Any chance of passing the bill ended with the death of Senate Majority Leader Joseph Taylor Robinson in July , after Roosevelt had expended crucial political capital on the failed bill. In a decision, the Court upheld a state minimum wage law that was similar to a state law that the court had struck down the year before; the difference between the cases was that Roberts switched his vote.
The case was widely seen as an important shift in the Court's judicial philosophy, and one newspaper called Roberts's vote " the switch in time that saved nine " because it effectively ended any chance of passing the court-packing bill. One of the Four Horsemen, Willis Van Devanter, stepped down that same year, giving Roosevelt his first opportunity to appoint a Supreme Court justice, and several more Supreme Court vacancies followed.
With Roosevelt's influence on the wane following the failure of the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of , conservative Democrats joined with Republicans to block the implementation of further New Deal regulatory programs. The Housing Act of built , public housing units by The stock market suffered a major drop in , marking the start of an economic downturn within the Great Depression known as the Recession of — Influenced by economists such as Keynes, Marriner Stoddard Eccles , and William Trufant Foster , Roosevelt abandoned his fiscally conservative positions in favor of economic stimulus funding.
By increasing government spending, Roosevelt hoped to increase consumption, which in turn would allow private employers to hire more workers and drive down the unemployment rate. Roosevelt had always belonged to the more liberal wing of the Democratic Party, and he sought a realignment that would solidify liberal dominance. During the campaign he predicted privately, "I'll be in the White House for eight years.
When those years are over, there'll be a Progressive party. It may not be Democratic, but it will be Progressive. His targets denounced Roosevelt for trying to take over the Democratic party and to win reelection, using the argument that they were independent. Roosevelt failed badly, managing to defeat only one target, a conservative Democrat from New York City. After the mid-term elections, the conservative coalition of Republicans and Southern Democrats seized control of Congress, bringing an effective end to the New Deal.
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Congress cut appropriations and passed the Hatch Act of , which was designed to prevent federal employees from taking part in political campaigns. In , Roosevelt appointed the Brownlow Committee to recommend changes to the structure of the executive branch. The committee proposed a plan to consolidate over agencies into 12 departments and allowed the president to appoint several assistants. Congress passed the Reorganization Act of , which was based on the Brownlow Committee's recommendations. Roosevelt then established the Executive Office of the President , which increased the president's control over the executive branch.
Roosevelt combined several government public works and welfare agencies into the Federal Works Agency and the Federal Security Agency. The reorganization is best known for allowing the President to appoint numerous assistants and advisers. Those who built a network of support in Congress became virtually independent "czars" in their specialized domains.
Roosevelt's first inaugural address contained just one sentence devoted to foreign policy, indicative of the domestic focus of his first term. American forces were withdrawn from Haiti, and new treaties with Cuba and Panama ended their status as protectorates. In , Roosevelt signed the Reciprocal Tariff Act , which allowed the president to negotiate trade reciprocity treaties with other countries.
Over the next six years, the U. By the late s, the Soviet Union was no longer a pariah in European affairs, and had normal diplomatic and trade relations with most countries. By , old American fears of Communist threats had faded, and the business community, as well as newspaper editors, were calling for diplomatic recognition.
Roosevelt was eager for large-scale trade with Russia, and hoped for some repayment on the old tsarist debts. After the Soviets promised they would not engage in espionage, Roosevelt used presidential authority to normalize relations in November Doenecke and Mark A. Stoler note that, "Both nations were soon disillusioned by the accord. The s marked the high point of American isolationism. The country had a long tradition of non-interventionism , but isolationists in the s sought to keep the U.
Isolationist sentiment stemmed from a desire to focus on domestic issues, bitterness over World War I and unpaid debts stemming from that war, and a general detachment from, and reluctance to become involved in, the growing crises in East Asia and Europe. In , the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria and established the puppet state of Manchukuo. The Japanese dispatched hundreds of thousands of colonists to Manchukuo, which possessed raw materials and agricultural resources that were in short supply in Japan.
