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Alexei Gastev and the Soviet controversy over taylorism, , Soviet Studies , v. International Journal of Social Economics , v. Lenin as scientific manager under monopoly capitalism, state capitalism, and socialism: A Response to Scoville. Industrial Relations , v. Lua Nova , n. Rio de Janeiro: Paz e Terra, Obras escolhidas. Belo Horizonte: Oficina de Livros, a. Belo Horizonte: Oficina de Livros, b. Lenine, os camponeses e Taylor. Lisboa: Iniciativas Editoriais, Rio de Janeiro: Editora Saga, MARX, K. El Capital. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, Le macchine e l'industria da Smith a Marx. Torino: Einaudi, Genesis y estructura de El Capital de Marx.

The Taylorization of Vladimir Ilish Lenin. Soviet Taylorism Revisited. Soviet Studies , v. Lenin and Taylor: the fate of "scientific management" in the early Soviet Union. Telos, v. Marx versus Smith on the division of labor. Monthly Review , v. WOOD, Stephen. Paris : Le Seuil. Paris : Pandore. Agir dans un monde incertain. Toulouse, France. Marseille, France.

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Gap : Yves Michel. Science for the post-normal age. Futures, 25 7 , — Recherche En Soins Infirmiers, 86 3 , 24— JAS, N. Gouverner un monde dangereux. Les risques techniques, sanitaires et environnementaux. Teaching bioethics in science: Crossing a bridge too far? International Journal of Science Education, 28 10 , — Paris : Gallimard.

Communications, 95 2 , — Communications, 95 2 , 5—8. REY, A. Paris : Le Robert. Patterns of informal reasoning in the context of socioscientific decision making. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42 1 , — How do French teachers perceive their role in the teaching of controversial socio-scientific issues? Communication presented in the Narst Conference. San Francisco, United-States of America. Sciences et pouvoirs.

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For SAQs and similar approaches to be effective in enacting issues of social justice educators need to take account of local political contexts, the ethical and political assumptions which underpin values appertaining to social justice, such as concepts of communalism and libertarianism, and democratic practise in the school classroom where the students become co-enquirers in generating knowledge which aims to improve material realities. This is not a straightforward but one that demands reflection and critique throughout the process. These generate pedagogic and school curricular implications to a greater extent than other science-society formulations because aspects such as complexity, risk and interdisciplinarity receive greater emphasis.

The loss of science also shifts thinking away from the application of disciplinary content to a social controversy, in curricular terms. However, as I indicate later, these possibilities for curriculum and pedagogy will vary and face different challenges depending on the regional and national contexts, and their socio-cultural and educational histories. SAQs reflect many of the realities encountered through technoscientific developments. Table 1 attempts to compare the different emphases of science-society approaches although I omit STS since its scope is too broad, and goes well beyond schools into the academe.

Although Zeidler et al. However, a common approach in SSIs is the development of moral character and reasoning. At any rate SSIs are deemed to have a less problematic epistemic relationship with national and regional curricula than the others. It makes particular claims for human capital to support technological innovation, and is itself a science-society. Implicit, too, in the term STEM is interdisciplinarity. US schools and UK schools need to emphasize a STEM epistemology to justify its social and economic existence and the ways in which science can support technology and engineering Gough, , although little work on pedagogic and curricular integration has been done in this direction.

But the motivations of STEM are economic and corporatist. They are also political because the question arises as to whose benefits such changes are directed Owen et al. Generation of Scientific Interdisciplinary substantive core knowledge and and humanistic science concepts ethical with an emphasis positioning as on integration. And that is one of the challenges for SAQs because the underpinning drive in science education in STEM, is one which sees schools and education as sources of human capital for economic growth through increased consumption.

That is a controversial issue. The problem is that the science—society link becomes one which is appropriated into a broader STEM discourse. How has science contributed to this growth of wealth and enhanced quality of life via services? We anticipate services delivered much more cheaply, to better quality and personalised to millions of individuals where that is desired. Ever better collaboration between STEM practitioners and social scientists and those in the humanities will be essential if the services are to be acceptable and fit for purpose. Changes in our educational system would also make a material contribution to such success.

The Royal Society, , v. There is little political analysis within school education circles of the effect of STEM; the rapidity of its advance is testament to that. What I argue is missing from an SAQ approach, and indeed other similar processes, is a more prominent political analysis. The epistemological basis of SAQs makes it possibly a more fruitful means of political challenge. But what does a political challenge then incorporate? In this article I shall first discuss the political and ethical challenges to SAQs and for socio-scientific approaches more broadly, the implications for schools, curricula and pedagogy together with some operational questions which confront us.

