian as the goddess Kali, who normally appears with long hair, a beard, decapitated heads dangling around her throat, a sword in one hand and a head dripping blood in the other. For Hell, Noguchi built giant flames and bones. Much fuss was made about the colossal white fog curtain made of Chinese silk, which was to separate the Over— and Underworld and the separate scenes from one another; at one thousand dollars, it was quite expensive and it was bought at the last minute.
It was kept in constant movement by aimed streams of air so that it appeared to be alive. Noguchi chose pale costume and stage colours in the areas of Rose, Gold, Azure and Black. In the moment in which Pluto gives Eurydice back her life, Noguchi used a banner-like blue beam which made one perceive heaven to be above Hades. The lighting design was also an integrated part of the set and choreography.
In fact, they made it difficult for the dancers to see the ground and thus also hindered rhythmic coordination, and so were not completely practical. They were regarded as Freudian. Orpheus resembled a baseball catcher and had a long, undulating mane of hair down his back. At the various meetings between Balanchine and Strawinsky, they mainly discussed matters of the sequence of the plot and durations, not compositional problems of structure, in which Balanchine was only peripherally interested, and in which Strawinsky had never allowed him to express any interest in, as was his manner.
All reports of their collaboration eventually lead back to the problems of time. Strawinsky only ever wanted to know from Balanchine how long the piece should last so that he could adjust his composition accordingly. He probably took into consideration certain wishes, but tolerated no interference in his work. Balanchine came to Hollywood again around or after the start of the year for the last discussion about Orpheus, and aimed to reach an agreement with Strawinsky. The Los Angeles Times also published an interview with Balanchine on 4 th January and quoted the choreographer making the observation that he did not want develop a choreography and have some music written to it, but preferably he would have the music, at the rehearsals of which he would be able to write his choreography.
Since Balanchine was in a stage of experimenting with body positions in extreme situations, and as certain positions could only be held for a short period of time, the schemata for the durations of the music were important to the composer. In this matter, the actual collaboration was between Balanchine and Strawinsky. The location should not be somewhere in Greece, and it should certainly not have an antique and mythical feel, especially no Doric backdrop. As an example, Strawinsky used the example in a radio broadcast on New York Radio on 1 st November of when the painters of the Renaissance painted depictions of Ancient Greece, they would have used the landscapes and costumes of their own time.
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Representatively, what should be used is only what continues to speak to the thoughts of our present time from the Orpheus myth. Strawinsky himself had no thoughts for the costumes. On the matter of the style of dancing in the choreography of Orpheus, little has been written, and most about the structure of the plot, which can be more easily described. Furthermore, Kirstein gave an account of the conception of the background of the choreography for Orpheus.
The forest creatures, the happily leaping fauns, satyrs and dryads, were set against the personal tragedy, just as Nature continues to survive despite death and suffering. The black angel binds Orpheus to him inseparably with a black cord. A huge cloud descends and Orpheus is sent to the Underworld with his lyre, which is bound to his person inseparably. It is Eurydice who convinces Orpheus to embrace her. The lyre is torn from him exactly at the moment when he needs it the most, and a hundred invisible hands take Eurydice back.
In the final scene, a laurel tree grows out of the grave and represents the victory. He is the leader of the souls of the Dead. The question still remains as to whether Orpheus is essentially not already dead. In the Middle Ages, as Balanchine believed, Mercury was transformed from a messenger into a demon, and Balanchine took up this idea. For him, the connection between Orpheus with the Angel of Death was of the same significance as the relationship of Orpheus to Eurydice. For him, Orpheus was less a warrior than a poet, who was restless, imprudent and rash, but also resourceful.
He brought the Maenads from their senses as a result of his pride in wanting to love only Eurydice. He included all these thoughts in his choreography, which turned into a ritual as a result of this. Subsequent productions. The two men were united in wishing to go in the direction of abstraction. Balanchine therefore built a set design around Apollo, while Strawinsky only saw the symbol of Orpheus as a diachronic allegory that required structure, but not theatricality.
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