In a direct challenge to the Western powers, Japan proclaimed the Amau doctrine, which stated that Japan alone held responsibility for maintaining order in East Asia. At first, many in the United States thought of Hitler as a something of a comic figure, but Hitler quickly consolidated his power in Germany and attacked the post-war order established by the Treaty of Versailles.
Foreign affairs became a more prominent issue by The Neutrality Act of required Roosevelt to impose an arms embargo on all belligerents in any given foreign war, without any discretion left to the president. They saw the U. Though the French were tempted to provide support to the Republicans, Britain convinced them to avoid becoming directly involved. A January Gallup poll found that most Americans had no opinion on the war, though Catholics tended to favor Franco and those on the left-wing tended to favor the Republican faction.
In a nearly-unanimous January vote, Congress extended the neutrality laws, ensuring that the United States would not become involved in the conflict. The act also established a " cash and carry " policy for selling nonmilitary goods to belligerent states, requiring such goods to be purchased in cash and transported by the shipping of the respective belligerent state. The inability of the League of Nations or the United States to prevent the Italian invasion of Ethiopia emboldened Japan and Germany to pursue their territorial ambitions.
In a reflection of the continuing strength of isolationism, the Ludlow Amendment , which would have required a national referendum for any declaration of war, was only narrowly defeated in the House. In , Germany remilitarized the Rhineland in defiance of the Versailles Treaty. Without the support of Britain or Italy, France declined to intervene to prevent the remilitarization. In a last desperate effort to keep the peace, Britain and France agreed to German demands with the September Munich Agreement.
Roosevelt supported Britain and France, and insisted on American neutrality in Europe. In response, the British announced their commitment to defending Poland , which many assumed Hitler would attack next. After the Munich Agreement, Roosevelt began to prepare for the imminent outbreak of war. He called for the revision of the Neutrality Act in his State of the Union Address, but his proposal was defeated in both houses of Congress. Most of the aircraft ordered had not arrived in France by the time of its collapse in May , so Roosevelt arranged for French orders to be sold to the British.
Western leaders were stunned when the Soviet Union and Germany split control of Poland ; the two powers had reached a non-aggression pact in August , which contained a secret protocol for the partition of Poland. Days later, Roosevelt called Congress into a special session to revise the Neutrality Act. Overcoming the opposition of famous aviator Charles Lindbergh and other isolationists, Roosevelt won passage of the Neutrality Act of , which allowed belligerents to purchase aircraft and other combat material from the United States, albeit only on a cash and carry basis.
During the so-called " Phony War ," a period of inactivity in Europe following the conclusion of the invasion of Poland, Roosevelt tried to negotiate a peace, but Hitler was uninterested in such a possibility. As France's situation grew increasingly desperate, Churchill and French Prime Minister Paul Reynaud appealed to Roosevelt for an American entry into the war, but Roosevelt was still unwilling to challenge the isolationist sentiment in the United States. Roosevelt tried to work with Vichy France from to to keep it neutral, with scant success.
With the fall of France , Britain and its dominions became the lone major force at war with Germany. Roosevelt, who was determined that Britain not be defeated, took advantage of the rapid shifts of public opinion; the fall of Paris especially led to a decline in isolationist sentiment. Both parties gave support to his plans for a rapid build-up the American military, but the isolationists warned that Roosevelt would get the nation into an unnecessary war with Germany.
In exchange for the use of British military bases in the Caribbean Islands, the U. As Roosevelt took a firmer stance against the Axis Powers, American isolationists like Lindbergh and America First vehemently attacked the president as an irresponsible warmonger. In turn they were denounced as anti-Semitic dupes of the Nazis. Reviewer Richard S. Roosevelt enjoyed support among the traditional Democratic base of Northern Catholics and Southern whites, but his re-election depended on mobilizing new voters and retaining the votes of those who had been alienated by Hoover.
The New Deal coalition , as it became known, made the Democratic Party the majority party in the s, s, s, and early s. The American political system that incorporated the coalition and its opposition is characterized by scholars as the Fifth Party System. Political participation was low among the "new" immigrants who arrived after ; the established machines did not need their votes. The Depression hit these new immigrants hard, for they had low skill levels and were concentrated in heavy industry.