My core argument for the incorporation of political literacy 1 and action 2 in sciencesociety approaches is that the lack of these components results in trivial outcomes as a sort of faux mimicry of consideration of socio-scientific issues, and an acquiescence to the status quo. The intellectual roots of such a critique lie in Critical Theory McCarthy, which warned that the power of science through prediction and control resulting from The Enlightenment project was enmeshed in a set of political and economic practices which was as likely to make technoscience an instrument of domination as of.

Citizenship can, of course, become an excuse for nationalism, for example, as seen in recent publicity about the Japanese curriculum www. It is the explicit realisation of this problematic: the duality of liberation and oppression which need to be confronted in science-society programmes.

Many critical scholars Dewey, ; Giroux, ; Greene, ; Simon, have addressed the question of the roles of schools in democratic societies. All of these writers stress principles of social justice, compassion, acknowledgements of diversity and difference, collaboration, and criticality. All have critiqued extant curricula and stressed the education of critical citizenry challenging a predominantly capitalist, and nowadays, corporatist and neoliberal environment which is predominantly enslaving3.

There have also been alternative discourses, some critical of critical pedagogy, which have highlighted their omission of feminist e.

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Ellsworth, , environmentalist and postcolonial thinking which have stressed sustainability, equality, oppression and have been critical of Enlightenment and rationalist approaches which have failed to counter socially oppressive assumptions and institutions. So science education, and its broader component of scientific literacy, operates in a politically complex environment.

These will be different according to national and regional context. In the U. The influence of science for the worker since the industrial revolution Layton, , the establishment of vocational science and separation from academic science quite different, for example, from the situation in Germany , the petitioning from a socialist—and scientistic—perspective of the importance of science for working people in the s e.

Hogben, , and the science-society movement in schools which had its political impetus to try and regain public confidence in science after disasters such as the salmonella outbreak, BSE, Chernobyl House of Lords, The point to stress here is that although the countervailing trends of STEM and sciencesociety approaches in schools appear on the surface similar throughout the postindustrial world there are important local and historical differences which constrain what.

For example, the Uruguayan state is defending itself against a legal action from Philip Morris, a tobacco company, for increasing the size of health warnings on cigarette packets www. In that sense my own perspective is from the context of experience of teaching in London schools and teacher education in England, hence the political, professional and historic lens through which I view SAQs. The multi-disciplinary component of SAQs, for example, might pose greater structural and pedagogic challenges in U.

Japan, which regularly achieves enviable scores in PISA and is a source of emulation for countries like the U. While there has been a profusion of policy statements and curriculum developments which have as their base science and society and the scientific citizen NRC, , and profound socio-political critiques of these reforms e.

Others critique the governance of science and its collaboration with a repressive world order. From a very different perspective yet others have questioned the epistemological justification for any conjuncture between science as a discipline and social science Donnelly, , particularly its relationship to social action Hadzigeorgiou, So, what is the problem when policy statements about the science curriculum and scientific literacy highlight reflection and informed decision-making? The relationship between informed decision-making at a political level and school science knowledge is at best notional and untested, and at worst misconceived Ryder, A high level of school knowledge of science is not a prerequisite for effective decision-making, and if there is a relationship it is likely to be highly complex Dawson, What is missing is how any enactment of curriculum reforms and their associated pedagogical strategies which instantiate social justice as their core commitment, reflect the political nature of a society that might be deemed desirable.

Both policy reforms usually in terms of democratic participation and national competitiveness and their critiques usually attacks on the instrumentalist and consumerist positions of the reforms identify extant problems: what they fail to do is first to map out what social and political changes are necessary to encompass desirable actions to achieve social justice through science education, and more strikingly how such reforms might be achieved, hence the necessity of action.

School curricula in many countries now incorporate citizenship or political literacy either as a subject in its own right or in a cross-curricular way. Although there are. I think here this is a common concern of SAQs which recognises at source the influence of the products of science and technology on all our lives, and my point is that the political and action implications need greater emphasis and theorisation. Contemporary views of social justice and the good society are frequently polarised between two foundational and incommensurate values: fairness in terms of equality broadly egalitarianism and freedom broadly libertarianism.

These portrayals are usually seen as a left-right divide respectively. Social justice for the left is a preference for the fair distribution of goods and necessities of life—access to health, food, education, and leisure—while for the right it is seen in terms of personal freedom ameliorated by some regulation to avoid poverty traps Kymlicka, Ensuring fair distribution will necessarily affect personal freedom through strong regulatory measures to soften the effects of polarisation of wealth such as differential taxation schemes, while those in support of personal freedom will view state regulation as an unnecessary impediment to entrepreneurship and enterprise.

An example of a socio-scientific issue which brings out these tensions is that of genetics where embryos can be genetically selected through ivf technology for certain features deemed desirable by prospective parents. A radical libertarian approach would be consistent with the technology that responds to market demands. This could portend a future where the wealthy have genetically selected children with so-called desirable characteristics which is not available to most people because of cost.

There are, of course, deep ethical issues contingent with this technology. An egalitarian position would be consistent with an approach that has the technology available to all or to none. Note that expropriation of eggs from Third World countries www. Freedom and equality are not the only foundational values in contemporary society—these include the common good communitarianism , rights libertarianism , identity identity politics and multiculturalism , feminism, and so forth.

Dworkin cited in Kymlicka, argues that all plausible political theories must be egalitarian at base, i. So the fundamental argument is both moral and political—not whether people are equal but how to interpret equality and respect for human rights through social institutions such as technoscience. There seems to me to be a case to foreground this problematic as an interpretative framework for approaching technoscientific issues. School student activism therefore needs to: i. Engage critically with the political knowledge and skills in any democratic process for example, an explicit understanding of the potential conflicts between individual rights and distributive justice ; ii.

Recognise the possibilities and limits of political action conflicts between different interest groups; an understanding that moral outrage drives action which requires a rational understanding of conflicts of interest Levinson, So, there is not just the case of incorporating a political literacy component knowledge of political systems and political morality but there is the question of turning politicallyinformed desires into action.

One of the problems, I think, which paralyses the possibilities of action in relation to knowledge is the dominance of the SSI paradigm in education that action presupposes conceptual knowledge see Table 1. Historically this has its roots in Platonic thought and the separation between episteme knowledge which arises from the contemplative, and hence privileged, life and techne, i.

The rationale behind modern theories of praxis, derived from both Hegel and Marx, is the realisation of consciousness through action, which is a human engagement. It is through praxis that a person comes to have an individual identity, but at the same time it always transpires within an intersubjective medium. The moral subject, the subject of praxis, is inconceivable in abstraction from communicative relations with others.

McCarthy, , p. So the relationship between knowledge and action is turned the other way around, that is, in a Deweyan sense, knowledge is accrued through collaborative inquiry in acting upon the world Tobin, Action becomes an existential choice which becomes more challenging in a world saturated with discourses promoting a uniformity of consumption. There are aspects of action through praxis which cohere well with SAQ philosophy: the importance of language through collaborative discourse although I see no good reason for any hierarchical analysis of these discourses and the prominence in the urgency of SAQs of living in a late modern uncertain world Giddens, Action, as opposed to techne Arendt, has no predetermined outcome.

Because action involves participation and communication of diverse groups to change the world it must presuppose trust and openness. Knowledge grows through thought and action but is reflexive because the progress of action is always uncertain and leads to new sources of knowledge. However, unless political knowledge and nous underpin action the outcomes will be technical fixes, increased control or individualisation.

Two examples illustrate my point. The first derives from a research informed approach on assessment, particularly influential in school science education in the U. The result of this research into Assessment for Learning. AfL, was disseminated as good practise in which dialogue, learning as a joint collective enterprise, was encouraged at the expense of metrics.

An important lynchpin of AfL was teacher autonomy and reflection so that such practices were to be adapted for the educational context and not to be ritualised.

APP has now become entrenched as common practise. A second example concerns a group of year old students at a school who objected to the presence of sugary drinks dispensers on the grounds of health and effects on learning. The students took their objections to the Principal who claimed the dispensers were beneficial because they raised money for out of school activities which were otherwise unaffordable. The students then drew on more research into the health and learning effects of sugary drinks, organised a campaign, and took their evidence and objections to the School Council, a student-teacher body set up to discuss school issues.

The point about these two examples is the contrasting deployment of political knowledge and skills in enacting change for social justice. In the first case, progressive research was appropriated by government power and used for purposes of stratification. Political resistance and organisation were needed to anticipate and oppose such changes. In the second case political nous and scientific knowledge were used to muster support: in other words knowledgeable collaborative action together with political and scientific knowledge are presupposed by changes for social justice.

An implicit understanding of what has been discussed until now is that SAQs and other science-society educational formulations take place in schools. Schools, at least, are arenas where teachers and students can come together in a common enterprise such as engaging in SAQs.