They strongly responded to work relief programs and other aspects of the New Deal, becoming one of the largest and most critical voting blocs in the New Deal coalition. Roosevelt scored large majorities among the main Catholics groups up to In particular he largely retained the support the Irish, despite Al Smith's repudiation of the New Deal. Roosevelt also won over working class Protestant voters and progressive Republicans. Many of these progressives continued to vote for Republican congressional candidates, but others joined the Democratic Party.
In western states like North Dakota, progressive voters defected en masse to the Democratic Party and became influential in the state party organization. At the same time, many conservative, rural voters returned to the Republican Party after , diminishing the influence of conservative Northern Democrats. Roosevelt appointed African Americans to an unprecedented number of political positions; William H. Hastie became the first African American federal judge. Roosevelt also established an informal " Black Cabinet " to advise him on African-American affairs.
He decided against pushing for legislation that would make lynching a federal crime; such legislation could not pass over a Southern filibuster and the political fight would threaten his ability to pass his priority programs. Roosevelt at first had massive support from the rapidly growing labor unions; one laborer summed up the feeling of many workers when he stated that, "Mr.
Roosevelt is the only man we ever had in the White House who would understand that my boss is a sonofabitch. John L. Though he put together a powerful new political coalition, Roosevelt also alienated various groups. While the First New Deal of had broad support from most sectors, the Second New Deal challenged the business community. They launched a short-lived party known as the Union Party to challenge Roosevelt in , but it quickly collapsed.
The two-term tradition had been an unwritten rule until the ratification the 22nd Amendment after Roosevelt's presidency since George Washington declined to run for a third term in Both Ulysses S. Grant and Theodore Roosevelt were attacked for trying to obtain a third non-consecutive term.
Roosevelt moved the convention to Chicago where he had strong support from the city machine, which controlled the auditorium sound system. At the convention the opposition was poorly organized, but Farley had packed the galleries. Roosevelt sent a message saying that he would not run unless he was drafted, and that the delegates were free to vote for anyone. The delegates were stunned; then the loudspeaker screamed "We want Roosevelt The world wants Roosevelt!
The tactic employed by Roosevelt was not entirely successful, as his goal had been to be drafted by acclamation. Democratic party leaders disliked Wallace, a former Republican who strongly supported the New Deal, but were unable to prevent his nomination. World War II shook up the Republican field, possibly preventing the nomination of isolationist congressional leaders like Taft or Vandenberg. The Republican National Convention instead nominated Wendell Willkie , the first major party nominee since who had never held public office.
A well-known corporate attorney and executive, Willkie rose to public notice through his criticism of the New Deal and his clashes with the TVA. Unlike his isolationist rivals for the Republican nomination, Willkie favored Britain in the war, and he was backed by internationalist Republicans like Henry Luce. As the campaign drew to a close, Willkie and other Republicans stepped up their attacks on Roosevelt's foreign policy.
Willkie warned that Roosevelt's re-election would lead to the deployment of U. In response, Roosevelt stated that "Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars. After his victory over Willkie, Roosevelt embarked on a public campaign to win congressional support for aid to the British. With British forces committed to defending against Germany, Churchill asked for the United States to provide loans and shipping for American goods. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: United States presidential election, See also: New Deal. Nothing to Fear.
See also: Agricultural policy of the United States. Main article: United States elections, See also: Keynesian economics. See also: Civil rights movement — and Franklin D. Roosevelt's record on civil rights. The Soldier of Freedom: Roosevelt. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Retrieved March 2, Retrieved 9 October Pederson, ed. A Companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt pp Badger, The New Deal: the depression years — pp Alston, "Farm foreclosures in the United States during the interwar period.
Heinemann, Depression and New Deal in Virginia. Novak, James W. Pease, and Larry D. Tugwell, "The resettlement idea. Tobey, Technology as freedom: The New Deal and the electrical modernization of the American home Di Nunzio Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Third American Revolution. Kennedy pp Kyvig, Repealing national prohibition 2nd ed. Horses in Midstream. University of Pittsburgh Press. Since Milkis New York: Oxford University Press.
Roosevelt and National Health Insurance, — Presidential Studies Quarterly. The New York Times. January 28, Henderson and David B.