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But, as also discussed earlier schools, while being released at least in the U. Reforms in science education accompanied these changes. The Beyond report in the U. Free schools and academies now being promulgated in the U. In the light of such changes political action emanating from critical consideration of technoscientific issues seems a bleak prospect. So, however progressive the intentions of a school management they are unlikely to be effective in such an unpromising political environment. While fully recognising that any radical changes to teaching will only come when school reform and teaching are linked to wider social struggles, Fielding and Moss propose ten indicators of commitment to democratic practices in schools among which are radical roles which characterise relationships as practised between teachers and pupils.

I will aim to formulate six principles related to these roles within the context of socio-political scientific issues which are not sufficient in themselves but form the basis of realising meaningful action. Students as data source. Students opinions to be taken seriously as related to their own academic achievement and through socio-political issues within the school arena, e. Students as active respondents. Teachers have a duty to engage in dialogue with students about identifying the kinds of social-scientific issues which concern them, i.

Students as co-enquirers.

Students encouraged to envisage what participatory research might look like and how it could be enacted, iv. Students as knowledge creators. Students with staff support use their emerging political and scientific knowledge through co-enquiry to suggest change. Students as joint authors. Students discuss strategy with peers and staff how change is to be enacted. Inter-generational learning as participatory democracy. Students and staff develop curricular schemes for involving younger students, and to engage extra-school agencies in support for enacting change.

The above suggestions are only a start for what enacted SAQs might look like but a vision which involves shared and negotiated values is a basis for further change. I have suggested that the incorporation of political knowledge and literacy through SAQs and a commitment to action would build on a well-worked out pedagogic and curricular base. The process of change would mean negotiating very different regional and national educational territories as well as overcoming performative indicators stemming from a neoliberal hegemony in school education.

But the process of change in unpromising environments can generate a fruitful dialectic. The awareness of limitations in what can be achieved can, nonetheless, raise consciousness about the possibilities of action which in itself is a form of action. In the last few years educators in fields in science and mathematics have developed innovative curriculum materials which challenge the STEM discourse, e. The content of STS education. The human condition 2nd edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. BALL, S. The teacher's soul and the terrors of performativity. Journal of Education Policy, 18 2 , DOI: Globalizing students acting for the common good.

Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48 6 , Research in Science Education, 42 1 , Class, codes and control Vol. London: Routledge.

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Assessment for learning: Putting it into practice. Selling snake oil: Must science educators continue to promise what they can't deliver? Melbourne Studies in Education, 41 2 , Democracy and education. New York: Macmillan. Humanising science education. Science Education, 88 5 , Back to the rough ground. Why doesn't this feel empowering? Working through the repressive myths of critical pedagogy. Harvard Educational Review, 59 3 , Radical education and the common school: A democratic alternative.

Abingdon: Routledge. Scientific and technological literacy as a social practice. Social Studies of Science, 27 6 , The consequences of modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press. Literacy and the pedagogy of voice and political empowerment. Educational Theory, 38 1 , STEM policy and science education: scientistic curriculum and sociopolitical silences.

Cultural Studies of Science Education, 10, In search of a critical pedagogy. Harvard Educational Review, 56 4 , The persistence of presentism. Teachers College Record, 11 , A critique of science education as sociopolitical action from the perspective of liberal education.

Science for the citizen: A self-educator based on the social background of scientific discovery. The logic of education. Science and technology - third report. London: House of Lords. Contemporary political philosophy : An introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Science for the people: the origins of the school science curriculum in England. Allen and Unwin. Valuable lessons. London: The Wellcome Trust.

Science education and democratic participation: An uneasy congruence? Studies in Science Education, 46 1 , The critical theory of Jurgen Habermas. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Beyond Science education for the future. National science education standards. OWEN, R. Responsible research and innovation: From science in society to science for society, with society. Currents in STSE education: mapping a complex field, 40 years on. Science Education, 95 4 , Post-normal science: An insight now maturing.

Futures, 31 7 , ROTH, W. Scientific literacy as collective praxis. Public Understanding of Science, 11 1 , Identifying science understanding for functional scientific literacy. Studies in Science Education, 36, Socio-scientific issues in the classroom: Teaching, learning and research. Teaching against the grain: texts for a pedagogy of possibility.

From promoting the technosciences in activism — a variety of objectives involved in the teaching of SSIs. How do learners in different cultures relate to science and technology? The misrepresentation of Assessment for Learning — and the woeful waste of a wonderful opportunity. Hidden wealth: the contribution of science to service sector innovation. London: The Royal Society. Using collaborative inquiry to better understand teaching and learning. Beyond STS: A research-based framework for socioscientific issues education. Science Education, 89, The agro-ecological transition towards a more sustainable system, supported by the political authorities, faces a lock-in socio-technical system.