FDR and the Second New Deal
Woolner, eds. FDR and the Environment Roosevelt and the Land of America , pp. Leuchtenburg Nelson; John L. Rudolph Education and the Culture of Print in Modern America. Public Schools in Hard Times pp. History of Education Quarterly. By nine states had established similar policies; many local governments also introduced them during the s. On Gender, Labor, and Inequality. McMillion" PDF. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 11 May Liberalism and Its Discontents. Harvard University Press. Duke University Press.
Retrieved 8 October The American Historical Review. Walter Lippmann's Opposition to the New Deal. Gaining Access: Congress and the Farm Lobby, — O'Connor, eds. Poverty in the United States. Trade Policy in the s". In Bordo, Michael D. University of Chicago Press. Boller Not So! Oxford UP. Roosevelt and the search for security: American-Soviet relations, — Stoler Debating Franklin D. Roosevelt's Foreign Policies, — Roosevelt , pp Cole, "Roosevelt and Munich. Reviews in American History. Southern Quarterly. University Press of Kentucky. Lewis and the Election of ". Labor History.
The Path to Power. The Years of Lyndon Johnson. New York : Alfred A Knopf. The encyclopedia of American political history. CQ Press. Roosevelt: The Lion and the Fox. Burns, James MacGregor Roosevelt: The Soldier of Freedom. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Churchill, Winston The Grand Alliance. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Dallek, Robert Roosevelt: A Political Life. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, — Oxford University. The New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly.
Fordham University Press. Herman, Arthur. Oxford University Press. Detailed history of how FDR handled the war. Leuchtenburg, William E. Roosevelt and the New Deal, — McJimsey, George The Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. University Press of Kansas.
The University of Chicago The Law School
New York University Press. Smith, Jean Edward New York: Random House. Main article: Bibliography of Franklin D. Banana Wars U. New York state election, Democratic National Convention, United States presidential election theme song Presidents of the United States. Grant — Rutherford B. Hayes — James A. Garfield Chester A. Roosevelt — Harry S.
Truman — Dwight D. Distracted by other issues, Roosevelt had delegated the decision for internment to Secretary of War Stimson, who in turn relied on the judgment of Assistant Secretary of War John J. The Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the executive order in the case of Korematsu v. The Soviets urged an Anglo-American invasion of German-occupied France as soon as possible in order to divert troops from the Eastern front.
Roosevelt overrode their objections, as he wanted the U. The cooperation with Darlan allowed the Allies to quickly gain control of much of North Africa, but it also alienated Free French leader Charles de Gaulle and other opponents of the Vichy regime. The experience with de Gaulle, Darlan, and another French leader, Henri Giraud , convinced Roosevelt of the necessity to avoid becoming closely associated with any French faction for the remainder of the war.
At the January Casablanca Conference , Roosevelt announced that he would only accept the unconditional surrender of Germany, Japan, and Italy. The Allies launched an invasion of Sicily in July , capturing the island by the end of the following month. Despite his earlier insistence on unconditional surrender, Roosevelt accepted armistice terms that allowed Badoglio to remain in power.
To command the invasion of France, Roosevelt passed over Marshall and in favor of General Eisenhower. Supported by 12, aircraft that provided complete control of the air, and the largest naval force ever assembled, the Allies successfully established a beachhead in Normandy and then advanced further into France. A surprise German attack in December marked the start of the Battle of the Bulge , but the Allies were able to beat back the attack in the following weeks.
Japan launched an aerial attack on American forces in the Philippines just hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, and began an invasion of the Philippines later in December American forces on the Philippines surrendered in May , leaving Japan with approximately ten thousand American prisoners.
By early , Allied forces had established control over much of New Guinea and had landed on the adjacent island of New Britain. While the campaign in the Southwest Pacific continued, U. MacArthur's force would continue its advance towards the Philippines, while the Central Pacific campaign would work its way towards Japan. The Japanese navy was decimated in the resulting Battle of Leyte Gulf , which is sometimes claimed to be the " largest naval battle in history.
In February , the U. Japanese forces on Okinawa held out until June ; U. In late , Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed to meet to discuss strategy and post-war plans at the Tehran Conference , which marked Roosevelt's first face-to-face meeting with Stalin. Post-war plans increasingly came to the fore as the Allies won several major victories in The wartime economic boom and the experience of the Great Depression convinced many Americans of the need to lower trade barriers. Lend-Lease agreements included provisions for eliminating tariffs, and the U.
At the Bretton Woods Conference , the Allies agreed to the creation of the International Monetary Fund , which would provide for currency stabilization, and the World Bank , which would fund post-war rebuilding. Taking up the Wilsonian mantle, Roosevelt also pushed for the establishment of the United Nations , a permanent intergovernmental organization that would succeed the League of Nations. With the end of the war in Europe approaching, Roosevelt's primary focus was on convincing Stalin to enter the war against Japan; the Joint Chiefs had estimated that an American invasion of Japan would cause as many as one million American casualties.
In return for the Soviet Union's entrance into the war against Japan, the Soviet Union was promised ownership of Japanese territories, including Sakhalin Island. At the Yalta Conference, Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed to the establishment of the United Nations, as well as the structure of the United Nations Security Council , which would be charged with ensuring international peace and security.
He provided continuous backstage political support inside the United States, and with Churchill and Stalin abroad. Each had a veto power , thus avoiding the fatal weakness of the League of Nations, which had theoretically been able order its members to act in defiance of their own parliaments.
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British, French, and Dutch leaders all hoped to retain or reclaim their colonial possessions after the war. Churchill was deeply committed to imperialism and pushed back hard. Because the U. He spoke while seated in the well of the House, an unprecedented concession to his physical incapacity. Still in full command mentally, he firmly stated "The Crimean Conference ought to spell the end of a system of unilateral action, the exclusive alliances, the spheres of influence, the balances of power, and all the other expedients that have been tried for centuries— and have always failed.
We propose to substitute for all these, a universal organization in which all peace-loving nations will finally have a chance to join. Roosevelt had been in declining health since at least , and by he was noticeably fatigued. The president's attending cardiologist, Dr. Howard Bruenn, diagnosed a massive cerebral hemorrhage stroke. As Allen Drury later said, "so ended an era, and so began another. Roosevelt was in the White House". Harry Truman, who had become president upon Roosevelt's death, dedicated Victory in Europe Day and its celebrations to Roosevelt's memory.
Truman kept the flags across the U. Roosevelt had lived to witness this day. FDR made one international trip while president-elect and 20 during his presidency. In he became the first incumbent president to fly by airplane across the Atlantic Ocean during his secret diplomatic mission to Casablanca. Although midterm elections normally see the party in control of the presidency lose seats in Congress, the elections resulted in major Democratic gains in the Senate and minor gains in the House.
Roosevelt's New Deal policies were bolstered and several Democrats won in Northern, urban areas outside of the party's traditional base in the South. Roosevelt had feared the possibility of either Huey Long or a progressive Republican entering the race to split the left-wing vote. The Democratic convention also saw the abolition of the "two-thirds rule," which had required that the Democratic presidential nominee win two-thirds of the delegates rather than a simple majority.
Roosevelt and Garner won In the congressional elections, Democrats expanded their majorities, winning over three-quarters of the seats in both the House and the Senate. Roosevelt had always belonged to the more liberal wing of the Democratic Party, and he sought a realignment that would solidify liberal dominance. During the campaign he predicted privately, "I'll be in the White House for eight years.
When those years are over, there'll be a Progressive party. It may not be Democratic, but it will be Progressive. His targets denounced Roosevelt for trying to take over the Democratic party and to win reelection, using the argument that they were independent. Roosevelt failed badly, managing to defeat only one target, a conservative Democrat from New York City. The two-term tradition had been an unwritten rule until the ratification the 22nd Amendment after Roosevelt's presidency since George Washington declined to run for a third term in Both Ulysses S. Grant and Theodore Roosevelt were attacked for trying to obtain a third non-consecutive term.