Maintaining a teaching of intensive agriculture contributes to this socio-technical lock in. The teaching of socially acute questions can contribute to unlocking to move towards agro-ecological transition, firstly, through innovative educational engineering and participatory learning which constitute niches for innovation and secondly, by entering teaching in a socio-technical landscape within late modernity. Late modernity obliges to distance from the idea of progress or rationality and to consider the political and economic dimensions, uncertainties and risks and the values in agri-environmental issues.

Agriculture has become considerably intensive since World War II thus increasing both its production and productivity. Intensive farming emerged when food was short and gradually profitability became the dominant focus. Various negative impacts were denounced in the early stages as is the case with so many Socially Acute Agricultural environmental or health Questions but despite the fact that this form of farming was called into question, a socio-technical lock-in stunted the development of alternative agricultural models. It is only recently that French agricultural policy has started trying to generalize a different socio-technical regime, that of agroecology which in turn has become a Socially Acute Question.

In this paper we analyse how the education system, in particular the teaching of SAQs, contributes either to the lock-in or, on the contrary, to a societal transition within the agricultural, agri-food and environmental fields. Within the framework of the theory of transitions, Geels and Shot propose a multilevel and structural perspective MLP for analysing transitions to sustainability. They define three analytical levels: i niches the locus for radical innovations , ii sociotechnical regimes the locus of established practices and associated rules that stabilise existing systems , and an exogenous socio-technical landscape.

Transition is a non-linear process that results in the shift from one socio-technical regime to another under the pressure and the interactions of the other two levels cf. These technical, socio-cultural, economic and political systems develop alongside each other in a manner consistent with the equipment, organisation and skills. The sociotechnical regimes are characterised by the lock-in mechanisms which restrict innovations and transitions. According to Geels and Shot , at the micro level, niche innovation is developed within protected spaces laboratories, demonstration projects, new markets… by small, often marginal, actor networks.

These niches are crucial to the emergence of sociotechnical transitions. In the case of the agro-ecological transition, niche innovation does not necessarily occur within protected spaces but rather takes place on innovative farms where a network of actors co-construct new distributed knowledge with or without the collaboration of researchers or agricultural development agents. Figure 1. Multi-level perspective on transitions. The socio-technical landscape represents a macro economic, cultural and political context with a high force of inertia.

This theory is based on a systemic approach which sheds light on the processes at play over time in the choice of a technological trajectory. The agro-ecological transition represents a change of socio-technical regime. The socio-technical regime may be unlocked by an incremental diffusion, in the form of transition, of niche innovations which can emerge in farm production systems Meynard et al.

By questioning the economic and political rationale we are able to identify and analyse the socio-technical lock-in points of an agro-ecological transition Baret et al. These authors identify the lock-in mechanisms of sociotechnical systems by analysing the network of stakeholders, the norms and the knowledge. This socio-technical system targets, first and foremost, an increase in productivity, an improvement in technical aspects, an intensification and integration of farming into the rest of the economy.

Scientific, technical, economic and political means have been mobilised to this purpose. The paradigm of productivism refers to a way of organising the economy with production as the primary objective and is based on the large-scale use of renewable and nonrenewable resources and inputs. The notion of a technological paradigm Dosi, ; Gaffard, was introduced to discuss the processes of technological change.

Thus, the technological paradigm represents a model of solutions to selected technical and economic problems. Technological innovation design is regarded as an activity for solving a particular problem. The technological paradigm defines how these innovations emerge and how they develop. In the area of pest control, agronomy gave way to the industrial pesticides industry international firms and their research and development departments. In this way, crop protection management was modernised and split into different sectors insect, disease and weed management.

Agronomy was applied to the task of intensifying crops by introducing a growing number of techno-scientific innovations based increasingly on the chemical paradigm: using pesticides is both implicit and systematic in crop protection strategies. These orientations led to a massive increase in standardised production. Productivist systems endeavour to reduce production costs resulting in increased labour productivity.

To do so they integrated techno-scientific innovations mechanisation, chemicalisation via specialisation and intensification, producing a large quantity maximisation of returns of standard foodstuffs. In the s, parallel to the advent of the farm supply and agrifood industries, the development of supermarkets accentuated this process of standardisation. So we shifted to a farming system, regulated to an increasing extent by a market dominated both upstream and downstream by industry and accompanied by the standardisation of food consumption habits.

Agricultural policy progressively, detached itself from market management. However, this intensive system raises questions. One can even consider that this type of approach in itself contributes to the lock-in effect inducing an economics-based reasoning. We should not forget that yield and the economic margin were two indicators used to validate the logic of intensification for farmers. Yet they reveal signs of weakness in the conventional intensive systems: on the one hand yields are stagnating and profit margins declining for arable crops amongst others, and on the other hand price volatility means that prices no longer cover production costs within the context of a reduction in direct payments for production.

How can we explain that the intensive farming model, based on the use of chemicals in crop protection management, has not yielded to criticism, to the proof that it has detrimental effects even on the very health of farmers and to the evidence of the success of alternatives to pesticides? It is this question we discuss in the next section. With the advent of post war industrialised farming, a socio-technical system developed locking out the alternatives to synthetic pesticides. In keeping with the global agricultural intensification policy based on maximizing returns, chemical pest control took the upper hand because of its user-friendliness, its efficacy and also its costeffectiveness.

Nevertheless, the underpinnings of this system pushed to its limits were to be progressively discredited. The use of pesticides as an exclusive remedy soon revealed its limits. This resulted in a trajectory lock-in: alternative solutions to synthetic pesticides, even though they were based on robust evidence of their relevance, fail to impose themselves and are ruled out thus becoming inaccessible Lamine et al.

This lock-out still prevents the socio-technical system the farmers, the farming sectors, the research-development-training framework, politicians and consumers from reorienting farming practices. The introduction of alternative techniques comes into confrontation with an existing socio-technical organisation. The dominant agricultural advisory council is formatted and often funded by agrochemical firms that lock-in any change in agronomic practices for economic and technical reasons.

We cannot change farming practices without considering what happens at the upstream and downstream levels, that is to say, what happens in the farm supply industry, but also in supermarkets and with consumers. To go beyond the traditional economic approach to intensification, Bonny points out that other factors are also relevant, such as knowledge, information, ecosystem services. As far as knowledge is concerned, traditional knowledge and local knowledge have been discredited in favour of scientific and technical knowledge Jas, The prevalence of the latter can be explained both by the idea of progress, of which they were considered to be the driving force, and also because they were incorporated into goods and services advice, decision-making tools.

Farmers broadened their knowledge of plant needs, of how to recognise pests, and how to use phytosanitary treatments during the course of the crop season. Their knowledge of chemical pest control became more and more sophisticated; knowledge of alternatives to pesticides and ecosystem dynamics was set aside. Information on alternative systems remained confined to specific networks i. Information on environmentally friendly systems did not filter easily into professional circles.

The specificity of the French agricultural education system lies in the fact that it is part of the Ministry of Agriculture and not of the Ministry of Education. In the early s and the Pisani Laws, agricultural education was already considered as a lever for the implementation of agricultural policies it being one of the training channels for future farmers and a means of getting them to adhere to the modernisation and intensification of farming. Agricultural education was engaged in and indeed institutionalised, the entire process of an intensive and chemical form of agriculture. The aim of agricultural education was to promote intensification techniques which were also backed by firms, banks and professional organisations.

The generalization of the techno-sciences was supported and relayed by schools ensuring that the farmers adhered to the intensive model of the thirty year post war boom. We can consider that, over a substantial period of time, agricultural education was one of the elements involved in the lock-in of an intensive agricultural system since education helped to reinforce the various political, scientific, technological, etc. In the field of agronomy, new pesticide molecules also revealed their limitations; examples of resistance to pests are multiplying all over the world.

However, because financial stakes are so high, the environmental or health risks are played down in the dominant political discourse. Society began to express strong concern, in particular about the increase in pollution, the media coverage of breeding conditions and the emergence of crises such as that of BSE in the early s. The pressure of social demand has given rise to a new kind of institutional activism European or French, as the case may be in the defence, for example, of animal welfare or a reduction in the use of pesticides.

It is within this context that the concept of organic farming emerged becoming officially recognised in with its own set of specifications. The notion of sustainable agriculture followed in the late s parallel with the concept of sustainable development and then more recently in "producing otherwise" emerged as the political ambition of the Minister of Agriculture and was approved in the French Act for the future of farming as a support for agro-ecological agricultural systems.

This legislation introduces the notion that agriculture must make sure that economic, social, and environmental and health performances converge. Furthermore, this project can be assimilated to a form of sustainable agriculture, since organic farming is considered to be one of the forms of agro-ecology. The evolution, complexity, multidimensionality and variation of the situations in which the concept of agro-ecology is used, make it an SAQ, just like sustainable agriculture or organic farming.

Strictu sensu, it would certainly be inaccurate to talk in terms of a weak or strong agro-ecology in the same way we talk about weak or strong sustainability.