Roosevelt moved the convention to Chicago where he had strong support from the city machine, which controlled the auditorium sound system. At the convention the opposition was poorly organized, but Farley had packed the galleries. Roosevelt sent a message saying that he would not run unless he was drafted, and that the delegates were free to vote for anyone. The delegates were stunned; then the loudspeaker screamed "We want Roosevelt The world wants Roosevelt! The tactic employed by Roosevelt was not entirely successful, as his goal had been to be drafted by acclamation.
Democratic party leaders disliked Wallace, a former Republican who strongly supported the New Deal, but were unable to prevent his nomination. World War II shook up the Republican field, possibly preventing the nomination of isolationist congressional leaders like Taft or Vandenberg. The Republican National Convention instead nominated Wendell Willkie , the first major party nominee since who had never held public office.
A well-known corporate attorney and executive, Willkie rose to public notice through his criticism of the New Deal and his clashes with the TVA. Unlike his isolationist rivals for the Republican nomination, Willkie favored Britain in the war, and he was backed by internationalist Republicans like Henry Luce. As the campaign drew to a close, Willkie and other Republicans stepped up their attacks on Roosevelt's foreign policy. Willkie warned that Roosevelt's re-election would lead to the deployment of U. In response, Roosevelt stated that "Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars.
The midterm election saw sizable Republican gains in both houses of Congress, particularly the House of Representatives. The election bolstered the strength of the conservative coalition. Unlike , Roosevelt openly sought re-election in , and he faced little opposition for the Democratic nomination. Roosevelt favored Henry Wallace or James Byrnes as his running mate in , but Wallace was unpopular among conservatives in the party, while Byrnes was opposed by liberals and many Catholics.
Truman , who was acceptable to all factions of the party. Truman was best known for his battle against corruption and inefficiency in wartime spending as the head of the Truman Committee. Labor unions threw their all-out support behind Roosevelt. Roosevelt and Truman won the election by a comfortable margin, defeating Dewey and his running mate John W.
Bricker with The rapid expansion of government programs that occurred during Roosevelt's term redefined the role of the government in the United States, and Roosevelt's advocacy of government social programs was instrumental in redefining liberalism for coming generations. His isolationist critics faded away, and even the Republicans joined in his overall policies. Both during and after his terms, critics of Roosevelt questioned not only his policies and positions , but even more so the consolidation of power in the White House at a time when dictators were taking over Europe and Asia.
The powerful new wartime agencies were set up to be temporary and expire at war's end. After Roosevelt's death, his widow continued to be a forceful presence in U. Many members of his administration played leading roles in the administrations of Truman, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson , each of whom embraced Roosevelt's political legacy. A majority of polls rank Roosevelt as the second or third greatest president , consistent with other surveys.
He may have done more during those twelve years to change American society and politics than any of his predecessors in the White House, save Abraham Lincoln. Of course, some of this was the product of circumstances; the Great Depression and the rise of Germany and Japan were beyond FDR's control. But his responses to the challenges he faced made him a defining figure in American history. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the presidency of Franklin D.
This article is part of a series about. Main article: United States presidential election, Main articles: Franklin D. Main article: First and second terms of the presidency of Franklin D. Nothing to Fear.
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See also: Agricultural policy of the United States. See also: Keynesian economics. Unemployment estimated. See also: Civil rights movement — , Franklin D. Main article: Third and fourth terms of the presidency of Franklin D. See also: Battle of the Atlantic. Further information: Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor. Play media.
Further information: Pacific War. Further information: Tehran Conference and Yalta Conference. Further information: History of the United Nations. Last photograph of Roosevelt, taken the day before his death April 11, Roosevelt's funeral procession in Washington, D. Main article: United States elections, The presidential inauguration, Roosevelt's 2nd inauguration , was the first to take place on the new date. Japan gave up its own program in The Soldier of Freedom: Roosevelt. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Presidential Studies Quarterly, Naval Institute Press. Rendezvous with Destiny: How Franklin D.
May Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved March 1, Duke Law Journal. Retrieved October 9, Di Nunzio Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Third American Revolution. Pederson, ed. A Companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt pp Alston, "Farm foreclosures in the United States during the interwar period. Heinemann, Depression and New Deal in Virginia. Novak, James W. Pease, and Larry D. Tugwell, "The resettlement idea. Tobey, Technology as freedom: The New Deal and the electrical modernization of the American home Kyvig, Repealing national prohibition 2nd ed.
Since New York: Oxford University Press. Presidential Studies Quarterly. The New York Times. January 28, Roosevelt and the Land of America , passim. Henderson and David B. Woolner, eds. FDR and the Environment , passim. Roosevelt to George W. Gaining Access: Congress and the Farm Lobby, — O'Connor, eds. Poverty in the United States. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, Warren Columbia UP.
Cole, "Roosevelt and Munich. Reviews in American History. Southern Quarterly. University Press of Kentucky. March The American Economic Review. Lewis and the Election of ". Labor History. Snell, Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare pp Allen, "Mutual Aid between the U. Patterson, Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert A. Taft , pp , Altschuler and Stuart M. National Archives. September 23, New York Times. Retrieved October 14, Gazell, "Arthur H. Vandenberg, Internationalism, and the United Nations. Warren R. Austin at the U. Clymer, "Franklin D. Retrieved March 2, April 12, George Mason University.
Retrieved February 7, Roosevelt", Ann Intern Med , 72 4 : —91, doi : Roosevelt ". Journal CMEs. Retrieved July 20, March 1, Archived from the original on June 1, Department of State Office of the Historian. Retrieved February 26, The Potomac Association.
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The History Press. Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved May 4, Horses in Midstream. University of Pittsburgh Press. Duke University Press. Retrieved October 8, The Path to Power. The Years of Lyndon Johnson. New York : Alfred A Knopf. The encyclopedia of American political history. CQ Press. Retrieved November 11, October 4, Miller Center. University of Virginia. Retrieved May 16, Washington Post. Retrieved August 30, Wall Street Journal. September 12, Archived from the original on November 2, February 16, Roosevelt: The First Modern President".
Columbia University Press. Roosevelt: The Lion and the Fox. Burns, James MacGregor Roosevelt: The Soldier of Freedom. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Churchill, Winston The Grand Alliance. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Clouatre, Douglas Presidents and their Justices. University Press of America. Dallek, Robert Roosevelt: A Political Life. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, — Oxford University. The New Deal and the Problem of Monopoly. Fordham University Press. Herman, Arthur. Oxford University Press. Detailed history of how FDR handled the war.
Leuchtenburg, William E. Roosevelt and the New Deal, — McJimsey, George The Presidency of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
1. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s First Inaugural Address
University Press of Kansas. New York University Press. Smith, Jean Edward New York: Random House. Main article: Bibliography of Franklin D. Roosevelt The Triumph Little, Brown, vol 3 of 4-vol detailed scholarly biography covers —32 online Freidel, Frank. Roosevelt: Launching the New Deal vol 4 of 4-vol detailed scholarly biography covers Nov. Roosevelt: A Rendezvous with Destiny , complete biography to Simon and Schuster.
Hamby, Alonzo. Roosevelt , Companions to American History, Blackwell ; 35 essays by scholars emphasizing historiography. Badger, Anthony. Biles, Roger. Brinkley, Douglas G. Rightful Heritage: Franklin D. Clarke, Jeanne Nienaber. Roosevelt's Warrior: Harold L. Ickes and the New Deal Gosnell, Harold. The Presidents: A Reference History 3rd ed. WPA and federal relief policy , pp; highly detailed report by the independent Russell Sage Foundation. Highly detailed analysis and statistical summary of all New Deal relief programs; pages online Morris, Charles R.
Jr —60 , The Age of Roosevelt , the 3-volume classic narrative history. Strongly supports FDR. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. A New Deal for Blacks. Andrew, Christopher. Barron, Gloria J. Berthon, Simon; Potts, Joanna Da Capo Press. Beschloss, Michael Feis, Herbert. Threshold of war: Franklin D.
From Colony to Superpower; U. Foreign Relations Since Marks, Frederick W. Cambridge University Press. Hopkins Vol. I ; online Tierney, Dominic. Tierney, Dominic. Kimball and D. Reynolds, eds. Roosevelt public material only no letters ; covers — , 13 volumes.
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