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However, the term agro-ecology is used and viewed from different perspectives. With a view to food and energy sovereignty, the principles put forward in agro-ecology are: the respect for natural resources biodiversity, Amongst other aspects, agroecology corresponds to i the notion of organic farming, bio-dynamics or permaculture ii conservation agriculture concerning soils , which advocates no-till, simplified cultivation techniques and establishing vegetation mantles Iii precision farming, iv promoting the expression of ecosystem services such as the production of oxygen from the air, water purification, biomass production and recycling, improvement of biodiversity, reduction of water or nutrient losses, pollinator activity, etc.

Depending on our how we look at agro-ecology, it may or may not carry alternative principles in the field of agricultural development or in the socio-economic domain in the face of the consumer society integrating social and ethical dimensions. In this case, agroecology corresponds to an emancipatory social movement, but it can also be used as a "green" slogan to defend transgenic agriculture and its financial interests.

In the light of the theoretical framework presented here, the agro-ecological transition may be regarded as a change of socio-technical regime. The socio-technical regime can be unlocked by a gradual spread, in the form of transition, of niche innovations that may emerge in agricultural production systems Meynard et al. By questioning the economic and political rationales we are able to identify and analyse the socio-technical lock-in points of an agro-ecological transition revealed through a socio-technical approach Baret et al.

These authors identify the socio-technical lock-in systems by analysing the network of actors, the norms and the knowledge. With the changes in European and French agricultural policies beginning in the s and the surge in environmental policies, the agricultural education system gradually integrated the new orientations, particularly those concerning the environment.

Integrating, for example, organic farming, sustainable agriculture and finally agroecology into educational programmes is a significant aspect of the process of innovation and change: this process was first based on a few individual initiatives, then encouraged on specific or optional courses and finally recognized in the majority of diplomas and on the majority of the farms found in French agricultural high schools see box below.

These changes are noteworthy insofar as they have led to changes in all the curricula, to the introduction of various support measures, to training and to teacher networking the organic farming network, the education for sustainable development network, etc. The techno-scientific, social, political and economic choices made by the Ministry of Agriculture when re designing the curricula, may occasionally reflect a kind of schizophrenic attitude as a result of the need to accommodate economic interests and a farming system which remains largely intensive.

Indeed, parallel to the new agroecological rhetoric, the dominant productivist model is still largely prevalent today, especially in the fields of economics and management. This raises the question of the driving force, the magnitude and the nature of techno-scientific and educational change. In this paper we propose to demonstrate how the teaching of agro-environmental SAQ AESAQ acts as both a niche innovation and as a new socio-technical landscape.

The teaching of SAQs is based on different forms of didactic engineering. The term "engineering" used here may be similar to or incorporate what some call modalities, didactic systems, or didactic strategies depending on the ambitions and the specificities of the didactic situation. These forms of didactic engineering are specific and are based on a variety of levers and tools.

This introduces an element of doubt by calling into question the opinions and previous knowledge of participants, intercultural student exchanges Morin et al. But above all, what all these techniques have in common is that they encourage interaction between learners integrating what is "already there" into the process of knowledge construction and develop a critical reflexivity on knowledge, principles and values. These didactic devices actually correspond to niche innovations insofar as they are implemented on the initiative of individuals or by a network of actors and are limited in time and space.

All these techniques are combined in the process of innovation and the dynamics of change, to question the different components economic, cultural, scientific, political These techniques and SAQ didactics in general, have a specific epistemological framework in common which is new to the school environment and which in fact constitutes a new socio-technical landscape.

The link between the technosciences-companies, farming systems-companies, and their connections with education can be viewed from a socio-historical perspective. This amounts to positioning education within the ternary framework of pre-modernity, modernity and post-modernity. Does the ternary framework of pre-modernity, modernity, postmodernity reflect the gradual emancipation of the individual in society?

Modernity is connected with the ideal developed by the philosophers during the Enlightenment period. Authority and tradition are replaced by reason and science, which will allow progress based on so-called true and objective knowledge. Modern science should allow Man to dominate nature. Capitalism appears as a new mode of production and consumption supported by technological innovation. Modernity goes hand in hand with a growing trend towards individualisation. Education should free the individual through rational knowledge.

Overestimated scientific knowledge is transmitted in a top-down process. Scientists, techno-scientists, hold a privileged position; they are the experts who replace the priests of pre-modernity. The link between scientific reasoning and social, moral, ethical reasoning is not questioned. Modernity has favoured the emergence of the sociotechnical regime of intensive agriculture, which seems to be the finalised version of man's control over nature.

For some, modernity is still prevalent and must be defended Habermas. Others consider that we have entered into a period of post-modernity. The hope set on progress has been shaken up by the dangers associated with the technosciences nuclear weapons, pollution, health. From 17th to Global idea of The laypersons need to 20th century Enlightenment, of rationalist know more science to or even up to science. Rationality is appreciate and support today superior to other ways of good politics. Necessity to thinking.

Logical positivism, Karl Understand science first, Popper. Mertonian sense of the Social, moral, ethical important values of science reasoning is not questioned. Since the mid 20th century. Science is considered to be impregnated with power relationships. The link with society is problematic and complex. Science has a role, but is sensitive to economic, political and cultural dynamics. Ideologies, values are recognized. Post-normal science Funtowicz and Ravetz and even relativism.

Risk Society Beck. Contextual and situated Education Complexity and uncertainty taken into account. Socio-scientific Reasoning, moral reasoning SAQ Sustainability education Scientific, economic and political education. Hope in the future has been replaced by a concern for the future linked to the worries associated with the harmful effects of the capitalist model especially its effects on the environment. It has been acknowledged that research and its applications, cultural norms, socio-political and economic contexts influence each other. Scepticism, even pessimism, has replaced the optimism of modernity.

Relativism has developed alongside the recognition of true and objective knowledge. The traditional image of science has changed. Research is criticised because it has become increasingly affiliated with the financial interests of firms. The new idea seems to prone caution,. Beck refuses the post-modernist approach. He considers that we are in a period of new modernity, but that we remain within the modernity era.

He considers that we are shifting from industrial modernity to reflexive modernity. He describes this period as the "risk society". Beck , suggests that society is preoccupied with the risks related to the technoscientific solutions found to solve to our problems. The production of new scientific knowledge, particularly in the field of agriculture, ultimately addresses the multiple impacts waste, pollution, new diseases that have been generated by the technosciences. The negative effects of intensive farming were denounced very early on, but because of the socio-technical lock-in, the alternatives were not considered or even heard about.

The agro-ecological transition project is in keeping with reflexive modernity, whilst the emphasis is increasingly placed on the accumulation of the environmental and health risks. Beck believes that confronted with the risk society, crises and uncertainty, individuals will develop a reflexive modernity, alternative rationalities will come to light and new social movements, what he calls 'subpolitics' will emerge in the interstices of what is held to be the official society.

Their aim was to study whether or not the Danes lived in what Beck refers to as a risk society. They observed in their study that laypersons had different "risk habitus" p. They advocate an alternative paradigm of "ecological modernisation" with green lobbies to secure environmental interests. Ecological progress would therefore prevent the risk society from existing. If this is the case, the techno-economic progress of modernity will take place, under the control of ecological progress. Giddens also rejects the notion of post-modernity. He refers to advanced modernity to describe where we are today.

For him, no knowledge is definitively stabilised and progress is a myth. She considers that, people within the same culture, may not all have the same appreciation of risk. According to Lipovetsky and Charles , a hypermodern society has emerged and replaced postmodern society because of the anxiety linked to an awareness of the serious problems caused by environmental, socio-economic, or health disorders.

SAQs can be situated within the field of post-normal science PNS as defined by Funtowicz and Ravetz because they are a science closely related to human needs, involving significant uncertainties, problems and values, and requiring urgent decision-. According to Ravetz , the question "what if?

These authors emphasize that the decision-making process in the field of PNS should include an open dialogue with all parties concerned. They introduce the notion of an "extended peer community". It is important to train students to participate in this "extended peer community". As the word of the experts is not taken as gospel everyone must get involved in the decision-making and act both individually and collectively. Indeed, it is with this in mind that we view SAQs with great interest because reflexivity on modernisation is not straightforward. This is in keeping with SAQs which advocate that citizens should remain vigilant, that they should not shirk this responsibility by relying on an ecological governmental form of control.

To what extent should this reflexivity be developed? Should education prone exercising reflexivity on "expert knowledge" or allow students to generate their own knowledge on risks? In this respect, the SAQ approach defends an education which is humanistic, scientific, political and economic. In terms of SAQs, their model shows how, from a "late modernity" perspective, SAQ didactics are consistent with the agro-ecological transition. Promoting the transition to the "teaching to produce otherwise" model, desired by the ministry in charge of agriculture should lead us to systematically question the different areas of the sociotechnical regime.

SAQ didactics should contribute to the emergence of the critical education which is, in our opinion, essential to the development of emancipated eco-citizens. Curricula should be transformed in accordance with this critical education. We see this as a crucial step in addressing the challenges facing today's society as well as those it will face in the future.

Paris : INRA. Agroecology: the science of natural resource management for poor farmers in marginal environments. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 93, 1—